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Goro Shimura
Modular Fo...

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Goro Shimura

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Springer Monographs in Mathematics

For further volumes: http://www.springer.com/series/3733

Goro Shimura

Modular Forms: Basics and Beyond

Goro Shimura Department of Mathematics Princeton University Princeton, NJ 08544-1000 USA [email protected]

ISSN 1439-7382 ISBN 978-1-4614-2124-5 e-ISBN 978-1-4614-2125-2 DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-2125-2 Springer New York Dordrecht Heidelberg London Library of Congress Control Number: 2011941793 Mathematics Subject Classification (2010): 11F11, 11F27, 11F37, 11F67, 11M36, 11M41, 14K25

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012 All rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher (Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed is forbidden. The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks, and similar terms, even if they are not identified as such, is not to be taken as an expression of opinion as to whether or not they are subject to proprietary rights.

Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com)

PREFACE

It was forty years ago that my “Introduction to the arithmetic theory of automorphic functions” appeared. At present the terminology “modular form” can be counted among those most frequently heard in the conversations of mathematicians, and indeed, there are many textbooks on this topic. However, almost all of them are at the elementary level, and not so interesting from the viewpoint of the reader who already knows the basics. So, my intention in the present book is to oﬀer something new that may satisfy the desire of such a reader. Therefore we naturally assume that the reader has at least rudimentary knowledge of modular forms of integral weight with respect to congruence subgroups of SL2 (Z), though we state every deﬁnition and some basic theorems on such forms. One of the principal new features of this book is the theory of modular forms of half-integral weight, another the discussion of theta functions and Eisenstein series of holomorphic and nonholomorphic types. Thus we have written the book so that the reader can learn such theories systematically. However, we present them with the following two themes as the ultimate aims: (I) The correspondence between the forms of half-integral weight and those of integral weight. (II) The arithmeticity of various Dirichlet series associated with modular forms of integral or half-integral weight. The correspondence of (I) associates a cusp form of weight k with a modular form of weight 2k − 1, where k is half an odd positive integer. I gave such a correspondence in my papers in 1973. In the present book I prove a stronger, perhaps the best possible, result with diﬀerent methods. As for (II), a typical example is a Dirichlet series D(s; f, g) = L(2s + 2, ω)

∞

an bn n−s−(k+)/2

n=1

v

vi

PREFACE

∞ obtained from a cusp form f (z) = n=1 an exp(2πinz) of weight k and an∞ other form g(z) = n=0 bn exp(2πinz) of weight , where L(s, ω) is the L-function of a Dirichlet character ω determined by f and g. In the crudest form, our main results show that there exists a constant A(f ) that depends on f, k, , ω, and an integer κ such that D(κ; f, g)/A(f ) is algebraic if an and bn are algebraic, for inﬁnitely many diﬀerent g. We can of course consider −s D(s; f, χ) = ∞ with a Dirichlet character χ and ask about n=1 χ(n)an n the nature of D(m; f, χ) for certain integers m. Though we eventually restrict our modular forms to functions of one complex variable, some of our earlier sections provide an easy introduction to the theory of Siegel modular forms, since that gives a good perspective and makes our proofs of various facts more transparent. Also, since our second theme concerns the arithmeticity, we naturally discuss the rationality of the Fourier coeﬃcients of a modular form, and how the form behaves under the action of an automorphism of the ﬁeld to which the coeﬃcients belong. This is a delicate problem, particularly when it is combined with the group action. Therefore, a considerable number of pages are spent on this problem. Another essential aspect of our theory is the involvement of the class of functions which we call nearly holomorphic modular forms, especially nonholomorphic Eisenstein series. As for D(m; f, χ), we only state the results without proof, and cite two of my papers published in 1976 and 1977. My original plan was to make the book self-contained even in this respect by including the proof, but an unexpected accident made me abandon the idea. Possibly I may be excused by saying that once the reader acquires some elementary results in earlier sections of the present book, those two papers will be easy to read, and so the exclusion of the proof is not a great loss. Also, I allowed myself to quote some standard facts discussed in my books of 1971 and 2007 without proof, since I thought it awkward to reproduce the proof of every quoted fact. It is my great pleasure to express my heartfelt thanks to my friends Koji Doi, Tomokazu Kashio, Kamal Khuri-Makdisi, Kaoru Okada, and Hiroyuki Yoshida, who read my manuscript and helped me eliminate many misprints and improve the exposition. Princeton September 2011

Goro Shimura

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface

v

Notation and Terminology

ix

Chapter I. Preliminaries 1. Symplectic groups and symmetric domains 2. Some algebraic and arithmetic preliminaries 3. Modular forms of integral weight

1 1 4 13

Chapter II. Theta Functions and Factors of Automorphy 4. Classical theta functions 5. Modular forms of half-integral weight 6. Holomorphic and nonholomorphic modular forms on H1

15 15 24 30

Chapter III. The Rationality and Eisenstein Series 7. The rationality of modular forms 8. Dirichlet series and Eisenstein series 9. Eisenstein series as automorphic eigenforms

39 39 51 66

Chapter IV. The Correspondence between Forms of Integral and Half-integral Weight 10. Theta series of indeﬁnite quadratic forms 11. Theta integrals 12. Main theorems on the correspondence 13. Hecke operators

89 89 96 102 116

Chapter V. The Arithmeticity of Critical Values of Dirichlet Series 14. The theory on SL2 (Q) for integral weight 15. The eigenspaces of Rp 16. Main theorems on arithmeticity

129 129 133 136

vii

viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

17. Hilbert modular forms

148

Appendix A1. Proof of various facts A2. Whittaker functions A3. Eisenstein series of half-integral weight

151 151 157 160

References

171

Index

175

NOTATION AND TERMINOLOGY

0.1. For a set X we denote by #X or #(X) the number of elements of X when it is ﬁnite, and put #X = #(X) = ∞ otherwise. We denote by Z, Q, R, and C the ring of rational integers and the ﬁelds of rational numbers, real numbers, and complex numbers, respectively. Also, Q and Qab mean the algebraic closure of Q in C and the maximal abelian extension of Q in Q, respectively. We put (0.1) T = z ∈ C |z| = 1 . We denote by Aut(C) the group of all ring-automorphisms of C. Given an associative ring A with identity element and an A-module X, we denote by A× the group of all invertible elements of A, and by Xnm the A-module of all m × n-matrices with entries in X; we put X m = X1m for 1 simplicity. For an element y of X1m or Xm we denote by yi the ith entry m of y. The zero element of An is denoted by 0m n or simply by 0. When we view Ann as a ring, we usually denote it by Mn (A). We denote the identity element of Mn (A) by 1n or simply by 1. The transpose, determinant, and trace of a matrix x are denoted by t x, det(x), and tr(x). For X ∈ Am n and an ideal B of A we write X ≺ B if all the entries of X belong to B. For square matrices x1 , . . . , xr we denote by diag[x1 , . . . , xr ] the square matrix with x1 , . . . , xr in the diagonal blocks and 0 in all other blocks. We put GLn (A) = Mn (A)× , SLn(A) = α ∈ GLn (A) det(α) = 1 if A is commutative, and (0.2) Sn (A) = T ∈ Mn (A) t T = T . For T ∈ Sn (A) and X ∈ Anm we put T [X] = t XT X; we also put T (x, y) = xT y for x, y ∈ An . For h = t h ∈ Mn (C) we write h > 0 if h is positive deﬁnite, and we write h > k if h − k > 0. Throughout the book we put

t

(c ∈ C). m 0.2. We deﬁne the Legendre-Jacobi symbol for 0 ≤ n − 1 ∈ 2Z and n m ∈ Z as follows. Let n = q1 · · · qs with odd prime numbers qj . Then we put s

m m , (0.4) = n qj j=1

m where is the quadratic residue symbol, and we understand that the qj (0.3)

e(c) = exp(2πic)

ix

x

NOTATION AND TERMINOLOGY

m = 0 if mZ+nZ = product means 1 if n = 1 (even when m = 0). Clearly n

mm m m Z and = . If n < 0 and n is prime to 2m, we put n n n m |m| m = , (0.5) n m |n| where we understand that |0|/0 = 1. We also put, for every odd integer d, 1 if d − 1 ∈ 4Z, (0.6) εd = i if d + 1 ∈ 4Z.

−1 Thus ε2d = for odd d. d 0.3. For a ﬁnite-dimensional vector space V over Q, by a Z-lattice in V we mean a ﬁnitely generated Z-submodule of V that spans V over Q. We also denote by L (V ) the set of all C-valued functions λ for which there exist two Z-lattices L and M in V such that λ(x) = 0 for x ∈ / L and λ(x) for x ∈ L depends only on the coset x + M. For example, take V = Qn and put L = Zn . Given r, s ∈ Qn , deﬁne a / L and λr,s (x) = e(t xs) for function λr,s on V by λr,s (x) = 0 if x − r ∈ x − r ∈ L. Then clearly λr,s ∈ L (V ). Let us now show that L (V ) is spanned over C by λr,s for all (r, s). Given λ ∈ L (V ), we can ﬁnd positive integers g and h such that λ(x) = 0 for x ∈ / g −1 L and λ(x) for x ∈ g −1 L depends only on x + hL. Let R and S be complete sets of representatives for g −1 L/L and h−1 L/L, respectively. For r ∈ R let μr = εr λ, where εr is the characteristic function of r + L. Then λ = r∈R μr , and μr (r + y) for y ∈ L depends only on y + hL. Now for each s ∈ S the map y → e(t ys) deﬁnes a function on L/hL, and the space of functions on L/hL is spanned by such functions e(t ys) for all s ∈ S, and so we can put μr (r + y) = s∈S cr,s e(t ys) for y ∈ L with cr,s ∈ C. Consequently λ = r∈R s∈S cr,s e(−t rs)λr,s , which proves the italicized statement above. 0.4. If σ is an isomorphism of a ﬁeld F onto K, then for x ∈ F we denote by xσ the image of x under σ. If τ is an isomorphism of K onto another ﬁeld, then στ denotes the composite of σ and τ deﬁned by xστ = (xσ )τ . We will deﬁne the action of σ on various objects X such as Dirichlet characters and modular forms, but the action will always be written X σ , and the rule X στ = (X σ )τ is universal.

CHAPTER I

PRELIMINARIES

1. Symplectic groups and symmetric domains 1.1. Though the principal aim of this book is to discuss various topics on modular forms of one complex variable, we ﬁrst introduce the so-called Siegel modular forms deﬁned on a certain space Hn , called the Siegel upper half space of degree n and deﬁned by (1.12) below, since these will make our exposition easier. Besides, what we need about them are some formal identities, which are not complicated, and we ﬁnd no reason for avoiding them. For 0 < n ∈ Z and a commutative ring A with identity element we put

t 0 −1n (1.1a) Sp(n, A) = α ∈ GL2n (A) αια = ι , ι = ιn = , 1n 0 t (1.1b) Gp(n, A) = α ∈ GL2n (A) αια = ν(α)ι with ν(α) ∈ A× . Clearly Sp(n, A) and Gp(n, A) are subgroups of GL2n (A). In particular, the group Sp(n, A) is called the symplectic group of degree n over A. Notice that t αια = ν(α)ι if and only if αι · t α = ν(α)ι, since ι−1 = −ι. We easily see that t

a · d − b · t c = t da − t bc = ν(γ), a b (1.2a) γ = ∈ Gp(n, A) =⇒ c d a · t b, c · t d, t ac, t bd ∈ Sn (A),

t a b d −t b −1 −1 (1.2b) γ= ∈ Gp(n, A) =⇒ γ = ν( γ) , c d −t c t a

a b (1.2c) ∈ Sp(n, A) ⇐⇒ t ac = t ca, t bd = t db, t da − t bc = 1, c d ⇐⇒ a · t b = b · t a, c · t d = d · t c, a · t d − b · t c = 1, (1.2d) (1.2e)

γ ∈ Gp(n, A) =⇒ t

t

γ ∈ Gp(n, A), ν(t γ) = ν(γ),

ι = ι−1 = −ι, ι2 = −12n , and ι ∈ Sp(n, A).

Given α ∈ Gp(n, A), put γ = diag[ν(α)1n , 1n ]. Then clearly γ ∈ Gp(n, A) and ν(γ) = ν(α), and so γ −1 α ∈ Sp(n, A). In this way we see that (1.3) Every element of Gp(n, A) is the product of an element of Sp(n, A) and an element of the form diag[e1n , 1n ] with e ∈ A× .

G. Shimura, Modular Forms: Basics and Beyond, Springer Monographs in Mathematics, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-2125-2_1, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

1

2

I. PRELIMINARIES

If n = 1, noting that ι−1 · t αια = det(α)12 for every α ∈ M2 (A), we see that (1.4a) (1.4b)

Sp(1, A) = SL2 (A),

Gp(1, A) = GL2 (A),

ν(α) = det(α) for α ∈ Gp(1, A).

