The maximum theoretical efficiency of a heat engine (which no engine ever attains) is equal to the temperature difference between the hot and cold ends divided by the temperature at the hot end, each expressed in absolute temperature (Kelvin).

## How do you calculate thermal efficiency?

The thermal efficiency is a dimensionless unit. If you take formulas in thermodynamics, you can get that **η= 1- (T COLD/THOT)**. TCOLD usually represents the ambient temperature where the engine is located. This may just be the temperature outside in whatever environment the engine is at.

## Why is the heat engine not 100% efficient?

A heat engine is considered to be 100% efficient if only all the heat is converted into useful work or mechanical energy. Since heat engines **cannot convert all the heat energy into mechanical energy**, their efficiency can never be 100%.

## Why can a machine never have 100% efficiency?

Answer: A machine cannot be 100 percent efficient **because output of a machine is always less than input**. A certain amount of work done on a machine is lost to overcome friction and to lift some moving parts of the machine.

## What is the efficiency formula?

Efficiency is often measured as the ratio of useful output to total input, which can be expressed with the mathematical formula **r=P/C**, where P is the amount of useful output (“product”) produced per the amount C (“cost”) of resources consumed.

## Is Carnot engine 100 efficient?

In order to achieve **100**% **efficiency** (η=1), Q2 must be equal to 0 which means that all the heat form the source is converted to work. The temperature of sink means a negative temperature on the absolute scale at which the temperature is greater than unity.

## What is the formula of brake thermal efficiency?

Brake Thermal Efficiency is defined as break power of a heat engine as a function of the thermal input from the fuel and is represented as **BTE = P/E or brake_thermal_efficiency = Power/Energy Required**. … To calculate Brake Thermal Efficiency, you need Power (P) and Energy Required (E).

## What is COP formula?

_{COP} _{=} |Q|**W**. COP is defined as the relationship between the power (kW) that is drawn out of the heat pump as cooling or heat, and the power (kW) that is supplied to the compressor.

## What is a good thermal efficiency?

When expressed as a percentage, the thermal efficiency must be **between 0% and 100%**. Efficiency is typically less than 100% because there are inefficiencies such as friction and heat loss that convert the energy into alternative forms. … In a combined cycle plant, thermal efficiencies are approaching 60%.