1.2. We will eventually deﬁne the action of Sp(n, R) on Hn , but we ﬁrst deﬁne

moregenerally the action (in a weak sense) of Gp(n, C) on Sn (C). For a b α= ∈ M2n (C) with a of size n we hereafter put a = aα = a(α), b = c d bα = b(α), c = cα = c(α), and d = dα = d(α), whenever there is no fear of confusion. Then for z ∈ Sn (C) and α ∈ Gp(n, C) we put (1.5a) μα (z) = μ(α, z) = cα z + dα , jα (z) = j(α, z) = det μα (z)], (1.5b)

α(z) = αz = (aα z + bα )(cα z + dα )−1 ,

where α(z) is deﬁned only when μα (z) is invertible. We will often write αz for α(z). To see the nature of α(z), put p = aα z + bα and q = μα (z). Using the relations in (1.2a), we easily see that t pq = t qp, and so pq −1 ∈ Sn (C) if q is invertible. Therefore, if α(z) is deﬁned, then α(z) ∈ Sn (C), and

αz z μα (z). = (1.6) α 1 1

z w Given z ∈ Sn (C) and α ∈ Gp(n, C), suppose α = λ with w ∈ Cnn 1 1 and λ ∈ GLn (C); then we easily see that αz is deﬁned, αz = w, λ = μα (z), and (1.5b) holds. Next suppose α, β ∈ Gp(n, C) and both αz and β(αz) are meaningful; then applying β to (1.6), we obtain

β(αz) αz z μβ (αz)μα (z), μα (z) = =β βα 1 1 1 and so (βα)(z) is meaningful and (1.7) μβα (z) = μβ (αz)μα (z), jβα (z) = jβ (αz)jα (z), and (βα)(z) = β(αz). Moreover, if z ∈ Sn (C) and αz is deﬁned, then

z z αz αz μα (z ) 0 (1.8) α = . 1 1 1 1 0 μα (z) Calling this product W and forming t W ιW, we obtain (1.9)

ν(α)(z − z) = t μα (z )(αz − αz)μα (z).

If dz = (dzij ) denotes the diﬀerential of the variable matrix z = (zij ) on Sn (C), then from (1.9) we obtain (1.10) We now put

ν(α)dz = t μα (z)d(αz)μα (z).

1. SYMPLECTIC GROUPS AND SYMMETRIC DOMAINS

(1.11) (1.11a) (1.12)

3

Gp+ (n, R) = α ∈ Gp(n, R) ν(α) > 0 , Gp+ (n, Q) = GL2n (Q) ∩ Gp+ (n, R), Hn = z ∈ Sn (C) Im(z) > 0 .

Every element z of Hn can be written z = x + iy with x ∈ Sn (R) and 0 < y ∈ Sn (R), and vice versa. Hereafter, whenever we write z = x + iy for z ∈ Hn , we always take x and y in that sense. Lemma 1.3. Let X be the set of all X ∈ C2n n such that (1.13)

t

¯ > 0. XιX = 0 and i · t XιX

Then the following assertions

hold: z μ gives a bijection of Hn × GLn (C) onto X. (i) The map (z, μ) → 1n (ii) αXβ ⊂ X for every α ∈ Gp+ (n, R) and β ∈ GLn (C). Proof. That the image of the map of (i) is indeed in X can easily be seen. g Given X = with g, h ∈ Cnn , we have (1.13) if and only if h t ¯ > 0. hg = t gh and i(t h¯ g − t g h) (∗) Therefore, for 0 = x ∈ Cn1 we have ¯ x¯ = i t (hx)¯ ¯x , 0 < i · t x t h¯ g − tgh gx ¯ − t (gx)h¯ and so gx = 0 and hx = 0. Thus both g and h are invertible. Put z = gh−1 . ¯ h ¯ −1 > 0, and so Then (∗) shows that t z= z and i(¯ z − z) = i · t h−1 (t h¯ g − t g h) z h, we see that our map is surjective. The injectivity z ∈ Hn . Since X = 1 and (ii) are obvious.

z + ∈ X. 1.4. Let z ∈ Hn and α ∈ Gp (n, R). Then by Lemma 1.3(i), 1

z z By (ii) of the same lemma, α ∈ X, and so by (i) we can put α = 1 1

w μ with unique w ∈ Hn and μ ∈ GLn (C). Thus αz is meaningful and 1 w = αz; consequently (1.5b) and (1.6) hold. Since we have 1 = μ(αα−1 , z) = μα (α−1 z)μ(α−1 , z), we obtain (1.14)

μ(α−1 , z) = μα (α−1 z)−1 and j(α−1 , z) = jα (α−1 z)−1 .

Taking the complex conjugate of (1.6) in this case, we obtain

z¯ αz (1.15) α = μα (z), 1 1

4

I. PRELIMINARIES

since α is a real matrix. This means that we can let an element α of Gp+ (n, R) act on the set z¯ z ∈ Hn , and view αz as the image of z¯ z ) = cα z¯ + dα = μα (z), and jα (¯ z) = under α(¯ z ) = α¯ z = αz, μα (¯ α. Thus det μα (¯ z ) = jα (z). Taking z¯ as z in (1.9), we obtain (1.16)

−1

Im(αz) = t μα (z)

Im(z)μα (z)−1 if α ∈ Sp(n, R).

1.5. We note here how an element of Gp+ (n, R) belonging to several special types acts on z ∈ Hn :

r1n 0 (1.17a) : z → rz (0 < r ∈ R), 0 1n

a 0 (d = t a−1 ∈ GLn (R)), (1.17b) : z → az · t a 0 d

1n b (1.17c) : z → z + b (b ∈ Sn (R)), 0 1n

a b : z → az · t a + bd−1 (1.17d) (d = t a−1 ∈ GLn (R), t bd ∈ Sn (R)), 0 d

0 b (1.17e) : z → −bz −1 · t b (c = −tb−1 ∈ GLn (R)). c 0 We also note that Sp(n, R) acts transitively on Hn , that is, given z and w in Hn , there exists an element α of Sp(n, R) such that αz = w. Indeed, t given z = x + iy ∈ H n , take a ∈ GLn (R) so that a · a = y and put 1 x a 0 β= . Then β ∈ Sp(n, R) and β(i1n ) = z. Similarly we 0 1 0 t a−1 can ﬁnd γ ∈ Sp(n, R) such that γ(i1n ) = w. Then αz = w with α = γβ −1 . 2. Some algebraic and arithmetic preliminaries 2.1. We begin with some easy facts on Z1n and SLn (Z). We call an element v = (v1 , . . . , vn ) of Z1n primitive if the vi have no common divisors other than ±1. Given such a v, put M = Z1n /Zv. Then M has no torsion elements and is ﬁnitely generated over Z, and so it must be a free Z-module. Thus 1 M has a Z-basis {yi }m i=1 . Let ui be an element of Zn that represents yi . Then we can easily verify that {u1 , . . . , um , v} is a Z-basis of Z1n . Clearly m = n − 1. Let α be the square matrix whose rows are u1 , . . . , um , v. Then α ∈ GLn (Z), which proves the “only-if”-part of the ﬁrst of the following statements: (2.1) An element v of Z1n is primitive if and only if v is the last row of an element of GLn (Z). Moreover, if n > 1, this is true with SLn (Z) in place of GLn (Z). The “if”-part is obvious. If n > 1 and det(α) = −1, then by replacing u1 by −u1 , we obtain an element of SLn (Z).

2. SOME ALGEBRAIC AND ARITHMETIC PRELIMINARIES

5

m Generalizing the idea of (2.1), we call an element x of Zn with m < n y such that ∈ GLn (Z). Notice primitive if there is an element y of Zn−m n x m that if an element x of Zn is primitive, then αxβ is primitive for every α ∈ GLm (Z) and β ∈ GLn (Z).

Lemma 2.2. (i) Let Qn denote the subgroup of GLn (Q) consisting of all the upper triangular matrices. Then GLn (Q) = Qn SLn (Z). (ii) Let Wn be the set of all primitive elements of Zn2n such that wι · t w = 0. Then Wn = [0 1n ]Sp(n, Z). (iii) Let Pn , or simply P, denote the

subgroup of Sp(n, Q) consisting of a b all the elements of the form , where a, b, d are of size n. Then 0 d Sp(n, Q) = P · Sp(n, Z). (iv) Sp(n, Q) is generated by P and ι. Proof. We ﬁrst prove (i) by induction on n. It is trivial if n = 1. Given ξ ∈ GLn (Q), n > 1, let x be the last row of ξ. Then x = qy with 0 = q ∈ Q and a primitive element y of Z1n . By (2.1) we can ﬁnd an element α of SLn (Z) 1 −1 1 whose last row is y. Then y = [0n−1 1]α, so that xα = [0n−1 q]. Thus we r s n−1 can put ξα−1 = with r ∈ Qn−1 . By induction we ﬁnd n−1 and s ∈ Q1 0 q τ ∈ Qn−1 and σ ∈ SLn−1 (Z) such that r = τ σ. Then ξα−1 · diag[σ−1 , 1] ∈ Qn , which proves (i). As for (ii), clearly [0 1n ]Sp(n, Z) ⊂ Wn . Let x ∈ W

n. Since x is primitive, y with some y ∈ Zn2n . there exists an element α ∈ SL2n (Z) of the form α = x

u v with u, v ∈ Znn . Since αι · t α ∈ GL2n (Z), we see Then αι · t α = −t v 0

z −1n −1 t t that v ∈ GLn (Z). Put β = diag[−v , 1n ]. Then βαι · α · β = 1n 0 with z ∈ Znn . If [a b] is the upper half of βα, then z = −a · t b + b · t a. Put 1 −b · t a γ= n . Then γβαι · t α · t β · t γ = ι, and so γβα ∈ Sp(n, Z). Now 0 1n we see that [0 1n ]γβ = [0 1n ], and so [0 1n ]γβα = [0 1n ]α = x, which proves (ii). To prove (iii), let ξ ∈ Sp(n, Q). By (i) we have ξ = ηα with η ∈ Q2n and a b p q and ξ = with a, b, . . . , r, s of size α ∈ SL2n (Z). Put η = 0 d r s n. Then d−1 [r s] = [0 1n ]α, which is primitive. Since ξ ∈ Sp(n, Q), we easily see that d−1 [r s] ∈ Wn . By (ii) we can put [0 1n ]α = [0 1 n ]β with u v −1 β ∈ Sp(n, Z). Put γ = αβ . Then [0 1n ]γ = [0 1n ], and so γ = 0 1n

6

I. PRELIMINARIES

w z with w, z of size n. Now ξ = ηα = 0 d ηγβ, and so ηγ = ξβ −1 ∈ Sp(n, Q). Therefore, ηγ ∈ P, which proves (iii). Finally, as will be shown in Lemma A1.3(i) of the Appendix, Sp(n, Z) is generated by ι and P ∩ Sp(n, Z). This fact combined with (iii) proves (iv) and completes the proof.

with u, v of size n. Thus ηγ =

Lemma 2.3. Let f be an odd integer and s an element of Sn (Z). Then there exist an element u of Mn (Z) and a diagonal element d of Mn (Z) such that t usu − d ≺ f Z and det(u) is a positive integer prime to f. Proof. We can reduce the problem to the following statement, in which p is an odd prime number and Zp is the ring of p-adic integers: (2.2) Given s ∈ Sn (Zp ), there exists an element τ of GLn (Zp ) such that t τ sτ is diagonal. Indeed, given s and f as in our lemma, employing (2.2), for each prime factor p of f we take τp ∈ GLn (Zp ) such that t τp sτp is diagonal. We can ﬁnd u ∈ Mn (Z) and a diagonal matrix d such that u − τp ≺ f Zp and d − t τp sτp ≺ f Zp for every p|f. Replacing u by u + f v with a suitable v ∈ Mn (Z), we may assume that det(u) > 0. Then u has the required properties of our lemma. We now prove (2.2) by induction on n. The case n = 1 or s = 0 is trivial. Assuming that n > 1 and s = 0, put s = (sij ) and i,j sij Zp = σZp with 0 = σ ∈ Zp . Replacing s by σ−1 s, we may assume that σ = 1. Suppose

sii ∈ a b × with Zp for some i; we may assume that i = 1. Then we can put s = t b d

1 −a−1 b . Then γ ∈ GLn (Zp ) and t γsγ = diag[a, e] a = s11 . Put γ = 0 1n−1 with e = d−t ba−1 b. Clearly e ∈ Sn−1 (Zp ). Applying induction to e, we obtain / Z× the desired conclusion. Next suppose sii ∈ p for every i. Then changing s11 s12 the numbering, we may assume that s12 ∈ Z× . Put a = and p s21 s22

a b 12 −a−1 b , we see that s= t . Then a ∈ GL2 (Zp ). Putting γ = 0 1n−2 b d γ ∈ GLn (Zp ), and t γsγ = diag[a, d − t ba−1 b]. Thus again induction gives the desired fact. This completes the proof. 2.4. We need two types of Gauss sums. The ﬁrst type is deﬁned with respect to a Dirichlet character (or simply, a character) modulo a positive integer r, by which we mean a function χ : Z → T belonging to one of the following two types: (i) r = 1 and χ(a) = 1 for every a ∈ Z;

2. SOME ALGEBRAIC AND ARITHMETIC PRELIMINARIES

7

(ii) r > 1 and χ is a homomorphism of (Z/rZ)× into T, which we view as a function on Z by putting χ a (mod rZ) if a is prime to r, χ(a) = 0 if a is not prime to r. We call χ of type (i) the principal character. We say that χ is trivial if it is of type (i) or χ(a) = 1 for every a prime to r. We call χ primitive if it is of type (i), or it is a nontrivial character for which there is no character ξ modulo a proper divisor s of r such that χ(a) = ξ(a) for every a prime to r. We will say more about characters in §2.7, but we ﬁrst deﬁne Gauss sums. We put e(z) = exp(2πiz) for z ∈ C as we did in (0.3). Let χ be a primitive Dirichlet character modulo an integer r > 1. Then we put r χ(a)e(a/r) (2.3) G(χ) = a=1

and call it the Gauss sum of χ. Since χ(r) = 0, we can use r of a=1 . We note here three well-known facts: (2.3a)

r

r−1 a=1

in place

χ(a)e(sa/r) = χ(s)G(χ) for every s ∈ Z,

a=1

(2.3b) (2.3c)

rG(χ)−1 = G(χ) = χ(−1)G(χ), ¯ |G(χ)|2 = r.

The proof is easy; see [S71, Lemma 3.63] or [S10, (3.8a, c, d)], for example. There is a classical result about G(χ) when χ = χ. Namely, √ r if χ(−1) = 1, (2.4a) G(χ) = √ if χ(−1) = −1. i r

x In particular, if χ(x) = with an odd prime number p, then p √ p if p − 1 ∈ 4Z, (2.4b) G(χ) = √ i p if p − 3 ∈ 4Z. The simplest proof of (2.4a) follows from the functional equation of the Dirich∞ let series n=1 χ(n)n−s . This is explained in [S07, p. 40] when χ(−1) = −1, but the same method is applicable to the other case. In fact, by the same technique Hecke determined the Gauss sum of a Hecke character associated with a quadratic extension of an arbitrary algebraic number ﬁeld; see [S97, (A6.3.4)]. 2.5. The second type of Gauss sum, denoted by G(a, b), is deﬁned for relatively prime integers a and b and given by

8

I. PRELIMINARIES

(2.5) where

G(a, b) = |b| x=1

can be replaced by

|b|

e(ax2 /b),

x=1 x∈Z/bZ .

m as in (0.4). For two positive odd Deﬁne the Legendre-Jacobi symbol n integers m and n we have m n (2.6) = −1 ⇐⇒ m ≡ n ≡ 3 (mod 4), n m −1 (2.7) = −1 ⇐⇒ n ≡ 3 (mod 4). n To prove these, we ﬁrst note that

q p = −1 ⇐⇒ p ≡ q ≡ 3 (mod 4) (2.8) q p for two diﬀerent odd prime numbers p and q. This follows easily from the quadratic reciprocity law. To prove (2.6) in general, put m = p1 · · · pr and n = q1 · · · qs with odd prime numbers pi and qj . Then r s

m n pi qj = . n m qj pi i=1 j=1

By (2.8) we can eliminate from the right-hand side any pi or qj that is ≡ 1 (mod 4). Let ρ resp. σ be the number n of i’s resp. j’s such that pi − 3 ∈ 4Z m = (−1)ρσ , which is −1 if and only resp. qj − 3 ∈ 4Z. By (2.8), n m if both ρ and σ are odd, that is, if and only if m ≡ n ≡ 3 (mod 4). Thus

s

−1 −1 = (−1)σ , and so we = we obtain (2.6). Similarly we have n q j j=1 obtain (2.7). Theorem 2.6. If b is odd and positive, then a √ (2.9) G(a, b) = εb b, b where εb = 1 if b − 1 ∈ 4Z and εb = i if b − 3 ∈ 4Z. Proof. We ﬁrst prove G(a, cd) = G(ad, c)G(ac, d) if c, d ∈ Z and cZ + dZ = Z. Indeed, the map y (mod c), z (mod d) → dy +cz (mod cd) gives a bijection of (Z/cZ) × (Z/dZ) onto Z/cdZ, and so for b = cd we have G(a, b) = e a(dy + cz)2 /b (2.10)

y∈Z/cZ z∈Z/dZ

=

y∈Z/cZ

e(ady 2 /c)

z∈Z/dZ

e(acz 2 /d) = G(ad, c)G(ac, d),

2. SOME ALGEBRAIC AND ARITHMETIC PRELIMINARIES

9

which proves (2.10). Now suppose (2.9) is true for G(∗, c) and G(∗, d) (with positive c and d). Then

√ ac a √ ad ε η b G(a, b) = c εd cd = c d b

c d εc εd . If c ≡ d ≡ 3 (mod 4), then by (2.6), η = −i2 = 1, with η = c d and b−1 ∈ 4Z. If c−1 ∈ 4Z, then b−d ∈ 4Z and η = εd = εb ; similarly η = εb if d − 1 ∈ 4Z. Thus we obtain (2.9) for b = cd. This means that it is suﬃcient to prove (2.9) when b = pm withan odd prime number p and 0 < m ∈ Z. Suppose m > 1; since the map y (mod pm−1 ), z (mod p) → y + pm−1 z (mod pm ) gives a bijection of (Z/pm−1 Z) × (Z/pZ) onto Z/pm Z, we have pm−1 p G(a, pm ) = y=1 e(ay 2 /pm ) z=1 e(2ayz/p). The last sum over 1 ≤ z ≤ p equals p if y ∈ pZ. For y ∈ / pZ we have pz=1 e(2ayz/p) = pw=1 e(w/p) = 0. Therefore m−2 p m e(ap2 u2 /pm ) = pG(a, pm−2 ) G(a, p ) = p u=1

for m > 1. If m = 2 in particular, we see that G(a, p2 ) = p. Thus for 0 < n ∈ Z we obtain G(a, p2n ) = pn and G(a, p2n+1 ) = pn G(a, p). Therefore our problem can be reduced to the formula

a √ (2.11) G(a, p) = εp p. p

y . Dividing the set y ∈ Z 0 < y < p into the To show this, put χ(y) = p set of quadratic residues modulo p and that of nonresidues, we see that p p p G(a, p) = e(ax2 /p) = χ(y)e(ay/p) + e(ay/p) =

x=1 p

y=1

y=1

χ(u)e(au/p) = χ(a)G(χ),

u=1

and so (2.11) follows from (2.4b). This completes the proof. Remark. We can determine G(a, b) even for odd negative b as follows. We ﬁrst take c = −1 in (2.10) and obtain (2.12)

G(a, −d) = G(−a, d),

since G(x, −1) = 1 for every x ∈ Z. Therefore, if b is odd and negative, then G(a, b) = G(a, −|b|) = G(−a, |b|) by (2.12), and so by (2.9) we obtain

a −1 −a ε|b| |b| = ε|b| |b|. (2.13) G(a, b) = |b| |b| |b|

−1 Applying (2.7) to the factor , we can give another formula. Thus, for |b| 0 ≥ b + 1 ∈ 2Z we have

10

I. PRELIMINARIES

a ε (b) |b|, |b| where ε (b) = 1 if b − 3 ∈ 4Z and ε (b) = −i if b − 1 ∈ 4Z.

(2.14)

G(a, b) =

2.7. Let χ0 be the principal character as deﬁned in §2.4. We deﬁne its Gauss sum G(χ0 ) by (2.15)

G(χ0 ) = 1.

Let χ be a character modulo an integer r > 1 that is not primitive. We then call χ imprimitive. If χ is nontrivial, then we can ﬁnd a character χ modulo a proper divisor c of r, > 1, such that χ(a) = χ (a) for every a prime to r. Moreover, among such characters χ there is a unique one that is primitive. We then call χ the primitive character associated with χ, and call c the conductor of χ. If χ is trivial, we call the principal character χ0 the primitive character associated with χ, and deﬁne the conductor of χ to be 1. In both cases, given χ, we take the primitive character χ associated with χ, and deﬁne the Gauss sum G(χ) by G(χ) = G(χ ). For 1 ≤ i ≤ m let χi be a Dirichlet character modulo ri , and let r be the least common multiple of the ri . Then we denote by χ1 · · · χm the character modulo r deﬁned by (χ1 · · · χm )(a) = χ1 (a) · · · χm (a) for a prime to r. Let Aut(C) denote the group of all ring-automorphisms of the ﬁeld C. For σ ∈ Aut(C) we can deﬁne a character χσi modulo ri by χσi (a) = χi (a)σ for every a. Then we have: Lemma 2.8. Put q(χ1 , . . . , χm ) = G(χ1 ) · · · G(χm )/G(χ1 · · · χm ). Let K be the ﬁeld generated over Q by the values χi (a) for all i and all a. Then q(χ1 , . . . , χm ) belongs to K, and for every automorphism σ of Q we have (2.16)

q(χ1 , . . . , χm )σ = q(χσ1 , . . . , χσm ).

Proof. Let ζ = e(1/N ) with a multiple N of r1 · · · rm . We take N so that χi (a) ∈ Q(ζ) for every i and a. Given σ, we can ﬁnd an integer t prime to N such that e(a/N )σ = e(ta/N ). Then from (2.3) we obtain (2.17)

χ(t)σ G(χ)σ = G(χσ )

for every character χ modulo N. Formula (2.16) is an immediate consequence of this fact. Suppose σ is the identity map on K; then χσi = χi for every i, and so q(χ1 , . . . , χm )σ = q(χ1 , . . . , χm ). This shows that q(χ1 , . . . , χm ) ∈ K, and our proof is complete. To state an easy application of (2.17), for every primitive or imprimitive character modulo N and every q ∈ Z, put N (2.17a) [χ, q] = G(χ)−1 χ(n)e(nq/N ). n=1

2. SOME ALGEBRAIC AND ARITHMETIC PRELIMINARIES

11

Then from (2.17) we can easily derive (2.17b)

[χ, q] ∈ Qab and [χ, q]σ = [χσ , q] for every σ ∈ Gal(Qab /Q).

In fact, we will give an explicit form of [χ, q] in Lemma A3.1 of the Appendix, which implies (2.17b). 2.9. Given a primitive or an imprimitive Dirichlet character χ, we put ∞ (2.18a) L(s, χ) = χ(n)n−s , n=1 1 − χ(p)p−s = χ(n)n−s , (2.18b) LN (s, χ) = L(s, χ) p|N

(n, N )=1

where 0 < N ∈ Z. The function of (2.18a) is called the Dirichlet L-function of χ. We will state some of its analytic properties in §8.3. For the moment we just note that L(m, χ) and L(1 − m, χ) for a positive integer m such that χ(−1) = (−1)m is meaningful. Then we put (2.19)

PN (m, χ) = G(χ)−1 (πi)−m LN (m, χ).

Lemma 2.10. Let χ and m be as above. Then PN (m, χ) ∈ Qab and L(1 − m, χ) ∈ Qab . Moreover, for every σ ∈ Gal(Qab /Q) we have (2.20)

PN (m, χ)σ = PN (m, χσ ),

(2.21)

L(1 − m, χ)σ = L(1 − m, χσ ).

Proof. We can easily reduce the problem to the case where χ is primitive and N = 1. Then d −m 1−m L(1 − m, χ) = − χ(a)Bm (a/d), 2 · m!(2πi) G(χ)L(m, χ) = md a=1

where d is the conductor of χ and Bm the mth Bernoulli polynomial. If χ is principal, this means 2 · n!(2πi)−n ζ(n) = nζ(1 − n) = −Bn for 0 < n ∈ 2Z, where Bn is the nth Bernoulli number. This formula is ancient. The preceding one was ﬁrst noted by Hecke in 1940. For the proof and other formulas for L(m, χ) and L(1 − m, χ) we refer the reader to Section 4 of [S07]. Our lemma now follows from these formulas. Notice that the ¯ σ , and G(χ) ¯ = dχ(−1)G(χ)−1 by (2.3b). complex conjugate of χσ is (χ) Lemma 2.11. Let V be a ﬁnite-dimensional vector space over a ﬁeld F and let W = V ⊗F K with a ﬁnite or an inﬁnite extension K of F. Let End(V ) denote the algebra of all F -linear transformations of V. Given a subset A of End(V ), for each α ∈ A denoteby α ˜ the K-linear extension of α to W. Then Ker(˜ α ) = Ker(α) ⊗ F K. α∈A α∈A

12

I. PRELIMINARIES

Proof. Take a basis {yi }i∈I of V over F and also a basis B of K over α α F. For α ∈ A put αyi = j∈I pij yj with pij ∈ F. Let u = i∈I ci yi ∈ Ker(˜ α) with ci ∈ K. Then there is a ﬁnite subset E of B such that α∈A aie e with aie ∈ F for every i ∈ I. Then for α ∈ A we have ci = e∈E 0 = α ˜ u = e∈E e i,j∈I aie pα yj , and so e∈E e i∈I aie pα for every ij ij = 0 α a p = 0 for every j and every e ∈ E. Now u = j. Thus i∈I ie ij e∈E eve α with ve = i∈I aie yi . We have ve ∈ V and αve = i,j∈I aie pij yj = 0, and so ve ∈ α∈A Ker(α), which proves our lemma. Lemma 2.12. Let V, F, and End(V ) be as in Lemma 2.11. Suppose that V = {0} and F is algebraically closed. Let R be a subspace of End(V ), = {0}, whose elements are mutually commutative. Then V has a nonzero element u that is an eigenvector of every element of R. Proof. We prove this by induction on the dimension of R. Let 0 = α ∈ R. We can take an eigenvector v of α and put c ∈ F. (This settles αv = cv with the case where dim(R) = 1.) Let W = x ∈ V αx = cx . Then W = {0}, since v ∈ W. Assuming that dim(R) > 1, take a subspace S of R so that R = F α ⊕ S. Since the elements of S commute with α, we easily see that W is stable under S. By the induction assumption we can ﬁnd an element u of W that is an eigenvector of every element of S. Since αu = cu, this proves our lemma. Lemma 2.13. Let K be a ﬁnite Galois extension of a ﬁeld F and W a vector space over K of ﬁnite dimension; let G = Gal(K/F ). Suppose there is an action of G on W, written (x, σ) → xσ for x ∈ W and σ ∈ G, suchthat σ σ σ (ax) σ = a x for a ∈ K and x ∈ W. Then W = V ⊗F K with V = y ∈ W y = y for every σ ∈ G . Proof. Let B be a basis of K over F, and Y a ﬁnite set of elements of V that are linearly independent over F. Suppose b∈B, y∈Y aby by = 0 with aby ∈ F. Then b∈B, y∈Y aby bσ y = 0 for every σ ∈ G. Since det[bσ ]b,σ = 0, we obtain y∈Y aby y = 0 for every b ∈ B, and so aby = 0 for every b and y. If W has dimension n over K, then W is a vector space of dimension n · #B over F, and so #Y ≤ n. Given any x ∈ W, put zb = σ∈G bσ xσ for b ∈ B. Then zb ∈ V. Since det[bσ ]b,σ = 0, x is a K-linear combination of the zb . This shows that V has dimension n over F, and we can ﬁnd Y such that #Y = n. This proves our lemma. Lemma 2.14. Given a positive integer M and κ = 0 or 1, there exists a primitive character χ such that M is prime to the conductor of χ, χ(−1) = (−1)κ , and χ2 is nontrivial. Proof. Since there exist inﬁnitely many prime numbers p such that p − 1 ∈ 8Z, we can ﬁnd such a p prime to M. Let ψ be a character modulo p

3. MODULAR FORMS OF INTEGRAL WEIGHT

13

of order p − 1. Take χ = ψ if κ = 1 and χ = ψ 2 if κ = 0. Then χ has the desired properties. 3. Modular forms of integral weight 3.1. In this book we assume that the reader has some notion of modular forms of integral weight with respect to a congruence subgroup of SL2 (Z), though we try to make our exposition as self-contained as possible. As to their well-known properties, sometimes we will only state them, dispensing with the proof. To deﬁne modular forms on Hn , we ﬁrst put e(c) = exp(2πic) for c ∈ C, as we did in (0.3). Next, for k ∈ Z, α ∈ Gp+ (n, R), and a function f : Hn → C we deﬁne f k α : Hn → C by (3.1)

(f k α)(z) = jα (z)−k f (αz)

(z ∈ Hn ).

From this deﬁnition and (1.7) we obtain (3.2a) (3.2b)

f k (c12n ) = c−nk f

(c ∈ R× ),

(f k αβ) = (f k α)k β if α, β ∈ Gp+ (n, R).

For a positive integer N put (3.3) Γ (N ) = γ ∈ Sp(n, Z) γ − 12n ≺ N Z . (For the symbol ≺ see §0.1.) By a congruence subgroup of Sp(n, Q), or simply, a congruence subgroup, we mean a subgroup Γ of Sp(n, Q) that contains Γ (N ) as a subgroup of ﬁnite index for some N. If Γ and Γ are congruence subgroups and Γ ⊂ Γ , we call Γ a congruence subgroup of Γ . Given a congruence subgroup Γ and k ∈ Z, we denote by Mk (Γ ) the set of all functions f : Hn → C satisfying the following conditions: (3.4a) f is holomorphic; (3.4b) f k γ = f for every γ ∈ Γ ; (3.4c) f is holomorphic at every cusp. An element of Mk (Γ ) is called a (holomorphic) modular form of weight k with respect to Γ. Condition (3.4c) is necessary only when n = 1, in which case it means the following condition: ∞ cα (m)e(mz/rα ) (3.4d) For every α ∈ SL2 (Q) we have jα (z)−k f α(z) = with 0 < rα ∈ Z and cα (m) ∈ C.

m=0

In fact, if this is satisﬁed for every α ∈ SL2 (Z), then it holds for every α ∈ SL2 (Q). Indeed, by Lemma 2.2(iii) every element α of SL2(Q) can be r s written α = βγ with β ∈ SL2 (Z) and γ of the form γ = . Therefore 0 t (3.4d) for α = βγ can easily be derived from the case with β in place of α.

14

I. PRELIMINARIES

For β ∈ Gp(n, Q) we easily see that β −1 Γ β is a congruence subgroup, and M k (Γ )k β = M k (β −1 Γ β) provided ν(β) > 0. We put ∞ Mk Γ (N ) . (3.5) Mk = N =1

3.2. Let us now explain why (3.4c) is unnecessary if n > 1. Let Γ be a congruence subgroup of Γ (1). Then Γ (N ) ⊂ Γ for some N ∈ Z, > 0, and so there is a Z-lattice M in Sn (Z) and also a subgroup U of SLn (Z) of ﬁnite index such that 1n b a 0 b ∈ M ⊂ Γ, a ∈ U ⊂ Γ. 0 1n 0 t a−1 Therefore if f ∈ Mk (Γ ), then by (1.17b) and (1.17c) we have (3.6a)

f (z + b) = f (z) for every b ∈ M,

f (az · t a) = f (z) for every a ∈ U. Let S = Sn (Q) and L = h ∈ S tr(hM ) ⊂ Z . Then L is a Z-lattice in S and (3.6a) guarantees an expansion of the form (3.7a) f (z) = c(h)e tr(hz) (3.6b)

h∈L

with c(h) ∈ C. This will be proven in §A1.1 of the Appendix. We often put (3.7b) f (z) = c(h)e tr(hz) h∈S

by deﬁning c(h) to be 0 for h ∈ S, ∈ / L. Usually we call the right-hand side of (3.7a) or (3.7b) the Fourier expansion of f, and call the c(h) the Fourier coeﬃcients of f. Lemma 3.3. Suppose n > 1; let f be a holomorphic function on Hn of the form (3.7a) satisfying (3.6b) with a subgroup U of SLn(Z) of ﬁnite index. Then we have (3.7a) with c(h) = 0 only if h is nonnegative. The proof will be given in §A1.2 of the Appendix. Similar results can be proved for the Fourier expansion of an automorphic form of a more general type; see [S97, Propositions A4.2 and A4.5] and [S00, Proposition 5.7]. In fact, we do not need Lemma 3.3 in this book, since the modular forms in our later treatment in the case n > 1 will always be given explicitly, and so they have expansions of type (3.7a) with c(h) = 0 only for nonnegative h.

CHAPTER II

THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

4. Classical theta functions 4.1. We deﬁne the classical theta function θ and its modiﬁcation ϕ by e 2−1 · t gzg + t g(u + s) , (4.1) θ(u, z; r, s) = g−r∈Zn

ϕ(u, z; r, s) = e 2−1 · t u(z − z)−1 u θ(u, z; r, s).

(4.2)

Here u ∈ Cn , z ∈ Hn , and r, s ∈ Rn . To prove the convergence of the inﬁnite series of (4.1), put g = h + r with h ∈ Zn and y = Im(z); take compact subsets U of Cn and Z of Hn . Then for ﬁxed r, s ∈ Rn , u ∈ U, and z ∈ Z we easily see that Re πi · t gzg + 2πi · t g(u + s) = −π · t hyh + t hv + w with v ∈ Rn and w ∈ R in some compact sets depending on r, s, U, and Z. Let λ be the smallest eigenvalue of πy. Then π · t hyh ≥ λ · t hh, and so the sum of (4.1) is majorized by n exp(−λ · t hh + t hv + w) = ew exp(−λk 2 + kvj ), h∈Zn

j=1 k∈Z

where vj is the jth component of v. Therefore we see that the right-hand side of (4.1) is locally uniformly convergent on Cn × Hn , and so deﬁnes a holomorphic function in (u, z). The function θ(u, z; r, s) is called Riemann’s theta function. By purely formal calculations we can easily verify (4.3) (4.4) (4.5)

θ(u + za + b, z; r, s) = e − 2−1 · t aza − t a(u + b + s) θ(u, z; r + a, s + b)

(a, b ∈ Rn ),

θ(u + za + b, z; r, s) = e −2−1 · t aza− t au+ t rb− t sa θ(u, z; r, s)

(a, b ∈ Zn ),

θ(u, z; r + a, s + b) = e(t rb)θ(u, z; r, s) = θ(u+b, z; r, s)

(a, b ∈ Zn ).

G. Shimura, Modular Forms: Basics and Beyond, Springer Monographs in Mathematics, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-2125-2_2, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

15

16

II. THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

The function θ(u, z; r, s) was introduced by Riemann for the purpose of studying abelian integrals on an algebraic curve. In fact, these theta functions are essential in the geometric investigation of abelian varieties. In the present book, however, we merely employ them as a technical tool for studying automorphic forms of several types. The reader who is interested in their geometric and other aspects may be referred to [S98] and earlier articles by various authors cited there. 4.2. Let us now put (4.6) Γnθ = Γ θ = γ ∈ Γ (1) {aγ · t bγ } ≡ {cγ · t dγ } ≡ 0 (mod 2Zn ) , where {s} is the column vector consisting of the diagonal elements of s. Notice that aγ · t bγ and cγ · t dγ belong to Sn (Z) by (1.2a). We note an easy fact: (4.7) For s ∈ Sn (Z) we have t

xsx ∈ 2Z for every x ∈ Zn ⇐⇒ {s} ∈ 2Zn =⇒ {t ysy} ∈ 2Zn for every y ∈ Znn .

Clearly Γ (2) ⊂ Γ θ . Put F (x, y) = x · t y for x, y ∈ Z1n . By (1.2c) we have F (x, y)γ − F (x, y) = xaγ · t bγ · t x + ycγ · t dγ · t y + 2xbγ · t cγ · t y for γ ∈ Γ (1), and so we see that (4.8a) Γ θ = γ ∈ Γ (1) F (x, y)γ − F (x, y) ∈ 2Z for every x, y ∈ Z1n . This shows that Γ θ is a subgroup of Γ (1). Taking γ −1 in place of γ, from (1.2b) we see that (4.8b) Γ θ = γ ∈ Γ (1) {t aγ cγ } ≡ {t bγ dγ } ≡ 0 (mod 2Zn ) . We can let Sp(n, R) act on Cn × Hn by the rule (4.9) γ(u, z) = t μγ (z)−1 u, γz for γ ∈ Sp(n, R), u ∈ Cn , and z ∈ Hn . From (1.7) we obtain (βγ)(u, z) = β γ(u, z) for β, γ ∈ Sp(n, R); also 12n gives the identity map on Cn × Hn . Lemma 4.3. (i) μγ (z)−1 cγ ∈ Sn (C) for every γ ∈ Sp(n, R) and z ∈ Hn . (ii) Let κ(u, z) = t u(z − z¯)−1 u for u ∈ Cn and z ∈ Hn . Then (4.10) κ γ(u, z) − κ(u, z) = −t uμγ (z)−1 cγ u for every γ ∈ Sp(n, R). Proof. Put pz (u, v) = t u(z − z¯)−1 v for u, v ∈ Cn . Then pz (u, v) = pz (v, u) and κ(u, z) = pz (u, u). From (1.16) we obtain (4.11)

z) (γz − γ z¯)−1 = μγ (z)(z − z¯)−1 · t μγ (¯

for every γ ∈ Sp(n, R). Therefore

4. CLASSICAL THETA FUNCTIONS

17

pγz t μγ (z)−1 u, t μγ (z)−1 v) = t uμγ (z)−1 (γz − γ z¯)−1 · t μγ (z)−1 v z ) · t μγ (z)−1 v. = t u(z − z¯)−1 · t μγ (¯ z ) = μγ (z) − cγ (z − z¯), we have t μγ (¯ z ) · t μγ (z)−1 = 1n − (z − z¯) · Since μγ (¯ t −1 cγ · μγ (z) . Thus pγz t μγ (z)−1 u, t μγ (z)−1 v) − pz (u, v) = −t u · t cγ · t μγ (z)−1 v.

t

Since the left-hand side is symmetric in (u, v), we see that t cγ · t μγ (z)−1 ∈ Sn (C), which proves (i). Putting u = v, we obtain (ii). Here we add a more direct proof of (i). We have cγ · t μγ (z) = cγ z · t cγ + cγ · t dγ ∈ Sn (C), as can be seen from (1.2a). Thus μγ (z)−1 cγ = μγ (z)−1 cγ · t μγ (z) · t μγ (z)−1 ∈ Sn (C) as expected. Theorem 4.4. (i) For every γ ∈ Γ (1) we have (4.12) θ γ(u, z); r, s) = ζ · jγ (z)1/2 e 2−1 · t uμγ (z)−1 cγ u θ(u, z; r , s ) with a constant ζ ∈ T depending on r, s, γ, and a suitable choice of a branch of jγ (z)1/2 , and

1 {t ac} r r t γ + , = s s 2 {t bd} where the symbol {∗} is deﬁned in §4.2. (ii) For every γ ∈ Γ θ there is a holomorphic function hγ (z) in z ∈ Hn , written also h(γ, z), such that hγ (z)2 = ζ · jγ (z) with a constant ζ ∈ T and (4.13) θ γ(u, z); r, s) = e 2−1 (t rs − t r s ) hγ (z)e 2−1 · t uμγ (z)−1 cγ u θ(u, z; r , s )

r r t = γ with . s s (iii) hγ (z)4 = jγ (z)2 if γ ∈ Γ (2). These formulas are classical (see [KP92], for example). We will give a shorter proof by proving (4.12) for some special γ in §4.9, and the remaining statements in Section A1 of the Appendix. Putting u = 0, from (4.12) and (4.13) we obtain (4.14) (4.15)

θ(0, γz; r, s) = ζ · jγ (z)1/2 θ(0, z; r , s ) if γ ∈ Γ (1), θ(0, γz; r, s) = e 2−1 (t rs − t r s hγ (z)θ(0, z; r , s ) if γ ∈ Γ θ ,

where (r , s ) is as in (4.12) and (r , s ) is as in (4.13). 4.5. Put q(u, z) = e 2−1 · t u(z − z¯)−1 u . Then from (4.10) we obtain (4.16) q γ(u, z) = q(u, z)e − 2−1 · t uμγ (z)−1 cγ u . We now consider ϕ of (4.2). Since ϕ(u, z; r, s) = q(u, z)θ(u, z; r, s), we easily see that (4.12) and (4.13) are equivalent to

18

II. THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

(4.17) (4.18)

ϕ γ(u, z); r, s = ζ · jγ (z)1/2 ϕ(u, z; r , s ), ϕ γ(u, z); r, s = e 2−1 (t rs − t r s ) hγ (z)ϕ(u, z; r , s ).

Thus the transformation formulas for ϕ under (u, z) → γ(u, z) are simpler than those for θ. It is mainly for this reason that we consider ϕ in addition to θ. 4.6. Let us now put (4.19)

θ(z) =

e 2−1 · t gzg

(z ∈ Hn ).

g∈Zn

Then θ(z) = θ(0, z; 0, 0) = ϕ(0, z; 0, 0), and so from (4.13) we obtain (4.20)

θ(γz) = hγ (z)θ(z)

(γ ∈ Γ θ ),

and consequently h(βγ, z) = hβ (γz)hγ (z)

(4.21)

(β, γ ∈ Γ θ ).

Clearly θ(az · t a) = θ(z + b) = θ(z) for a ∈ GLn (Z) and b ∈ 2Sn (Z), and so hα = 1 for α = diag[a, t a−1 ], a ∈ GLn (Z),

1 b , b ∈ 2Sn (Z), hβ = 1 for β = 0 1

(4.22a) (4.22b)

h−γ = hγ for every γ ∈ Γ θ .

(4.22c)

In the following theorem we will see that h2γ coincides with jγ if γ ∈ Γ (4). For every congruence subgroup Γ of Γ θ we denote by M 1/2 (Γ ) the set of all holomorphic functions f on Hn such that f 2 ∈ M 1 and f (γz) = hγ (z)f (z) for every γ ∈ Γ.

(4.23)

In fact, the condition f 2 ∈ M 1 follows from (4.23) if n > 1. Indeed, if (4.23) is satisﬁed, then f (γz)2 = jγ (z)f (z)2 for every γ ∈ Γ ∩ Γ (4), which implies that f 2 ∈ M 1 . If f ∈ M 1/2 (Γ ), then f has expansion (3.7a) with c(h) = 0 only for nonnegative h. Indeed, from (4.22a, b) we see that f satisﬁes (3.6a, b) for suitable M and U, and so we have at least an expansion of type (3.7a). If n > 1, Lemma 3.3 gives the desired result. If n = 1, the condition f 2 ∈ M 1 implies condition (3.4d), as will be explained in §5.1. In fact, we will introduce in §5.1 modular forms of weight k for an arbitrary k ∈ 2−1 Z and will discuss (3.4d) in that context. We put ∞ (4.24) M 1/2 = M 1/2 Γ (2N ) . N =1

Theorem 4.7. (1) If γ ∈ Γ θ and det(dγ ) = 0, then t e − t xd−1 e xbγ d−1 (4.25) lim hγ (z) = γ cγ x/2 = γ x/2 , z→0

x∈A

x∈B

4. CLASSICAL THETA FUNCTIONS

where A = Zn /t dγ Zn and B = Zn /dγ Zn . (2) If γ ∈ Γ

θ

19

2

and det(dγ ) is odd, then hγ (z) =

−1 jγ (z). In det(dγ )

particular, hγ (z)2 = jγ (z) for every γ ∈ Γ (4). (3) hι (z) = det(−iz)1/2 with the branch of the square root such that hι (z) > 0 for Re(z) = 0. (4) Let α ∈ Gp+ (n, Q) and r(z) = jα (z)1/2 with any choice of a branch. Then there is a congruence subgroup Δ of Γ θ such that h(αγα−1 , αz) = r(γz)h(γ, z)r(z)−1 for every γ ∈ Δ. We will prove the ﬁrst two assertions in Section A1 of the Appendix; (3) will be proven in §4.9 and (4) in §5.3. Clearly (2) implies Theorem 4.4(iii). Once (2) of the above theorem is established, we see from (4.14) and (4.15) that θ(0, z; r, s) as a function of z belongs to M 1/2 if r, s ∈ Qn . If n = 1, condition (3.4d) for θ(0, z; r, s)2 follows from (4.14). We will often consider det(−iz)±1/2 in our later treatment. We use the convention that it always means the function as in (3) above and its inverse. 4.8. Let us now recall some elementary facts on Fourier analysis. For f ∈ L1 (Rn ) we deﬁne its Fourier transform fˆ by f (y)e(−t xy)dy (x ∈ Rn ), (4.26) fˆ(x) = Rn

where we consider x and y column vectors, so that t xy = nν=1 xν yν , and dy is the standard volume element of Rn . Then fˆ is a continuous function. If f is continuous, then we have (4.27) f (r + g) = (r ∈ Rn ), fˆ(h)e(t hr) g∈Zn

h∈Zn

provided both sides converge absolutely and uniformly. This is called the Poisson summation formula (see [S07, Theorem 2.3], for example). If we exchange f for fˆ, then we obtain f (h)e(−t hr) (r ∈ Rn ). (4.27a) fˆ(r + g) = g∈Zn

h∈Zn

It is well known that the function exp(−πx2 ) is its own Fourier transform, that is, (4.28) exp(−πx2 )e(−xt)dx = exp(−πt2 ). R

For a short proof, see [S07, pp. 14–15]. An n-dimensional version of (4.28) can be given as follows: (4.29) exp − πh[x] e(−t vx)dx = det(h)−1/2 exp − πh−1 [v] Rn

(v ∈ Rn , 0 < h ∈ Sn (R)),

20

II. THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

where h[x] = t xhx. This can be proved by taking a real matrix α such that t αhα = 1n and replacing x by α−1 x, which reduces the problem to (4.28). From this we obtain (4.30) e 2−1 z[x] e(−tvx)dx = det(−iz)−1/2 e − 2−1z −1 [v] Rn

(v ∈ Rn , z ∈ Hn ).

Indeed, if z = ih with 0 < h ∈ Sn (R), this is exactly (4.29). Now the lefthand side of (4.30) is convergent and deﬁnes a holomorphic function in z; the right-hand side is clearly holomorphic in z. Since they coincide on “the imaginary axis” of Hn , we obtain (4.30) on the whole Hn . 4.9. We now prove formula (4.12) for the elements γ of Γ (1) of the forms

0 −1 1 b a 0 . , , (4.31) 1 0 0 1 0 d If γ = diag[a, d] ∈ Γ (1), then d = t a−1 ∈ GLn (Z) and γ(z) = az · t a, and so we easily see that θ(au, az · t a; r, s) = θ(u, z; t ar, a−1 s). 1 b Next, if γ = ∈ Γ (1), then t b = b and γ(z) = z + b. Observing that 0 1 t xbx/2 ≡ t x{b}/2 (mod Z) if x ∈ Zn (with {∗} deﬁned as in §4.2), we obtain (4.33) θ(u, z + b; r, s) = e − 2−1(t rbr + t r{b}) θ u, z; r, s + br + 2−1 {b} ,

0 −1 , then γ(z) = which is (4.12) for the present γ. Finally, if γ = 1 0 −z −1 . To discuss this case, we ﬁrst put v = y − u − s in (4.30) with real vectors the Fourier transform fˆ of the function f (x) = −1 y, u,t s, and consider e 2 z[x] + x(u + s) . Then (4.30) shows that fˆ(y) = det(−iz)−1/2 e − 2−1 z −1 [y − u − s] . (4.32)

Applying the Poisson summation formula (4.27) to the present case we obtain (4.34) det(−iz)1/2e 2−1 z −1 [u] θ(u, z; r, s) = e(t rs)θ(z −1 u, −z −1 ; −s, r) for real u, and so for all u ∈ Cn , since both sides are holomorphic in u. Consequently, we know that (4.12) holds for γ of the forms of (4.31). Taking u = r = s = 0 in (4.34), we obtain (4.34a)

det(−iz)1/2 θ(z) = θ(−z −1 ),

which gives Theorem 4.7(3). 4.10. Let us now look more closely at the special case n = 1. In this case our function takes the form

4. CLASSICAL THETA FUNCTIONS

(4.35)

θ(u, z; r, s) =

21

e 2−1 (m + r)2 z + (m + r)(u + s) , m∈Z

where u ∈ C, z ∈ H1 , and r, s ∈ R; in particular, (4.36) θ(z) = θ(0, z; 0, 0) = e(m2 z/2). m∈Z

The function of (4.35) satisﬁes the diﬀerential equation (4.37)

∂θ(u, z; r, s) ∂ 2 θ(u, z; r, s) = 4πi · . ∂u2 ∂z

Also, we have (4.38)

Γ = Γ (2) ∪ Γ (2)ι, θ

0 ι= 1

−1 . 0

a b Indeed, that Γ (2)∪Γ (2)ι ⊂ Γ can easily be seen. Suppose γ = ∈ Γθ c d and a ∈ / 2Z. Then c ∈ 2Z and ad − 1 ∈ 2Z. Thus d ∈ / 2Z and b ∈ 2Z, and so θ / Γ (2). Then a ∈ 2Z, and so b ∈ / 2Z. Since γ ∈ Γ (2). Suppose γ ∈ Γ and γ ∈ b = aγι , we see that γι ∈ Γ (2). This proves (4.38). From Theorem 4.7(3) we obtain θ

(4.39)

hι (z) = (−iz)1/2 ,

where the branch of (−iz)1/2 is chosen so that it is a positive real number if z = iy with 0 < y ∈ R. We use this convention throughout the present book. Let us now show that

2c a b 1/2 (cz + d) (4.40) hγ (z) = ε−1 if γ = ∈ Γ (2). d c d d Here the branch of (cz + d)1/2 is taken so that −π/2 < arg(cz + d)1/2 ≤ π/2, which means that ⎧√ ⎪ d if d > 0, ⎪ ⎨ (4.41a) lim (cz + d)1/2 = i |d| if d < 0 and c ≥ 0, z→0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ − i |d| if d < 0 and c < 0;

2c is the symbol deﬁned in (0.4) and (0.5), and εd is deﬁned by (as already d done in (0.6)) 1 if d − 1 ∈ 4Z, (4.41b) εd = i if d + 1 ∈ 4Z. To prove (4.40), let us assume c = 0, since the case c = 0 is easy. Take the branch of (cz + d)1/2 as speciﬁed, and let q = limz→0 (cz + d)1/2 . By Theorem 4.7(2), hγ (z)2 = ±jγ (z), and so we can put hγ (z) = η(cz + d)1/2 with η such that η 2 = ±1. By (4.25) we obtain

22

II. THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

ηq =

|d|

e − cx /(2d) = e − 2cy 2 /d = G(−2c, d)

2

y=1

x∈Z/dZ

−2c εd d1/2 , d

= with G(∗. ∗) of (2.5). Suppose d > 0; then by (2.9), ηd

2c , which proves (4.40) when d > 0. If d < 0, employing and so η = ε−1 d d

2c (2.13), we obtain qη = ε−d |d|. Comparing this with (4.41a), we −d obtain the desired result. We can also use the fact hγ = h−γ . However, for all practical purposes we need the formula only when d > 0; in fact, it is not advisable to use it when d < 0. By (4.5), θ(u, z; r, s) up to a factor of T depends only on r, s modulo Z. In particular, there are four functions determined by r, s ∈ {0, 1/2}. We can replace 1/2 by −1/2 by multiplying the function by a root of unity. Now the explicit forms of these four functions are given as follows: e(m2 z/2)e(mu), (4.42a) θ(u, z; 0, 0) = 1/2

m∈Z

(4.42b) θ(u, z; 0, 1/2) =

(−1)m e(m2 z/2)e(mu),

m∈Z

(4.42c) θ(u, z; 1/2, 0) =

e (2m + 1)2 z/8 e (2m + 1)u/2 ,

m∈Z

(4.42d) θ(u, z; 1/2, −1/2) = −i

(−1)m e (2m + 1)2 z/8)e (2m + 1)u/2 .

m∈Z

These were introduced by Jacobi, and so it is natural to call them Jacobi’s theta functions. They are traditionally denoted by ϑν (u, z) with 0 ≤ ν ≤ 3, but the numbering depends on the author. Formulas (4.3), (4.4), (4.5), and (4.13) are of course valid for these, and the explicit transformation formulas for ϑν are given in any textbook on elliptic functions. We do not need these ϑν in this book, but we note them here for the purpose of giving a perspective that the functions ϑν and their transformation formulas are merely special cases obtained by taking n to be 1 and substituting 0 or ±1/2 for r or s, and this point is worthy of emphasis. We add here a few facts about ∂θ/∂u. Namely, put (4.43)

θ∗ (z; r, s) = (2πi)−1 (∂θ/∂u)(0, z; r, s).

Then (4.44)

θ∗ (z; r, s) =

(m + r)e 2−1 (m + r)2 z + (m + r)s ,

m∈Z

and from (4.13) we immediately obtain (4.45) θ∗ (γz; r, s) = e (rs − r s )/2 jγ (z)hγ (z)θ∗ (z; r , s )

if

γ ∈ Γ θ,

4. CLASSICAL THETA FUNCTIONS

23

where [r s ] = [r s]γ. In particular, put θ∗ (z) = θ∗ (z; 0, 0); then me(m2 z/2), (4.46) θ ∗ (z) = m∈Z ∗

θ (γz) = jγ (z)hγ (z)θ∗ (z)

(4.47)

if

γ ∈ Γ θ.

4.11. Returning to the case with n ≥ 1, we consider the functions of the forms (4.48a) ϕ(u, z; λ) = e 2−1 · t u(z − z¯)−1 u θ(u, z; λ), λ(ξ)e 2−1 · t ξzξ + t ξu . (4.48b) θ(u, z; λ) = ξ∈Qn

Here u ∈ C and z ∈ Hn as before; λ is an element of the set L (Qn ) deﬁned in §0.3. By our explanation in §0.3, θ(u, z; λ) is a ﬁnite C-linear combination of θ(u, z; r, s) with r, s ∈ Qn , and such a θ(u, z; r, s) is a special case of (4.48b). We now reformulate Theorems 4.4 and 4.7 as follows. n

Theorem 4.12. Let P be the group deﬁned in Lemma 2.2(iii). For α ∈ P Γ θ and λ ∈ L (Qn ) we can deﬁne a holomorphic function hα (z) on Hn and an element λα of L (Qn ) with the following properties: (4.49a) ϕ α(u, z); λ) = hα (z)ϕ(u, z; λα ). (4.49b)

hα (z)2 = ζjα (z) with ζ ∈ T.

(4.49c)

hα (z) = | det(dα )|1/2 if α ∈ P.

hρατ (z) = hρ (z)hα (τ z)hτ (z) if ρ ∈ P and τ ∈ Γ θ . τ (4.49e) λρατ = (λρ )α if ρ ∈ P and τ ∈ Γ θ . (4.49f) For each λ the set {α ∈ Γ θ λα = λ} is a congruence subgroup.

(4.49d)

(4.49g) Let α ∈ Sp(n, Q) and r(z) = jα (z)1/2 with any choice of a branch. n n Then for every λ ∈ L (Q ) there exists an element μ of L (Q ) such that ϕ α(u, z); λ) = r(z)ϕ(u, z; μ). Proof. We already have hγ (z) for γ ∈ Γ θ . Formula (4.18) (or rather γ its C-linear

combination) means that λ can be determined by (4.49a). For a b β= ∈ P we have β(u, z) = (t d−1 u, az · t a + bd−1 ) and q β(u, z) = 0 d q(u, z) by (4.16), and so ϕ β(u, z), λ = ϕ(u, z; λ ) with λ (ξ) = e(2−1 · t ξ · t dbξ)λ(dξ). Thus putting hβ (z) = | det(d)|1/2 and λβ = | det(d)|−1/2 e(2−1 · t t ξ · dbξ)λ(dξ), we have (4.49a) with β in place of α. We can easily verify that hβ β (z) = hβ (βz)hβ (z) and λβ β = (λβ )β for β , β ∈ P. If γ ∈ Γ θ ∩ P, then hγ = 1 by (4.22a, b), and so it coincides with hγ deﬁned for γ as an element of P. The same is true for λγ , as it is determined by (4.49a). Now given α = βγ with β ∈ P and γ ∈ Γ θ , we deﬁne hα and λα by hα (z) = hβ (γz)hγ (z) and λα = (λβ )γ . These are well deﬁned, since we have shown the consistency on

24

II. THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

Γ θ ∩ P. Then formulas (4.49a, b, c, d, e) can be veriﬁed in a straightforward n way. To prove (4.49f), it is suﬃcient to show that given r, s ∈ Q , there is a congruence subgroup Γ such that ϕ γ(u, z); r, s = hγ (z)ϕ(u, z; r, s) for every γ ∈ Γ. For that purpose take a positive integer m so that mr, ms ∈ Zn . Then for γ ∈ Γ (2m2 ) we have t rs − t r s ∈ 2Z in (4.13), and so (4.18) gives the desired result. As for (4.49g), since Sp(n, Q) is generated by P and ι as noted in Lemma 2.2(iv), successive applications of (4.49a) with elements of P and ι as α establish (4.49g). This completes the proof. Putting u = 0 in (4.48a, b) and (4.49a), we obtain λ(ξ)e(2−1 · t ξzξ), (4.50a) ϕ(0, z; λ) = θ(0, z; λ) = ξ∈Qn

(4.50b)

θ(0, αz; λ) = hα (z)θ(0, z; λα ) for every α ∈ P Γ θ .

The factors of automorphy μγ (z) and jγ (z) are deﬁned for every γ ∈ Sp(n, Q) and the “associativity” of the type (1.7) holds on the whole group Sp(n, Q), but in the case of hα (z) it is deﬁned only for α ∈ P Γ θ and the associativity holds only to the extent given by (4.49d, e). However, these are suﬃcient for practical purposes, though we always have to be careful about our calculation involving hα (z). 4.13 As generalizations of (4.43) and (4.47) when n = 1, we put λ(ξ)ξe(ξ 2 z/2) z ∈ H1 , λ ∈ L (Q) . (4.51) θ∗ (z, λ) = ξ∈Q

Since θ ∗ (z, λ) = (2πi)−1 (∂ϕ/∂u)(0, z; λ), from (4.49a) we obtain (4.52)

θ∗ (αz, λ) = hα (z)jα (z)θ∗ (z, λα )

for every α ∈ P Γ θ .

5. Modular forms of half-integral weight 5.1. By a weight (of a modular form) we mean an element of 2−1 Z; we call it an integral weight if it belongs to Z and a half-integral weight otherwise. To make our formulas short, for a weight k and α ∈ Sp(n, Q) we hereafter put k if k ∈ Z, (5.1a) [k] = k − 1/2 if k ∈ / Z, k jα (z) if k ∈ Z, (5.1b) jαk (z) = hα (z)jα (z)[k] if k ∈ / Z. / Z. We also put Here we assume that α ∈ P Γ θ when k ∈ + (5.2) Gp (n, Q) = α ∈ Gp(n, Q) ν(α) > 0 . For k, α as in (5.1b) and a function f on Hn we deﬁne a function f k α on Hn by

5. MODULAR FORMS OF HALF-INTEGRAL WEIGHT

(5.3a)

25

(f k α)(z) = jαk (z)−1 f α(z) .

This is the same as (3.1) if k ∈ Z and α ∈ Sp(n, Q). Notice that (5.3b)

f k (−1) = (−1)n[k] f.

Also, from Theorem 4.7(2) we see that

−1 −k / Z, γ ∈ Γ θ and det(dγ ) ∈ / 2Z. j k (z)−1 if k ∈ (5.3c) jγ (z) = det(dγ ) γ As for the analogue of formula (3.2b), from (1.7) and (4.21) we obtain (5.4)

f k (γδ) = (f k γ)k δ if γ, δ ∈ Γ θ and k ∈ / Z.

In fact, the last formula can be extended to the cases covered by (4.49d, e). Suppose k ∈ / Z. The symbols jαk (z) and f k α are deﬁned with no ambiguity if α ∈ P Γ θ . However, we will have to consider an arbitrary α ∈ Gp+ (n, Q). For that purpose we make the following convention: Whenever we write jα (z)−k f (αz) for α ∈ Gp+ (n, Q), the symbol jα (z)−k means any branch of the function. There is no danger in doing so, since the statement in each case is valid with any choice of a branch. Let Γ be a congruence subgroup of Sp(n, Q). For an integral weight k we deﬁned M k (Γ ) in §3.1. Suppose now k is half-integral and Γ ⊂ Γ θ . We then deﬁne M k (Γ ) to be the set of all holomorphic functions f ∈ Hn such that f k γ = f for every γ ∈ Γ and f 2 ∈ M 2k . The last condition is automatically satisﬁed if n > 1. Indeed, by Theorem 4.7(2), f 2 2k γ = f 2 for every γ ∈ Γ ∩ Γ (4), and so f 2 ∈ M 2k , since condition (3.4c) is unnecessary if n > 1. We call an element of M k (Γ ) a modular form of weight k with respect to Γ. Suppose n = 1 and k is half-integral. Let f be a holomorphic function on H1 such that f k γ = f for every γ ∈ Γ. Then f 2 ∈ M 2k if and only if (3.4d) is satisﬁed with any choice of a branch of (cz + d)−k . Indeed, for such an f satisfying (3.4d) we have f 2 2k γ = f 2 for every γ ∈ Γ ∩ Γ (4), 2 since hγ (z)jγ (z)k−1/2 = jγ (z)2k for γ ∈ Γ (4), and (3.4d) is satisﬁed with (f 2 , 2k) in place of (f, k), and so f 2 ∈ M 2k . Conversely, suppose f 2 ∈ M 2k and f k γ = f for every γ ∈ Γ. Let 1 m with α ∈ SL2 (Q) and let r(z) be a branch of jα (z)k . Let γ = 0 1 0 < m ∈ 4Z. We can ﬁnd m such that γ ∈ Γ ∩ α−1 Γ α ∩ α−1 Γ (4)α. Put δ = αγα−1 and κ = 2k. Then κ ∈ Z, δα = αγ, and jδ (αz)κ jα (z)κ = jδα (z)κ = jαγ (z)κ = jα (γz)κ jγ (z)κ , which means that hδ (αz)κ r(z) = ±r(γz)hγ (z)κ . Put g(z) = r(z)−1 f (αz). Since δ ∈ Γ ∩ Γ (4) and hγ = 1, we have g(γz) = r(γz)−1 f αγ(z) = r(γz)−1 f δα(z) = r(γz)−1 hδ (αz)κ f (αz) = ±r(z)−1 ·f (αz) = ±g(z). Thus g(z + m) = ±g(z), and so g(z + 2m) = g(z). Con ν sequently we can put g(z) = ν∈Z c(ν)q(z) with c(ν) ∈ C and q(z) =

26

II. THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

e(z/(2m)). If f 2 ∈ M κ , then (3.4d) applied to f 2 implies that g 2 as a function of q(z) has no singularity at q(z) = 0. Then the same must be true for g(z), and so c(ν) = 0 for ν < 0. Thus f satisﬁes (3.4d). We now put ∞ Mk Γ (2N ) . (5.5) Mk = N =1

Let k and be weights. Then for f ∈ M k and g ∈ M , we easily see that f g ∈ M k+ . Also, θ(0, z; λ) ∈ M 1/2 for every λ ∈ L (Qn ). This follows from (4.49a) and (4.49f) if n > 1. Now suppose n = 1. Putting u = 0 in (4.49g), we ﬁnd that (3.4d) is satisﬁed with k = 1/2 and f (z) = θ(0, z; λ) as expected. If n = 1, θ∗ (z, λ) belongs to M 3/2 for every λ ∈ L (Qn ). To show this, 3/2 we ﬁrst note that θ∗ (γz, λ) = jγ (z)θ∗ (z, λ) for γ in a suitable congruence subgroup, which follows from (4.52) and (4.49f). Since θ∗ (z, λ) = (2πi)−1 ·(∂ϕ/∂u)(0, z; λ), from (4.49g) we obtain θ∗ (αz, λ) = jα (z)3/2 θ∗ (z, μ), and so θ∗ (z, λ) satisﬁes (3.4d) with k = 3/2. Thus θ∗ (z, λ) ∈ M 3/2 . Let f ∈ M k with half-integral k and n > 1. From (4.22a, b) we see that (3.6a) and (3.6b) hold for f with suitable M and U . Therefore we have an expansion of f of the form (3.7a) or (3.7b). Thus we can speak of the Fourier expansion of f in the case of half-integral k. If n = 1, we have shown that f satisﬁes (3.4d). 5.2. For k ∈ Z our deﬁnitions of f k α and M k (Γ ) in Section 3 are standard, but the case of half-integral k is not so clear-cut. Indeed, for half-integral k we could have deﬁned f k α by (f k α)(z) = hα (z)−2k f (αz) instead of (5.3a). The reason for adopting (5.3a) is that its natural generalization to the Hilbert modular case is the best deﬁnition. This of course requires a clariﬁcation, but without going into details here we refer the reader to Section 17 of the present book and [S87]. The factor of automorphy hγ of (4.40) is diﬀerent from what we introduced in [S73a], which has been employed by many researchers and which is given by

−1 c (5.6) hδ (z) = εd (cz + d)1/2 d

a b a 2b for δ = ∈ Γ (1) with c ∈ 4Z. For such a δ put γ = . Then c d c/2 d γ ∈ Γ (2) and hγ (2z) = hδ (z). In the present book for various reasons, we develop the theory by using hγ of (4.40). The formulation in terms of hδ of (5.6) can easily be obtained by means of the equality hγ (2z) = hδ (z). 5.3. Let us now prove Theorem 4.7(4). Let α and r(z) in that be as statement. We ﬁrst assume that α ∈ Sp(n, Q). Put Δλ = γ ∈ Γ θ λγ = λ

5. MODULAR FORMS OF HALF-INTEGRAL WEIGHT

27

for λ ∈ L (Qn ). By (4.49f), Δλ is a congruence subgroup of Sp(n, Q). Now take λ to be the characteristic function of Zn and take also μ as in (4.49g). Let γ ∈ Δμ ∩ α−1 Δλ α and δ = αγα−1 . Then δα = αγ, λδ = λ, μγ = μ, and ϕ δα(u, z); λ = hδ (αz)ϕ α(u, z); λ = hδ (αz)r(z)ϕ(u, z; μ). This equals ϕ αγ(u, z); λ = r(γz)ϕ γ(u, z); μ = r(γz)hγ (z)ϕ(u, z; μ). Since ϕ(u, z; μ) is a nonzero function, we obtain hδ (αz)r(z) = r(γz)hγ (z). This proves Theorem 4.7(4) for α ∈ Sp(n, Q). By (1.3) every element of Gp+ (n, Q) is the product of an element of Sp(n, Q) and an element β of the form β = diag[e1n , 1n ] with 0 < e ∈ Q. Therefore we easily see that it is suﬃcient to prove Theorem 4.7(4) when α is such a β; we may even assume that e ∈ Z. Thus our task is to show that h(βγβ −1 , βz) subgroup. Suppose n =

= hγ(z) for γ in a suitable congruence a eb a b ∈ Γ (2), and from ∈ Γ (2e); then βγβ −1 = 1 and γ = e−1 c d c d (4.40) we see that h(βγβ −1 , βz) = de hγ (z), and so h(βγβ −1 , βz) = hγ (z) if d − 1 ∈ 4eZ, which gives the desired result. If n > 1, the proof is more involved and requires some facts on the Gauss sum of a quadratic form as in (4.25). We refer the reader to [S00, Theorems 6.8 and 6.9], whose proof is given in [S00, §A2.9]. Howeve,r we need Theorem 4.7(4) only for the proof of the following lemma, which we employ only when n = 1 in the present book. Lemma 5.4. Let k be an integral or a half-integral weight. Given α ∈ Gp+ (n, Q) and f ∈ M k , put g(z) = jα (z)−k f (αz). Then g ∈ M k . For integral k this was already noted in §3.1. If k is half-integral, this is an immediate consequence of Theorem 4.7(4), and so the proof may be left to the reader. Lemma 5.5. Let ψ be a primitive or an imprimitive character modulo r, and let ψ(−1) = (−1)μ with μ = 0 or 1. Put k = (2μ + 1)/2 and ψ(m)mμ e(m2 z/2). (5.7) θψ (z) = 2−1 Then θψ ∈ M k and

m∈Z

θψ k γ = ψ(dγ )θψ for every γ ∈ Γ (2) such that cγ ∈ 2r2 Z,

0 −r−1 = ψ(−1)r−1/2 G(ψ)θψ¯ if ψ is primitive. (5.9) θψ k r 0 ∞ Proof. Notice that 2−1 m∈Z of (5.7) can be replaced by m=1 if ψ is not the principal character. If r = 1, then ψ is the principal character and θψ = 2−1 θ with θ of (4.36), and so (5.8) and (5.9) in that case follow from (4.20). Here we prove (5.8) when ψ is primitive; the general case will be settled after the proof of Lemma 7.13. Assuming that r > 1 and μ = 0, for (5.8)

28

II. THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

2 s ∈ Z put

fs (z) = m∈Z e(ms/r)e(m z/2). Then fs (z) = θ(0, z; 0, s/r). a b Let γ = ∈ Γ (2) with c ∈ 2r2 Z. By (4.15) we have c d (5.10) fs 1/2 γ = e − cds2 /(2r2 ) θ(0, z; cs/r, ds/r) = θ(0, z; 0, ds/r) = fds . Now by (2.3a) we have r ¯ ¯ ψ (z). ¯ ψ(m)e(m2 z/2) = 2G(ψ)θ ψ(s)f s (z) = G(ψ) s=1

m∈Z

This combined with (5.10) shows that r r ¯ ψ 1/2 γ = ¯ ¯ ¯ 2G(ψ)θ γ = ψ(s)f ψ(s)f s 1/2 ds = 2G(ψ)ψ(d)θψ . s=1

s=1

¯ = 0 as can be seen from (2.3c). This proves (5.8) when μ = 0, since G(ψ) ∗ Next, suppose μ = 1; let gs (z) = θ (z; 0, s/r) with θ∗ of (4.44). Then k = r ¯ ¯ 3/2 and s=1 ψ(s)g s = 2G(ψ)θψ . Also, we see from (4.45) that gs k γ = gds . Therefore we obtain (5.8) when μ = 1 in the same manner as in the case μ = 0. As for (5.9) when μ = 1, from (4.45) we obtain gs (ιz) = jιk (z)θ∗ (z; s/r, 0), and so r ∗ 2 ¯ ¯ ψ (−1/r2 z) = j k (r2 z) (r z; s/r, 0) ψ(s)θ 2G(ψ)θ ι

= r−1 jιk (r2 z)

r

s=1

¯ ψ(s)(rm + s)e (rm + s)2 z/2 = 2r2k−1 jιk (z)θψ¯ (z).

s=1 m∈Z

0 −r−1 ¯ −1 θ ¯ For α = we have jαk (z) = rk jιk (z) and so θψ k α = r1/2 G(ψ) ψ r 0 −1/2 = ψ(−1)r G(ψ)θψ¯ by (2.3b, c), which gives (5.9) for μ = 1. The case μ = 0 can be proved by employing (4.15) instead of (4.45).

3 and 5.6. We note here an interesting special case. Take ϕ(m) = m put ∞

3 (5.11) η(z) = θϕ (z/12) = e(m2 z/24). m m=1 √ In this case r = 12 and G(ϕ) = 2 3 by (2.4a), and so from (5.9) we obtain η1/2 ι = η. Also, m2 − 1 ∈ 24Z for every integer m prime to 6, and so η(z + 1) = e(1/24)η(z). Employing these relations we can easily prove ∞ (5.12) η(z) = Δ(z)1/24 = e(z/24) 1 − e(nz) , n=1

24 ∞ where Δ(z) = e(z) n=1 1 − e(nz) . We leave the proof to the reader. In fact, it was explained in [S07, p. 19]. We also note an easy fact:

5. MODULAR FORMS OF HALF-INTEGRAL WEIGHT

(5.12a)

29

η1/2 γ = η for every γ ∈ Γ (1) such that bγ , cγ ∈ 24Z.

Lemma 5.7. For every congruence subgroup Γ of Γ θ and k ∈ 2−1 Z we have M k (Γ ) = {0} if k < 0 and M 0 (Γ ) = C. Proof. Since f 2 ∈ M 2k for f ∈ M k , it is suﬃcient to treat the case k ∈ Z. If n = 1, our assertions are well known, and so we assume that n > 1. We do not need this lemma for our later treatment, but we prove here that aα 1 n b α 1n M k (Γ ) = {0} if k < 0. For α ∈ SL2 (Q) put σα = ; put also cα 1n dα 1n p(z) =z1n for z ∈ H1 . Then σα ∈ Sp(n, Q), p(z) ∈ Hn , σα p(z) = p α(z) , subgroup and j σα , p(z) = jα (z)n . Let f ∈ M k (Γ ) with a congruence Γ of Sp(n, Q) and 0 > k ∈ Z. Put Γ σ = α ∈ SL (Z) ∈ Γ and 1 2 α g(z) = f p(z) for z ∈ H1 .Then Γ1 is a congruence subgroup of SL2 (Q) and (gnk α) p(z) = (f k σα ) p(z) , and so gnk δ = g for δ ∈ Γ1 . Moreover, since f k σα ∈ M k , we see that g satisﬁes (3.4d). Therefore g ∈ M k (Γ1 ), and so g = 0. This means that f p(z) = 0 for every z ∈ H1 . Given w ∈ Hn , as of Section 1, we can ﬁnd an element of the form β =

shown at the end 1 s a 0 with a ∈ GLn (R) and s ∈ Sn (R) such that β(i1n ) = w. 0 1 0 t a−1 Since GLn (Q) and Sn (Q) are dense in GLn (R) and Sn (R), respectively, we can ﬁnd an element δ of P that is in any small neighborhood of β. In other words, the set δ(i1 n ) δ ∈ P is dense in Hn . Put f1 = f k δ. Then f1 ∈ M k , and so f1 p(z) = 0, which means that f δ(i1n ) = 0. Since this is so for every δ ∈ P, we obtain f = 0 as expected. 5.8. Let f ∈ M k with 0 ≤ k ∈ 2−1 Z. Given α ∈ Sp(n, Q), by Lemmas 5.4 and 3.3 we have cα (h)e tr(hz) , S = Sn (Q), jα (z)−k f (αz) = 0≤h∈S

with cα (h) ∈ C. We call f a cusp form if cα (h) = 0 only when h > 0 for every α, and we denote by S k (Γ ) the set of all cusp forms contained in M k (Γ ). We put ∞ (5.13) Sk = S k Γ (2N ) . N =1

From our deﬁnition and Lemma 5.4 we easily see that if f ∈ S k , then jα (z)−k f (αz) ∈ S k for every α ∈ Gp+ (n, Q). Clearly S 0 = {0}. We note that θ∗ (z, λ) ∈ S 3/2 for every λ ∈ L (Q). Indeed, since Γ (1) is generated by ι and Γ (1) ∩ P1 , from (4.52) we see that jα (z)−3/2 θ∗ (αz, λ) = θ∗ (z, μ) with some μ ∈ L (Q) for every α ∈ SL2 (Q). Clearly θ∗ (z, μ) has 0 as its constant term, and so θ∗ (z, λ) ∈ S 3/2 . Lemma 5.9. Let f (z) = h∈S c(h)e tr(hz) ∈ M k (Γ ) with k ∈ 2−1 Z and a congruence subgroup Γ, where S = Sn (Q). Put

30

II. THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

(5.14)

fρ (z) =

c(h)e tr(hz) .

h∈S

Then fρ (z) = f (−¯ z ) and fρ ∈ M k (εΓ ε−1) with ε = diag[−1n , 1n ]. Moreover, (5.15)

jαk (z) = jαk (−¯ z ),

(5.16)

fρ k α = (f k α )ρ

for α ∈ Sp(n, Q), whenever jαk (z) is deﬁned, where α = εαε−1 . z ) and α ∈ Sp(n, Q); also, α ∈ P Γ θ if Proof. Clearly, fρ (z) = f (−¯ z ), jα (z) = jα (−¯ z ), and α ∈ P Γ θ . Moreover, −α(z) = α (−¯ (5.17) fρ (αz) = f − αz = f α (−¯ z) . Take θ as f. Then θρ = θ and (5.17) shows that if α ∈ Γ θ , then hα (z)θ(z) = hα (−¯ z )θ(z), and so hα (z) = hα (−¯ z ), which is also true for α ∈ P because of (4.49c). Thus hα (z) = hα (−¯ z ) for every α ∈ P Γ θ by (4.49d), and we obtain (5.15). Then (5.16) follows immediately from (5.15). Take α in εΓ ε−1 in (5.17). Then α ∈ Γ and we obtain fρ (αz) = jαk (−¯ z )f (−¯ z ) = jαk (z)fρ (z), −1 and so fρ ∈ M k (εΓ ε ) as expected. This completes the proof. 6. Holomorphic and nonholomorphic modular forms on H1 6.1. Hereafter we will mainly be concerned with functions on H1 , and so we write simply H for H1 . We also put (6.1a) GL+ 2 (R) = α ∈ GL2 (R) det(α) > 0 , (6.1b) (6.1c)

+ GL+ 2 (Q) = GL2 (R) ∩ GL2 (Q), P = α ∈ SL2 (Q) cα = 0 .

Hereafter we work with GL2 (R) and H1 ; the group P is Pn (with n = 1) of Lemma 2.2(iii). Formulas (1.10) and (1.16) in the case n = 1 take the forms: (6.2)

d(αz) = jα (z)−2 dz for every α ∈ SL2 (R),

(6.3)

Im(αz) = |jα (z)|−2 Im(z) for every α ∈ SL2 (R).

Writing simply y = Im(z), from (6.2) and (6.3) we see that y −2 dz ∧ d¯ z is z = −2idx ∧ dy, we obtain invariant under SL2 (R). Since dz ∧ d¯ (6.4)

(y −2 dx ∧ dy) ◦ α = y −2 dx ∧ dy for every α ∈ SL2 (R).

Thus the form y −2 dx∧dy gives a measure on H invariant under SL2 (R). To make our formulas short, we put (6.5)

dz = y −2 dxdy,

6. HOLOMORPHIC AND NONHOLOMORPHIC MODULAR FORMS ON H1 31

and deﬁne a measure μ on H by (6.5a)

μ(A) =

dz for A ⊂ H. It is well known that μ(Γ (1)\H = π/3, and so (6.6) μ(Γ \H) = Γ (1) : {±1}Γ π/3 if Γ ⊂ Γ (1). ∞ Lemma 6.2. Let f ∈ Mk and let f (z) = m=0 cm e(mz/N ) with cm ∈ C and 0 < N ∈ Z. Then the following assertions hold: (i) There exists a positive number A such that |f (z)| ≤ A(1 + y −k ) on the whole H, where y = Im(z). Moreover, if f is a cusp form, then A can be chosen so that |f (z)| ≤ Ay −k/2 on the whole H. (ii) cm = O(mk ). (iii) cm = O(mk/2 ) if f is a cusp form. A

Proof. For the proof of these facts when k ∈ Z the reader is referred to [S07, Lemmas 1.7 and 1.8]. To prove (i) when k ∈ / Z, take (f 2 , 2k) as (f, k) in (i). Then we obtain the desired fact for (f, k). To prove (ii) and (iii), we ﬁrst note, for 0 ≤ m ∈ Z, N f (z)e(−mx/N )dx. N cm exp(−2πmy/N ) = 0

Take y = 1/m. Then (ii) and (iii) follow from (i). Results of the same type as the above lemma hold in the case n > 1. The case of cusp form is easy, but there are some nontrivial technical problems in the case of non-cusp forms; see [S00, Proposition A6.4 and formula (A6.7)] and the proof given there. 6.3. The notion of a cusp can be deﬁned for a certain class of discrete subgroups of SL2 (R) that includes congruence subgroups of SL2 (Q). Since we deal only with such congruence subgroups in this book, a cusp is a point of Q ∪ {∞}, and vice versa. Then the map α → α(∞) with α ∈ SL2 (Q) is a bijection of SL2 (Q)/P onto Q ∪ {∞}, and so Γ \(Q ∪ {∞}) is the set of Γ -equivalence classes of cusps, which is in one-to-one correspondence with Γ \SL2 (Q)/P. We often use P \SL2 (Q)/Γ instead, by considering the inverse map. For a congruence subgroup Γ of SL2 (Z) and a weight k we denote by Ck (Γ ) the set of all C ∞ functions f (z) on H such that (6.7)

f k γ = f for every γ ∈ Γ ;

/ Z. Then from (6.3) we see that we assume that Γ ⊂ Γ θ if k ∈ (6.8)

|y k/2 f (z)| is a Γ -invariant function on H.

32

II. THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

Therefore we consider more generally a C ∞ function f (z) satisfying (6.8) for some Γ and k. We say that such an f is slowly increasing or rapidly decreasing at every cusp according as the following condition (6.9a) or (6.9b) is satisﬁed: (6.9a) For every α ∈ SL2 (Q) there exist positive constants A, B, and c depending on f and α such that |Im(αz)k/2 f (αz)| < Ay c if y = Im(z) > B. (6.9b) For every α ∈ SL2 (Q) and c ∈ R, > 0, there exist positive constants A and B depending on f, α, and c such that |Im(αz)k/2 f (αz)| < Ay −c if y = Im(z) > B. Notice that these are conditions on |f |, rather than on f. Since SL2 (Q) = Γ (1)P by Lemma 2.2(iii), we can ﬁnd a ﬁnite set X such that (6.10) SL2 (Q) = Γ ξP, X ⊂ Γ (1). ξ∈X

Then we easily see that condition (6.9a) or (6.9b) is satisﬁed for every α ∈ SL2 (Q) if it is satisﬁed for every α ∈ X. Also, if f satisﬁes (6.9a) or (6.9b), so does jβ (z)−k f (βz) for every β ∈ GL+ 2 (Q). k/2 Since |Im(αz) f (αz)| is invariant under z → z+m with a positive integer m and the set {x + iy 0 ≤ x ≤ m, B ≤ y ≤ B} is compact for every B < B, we easily see that changing A in (6.9a, b) suitably, we can replace B in (6.9a, b) by an arbitrary positive number. We will be considering a function f (z, s) of (z, s) ∈ H × D, also written fs (z), with a domain D in C such that fs (z) for each ﬁxed s as a function of z satisﬁes (6.8) with the same Γ and k. If for every compact subset K of D, fs satisﬁes condition (6.9a) for s ∈ K with A, B, and c depending only on K and α, then we say that f is slowly increasing at every cusp locally uniformly on D (or locally uniformly in s). Lemma 6.4. (i) Let f be a holomorphic function on H belonging to Ck (Γ ). Then f ∈ M k if and only if f is slowly increasing at every cusp. (ii) For f as in (i), f ∈ S k if and only if f is rapidly decreasing at every cusp. (iii) An element of M k (Γ ) is a cusp form if the constant term of the Fourier expansion of jξ (z)−k f (ξz) is 0 for every ξ in the set X of (6.10). (iv) Let f be an element of Ck (Γ ) that is slowly increasing at every cusp. Then there exist two positive constants A and c such that |y k/2 f (x + iy)| ≤ A(y c + y −c )

for every x + iy ∈ H.

6. HOLOMORPHIC AND NONHOLOMORPHIC MODULAR FORMS ON H1 33

(v) If an element f of Ck (Γ ) is rapidly decreasing at every cusp, then |Im(z)k/2 f (z)| is bounded on the whole H. Proof. Given a holomorphic f satisfying (6.7), for α ∈ SL2 (Q) put g(z) = jα (z)−k f (αz). Then g ◦ γ = ±g for every γ ∈ α−1 Γ α ∩ P. Now (α−1 Γ α ∩ P ){±1}/{±1} is a cyclic group generated by an element of the 1 tα form with 0 < tα ∈ Q. Therefore g(z + 2tα ) = g(z), and so g(z) = 0 1 m∈Z cα (m)e(mz/rα ) with rα = 2tα and cα (m) ∈ C. Suppose f is slowly increasing at every cusp. Then |g(z)| ≤ Ay c for y > B as in (6.9a). Put q = e(z/rα ) and h(q) = m∈Z cα (m)q m . Since |q| = exp(−2πy/rα ), we see that limq→0 qh(q) = 0, which means that cα (m) = 0 for m ≤ 0. Thus f satisﬁes (3.4d), and so f ∈ Mk . Suppose f is rapidly decreasing at every cusp. Then limq→0 h(q) = 0, and so cα (0) = 0. Thus f ∈ S k . Conversely, given f ∈ Mk , let jα (z)−k f (αz) = ∞ α ) as in m=0 cα (m)e(mz/r ∞ (3.4d). Put q = e(z/rα ). Then jα−k f (αz) = h(q) with h(q) = m=0 cα (m)q m . Since h is a holomorphic function for |q| < 1, there is a constant A such that |h(q)| ≤ A for |q| < 1/2. Thus f is slowly increasing at every cusp. Next suppose f ∈ S k ; then cα (0) = 0, and so |h(q)| ≤ A |q| for |q| < 1/2 with a positive constant A . Consequently, |Im(αz)k/2 f (αz)| < Ay k/2 exp(−2πy/rα ) if y > B with a suitable B, and so f satisﬁes (6.9b). Assertion (iii) is clear. To prove (iv), put (6.10a) T = x + iy ∈ C |x| ≤ 1/2, y > 1/2 . Since T contains a fundamental domain for Γ (1)\H, we can ﬁnd a ﬁnite subset E of Γ (1) such that Γ εT. (6.10b) H= ε∈E

Then |Im(εz) f (εz)| ≤ A · Im(z) for every ε ∈ E and z ∈ T with some A and c. Given z ∈ H, we can put z = γεw with some γ ∈ Γ, ε ∈ E, and k/2 f (γεw)| = |Im(εw)k/2 f (εw)| ≤ w ∈ T. Then |Im(z)k/2 f (z)| = |Im(γεw) ∗ ∗ A · Im(w)c . Let (γε)−1 = . If r = 0, then Im(w) = Im(z) since r s −1 −2 −1 (γε) ∈ Γ (1) ∩ P. If r = 0, then Im(w) = Im(z)|rz + s| ≤ Im(z) . Thus k/2 c −c |Im(z) f (z)| ≤ A Im(z) + Im(z) , which proves (iv). If f is as in (v), then |Im(εz)k/2 f (εz)| < Ay −c for every ε ∈ E and z ∈ T with some A and c > 0. Then we easily see that |Im(εz)k/2 f (εz)| is bounded on T. Since |Im(z)k/2 f (z)| is a Γ -invariant function on H and H = ε∈E Γ εT, we obtain (v). This completes the proof. k/2

c

6.5. Given f, g ∈ Ck (Γ ), we put f¯gy k dz, (6.11) f, g = μ(Φ)−1 Φ

Φ = Γ \H.

34

II. THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

The integral over Φ is formally meaningful, since f¯gy k is Γ -invariant, as can be seen from (6.3). We call f, g the inner product of f and g if the integral is convergent, in which case we easily see that the quantity of (6.11) is independent of the choice of Γ. The integral is convergent if f g is rapidly decreasing at every cusp. Indeed, by Lemma 6.4(v), |y k f g| is bounded on the whole H, which implies that the integral of (6.11) is convergent, since Φ y −2 dxdy < ∞. We easily see that f k α, gk α = f, g

(6.12)

/ Z, then we either assume that α ∈ P Γ θ , for every α ∈ SL2 (Q). Here, if k ∈ −k or put f k α = κjα (z) f (αz) with κ ∈ T and any choice of a branch of jα (z)−k . We also note an easy fact: tk f (tz), g(tz) = f, g if 0 < t ∈ Q.

(6.12a)

Lemma 6.6. The inner product f, g is meaningful for every f, g ∈ M 1/2 , even when neither f nor g is a cusp form. Proof. In this proof we put k = 1/2. Take Γ ⊂ Γ (2) so that f, g ∈ M k (Γ ), and take T and E as in (6.10a, b). For each ε ∈ E put fε (z) = jε (z)−k f (εz) and gε (z) = jε (z)−k g(εz) with any choice of a branch of jε (z)−k . Then fε , gε ∈ M k by Lemma 5.4, and so by Lemma 6.2(i), |fε gε | ≤ Aε on T with a constant Aε . Since Γ \H is covered by ε∈E εT, we have k f, g ≤ |f gy k | ◦ ε dz. |f g|y dz = ε∈E

εT

ε∈E

T

Now |f gy | ◦ ε = y |fε gε | ≤ Aε y on T, and so f, g ≤ Aε y k−2 dxdy = Aε k

k

k

ε∈E

T

ε∈E

∞

y −3/2 dy < ∞.

1/2

This proves our lemma. 6.7. We put y = Im(z) and view it as a real-valued function on H as we have done in previous sections. For k ∈ R we deﬁne diﬀerential operators ε, δk , and Lk acting on C ∞ functions f on H by (6.13a) (6.13b) (6.13c)

εf = −y 2 ∂f /∂z, ∂f kf + , δk f = y −k (∂/∂z)(y k f ) = 2iy ∂z

2 ∂ ∂ ∂2 Lk = 4δk−2 ε = −y 2 + 2iky = 4εδk − k, + 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z

and deﬁne also δkp for 0 ≤ p ∈ Z inductively by (6.13d)

δkp+1 = δk+2p δkp ,

δk1 = δk ,

For every α ∈ GL+ 2 (R) these operators satisfy

δk0 = 1.

6. HOLOMORPHIC AND NONHOLOMORPHIC MODULAR FORMS ON H1 35

(6.14a)

ε(f k α) = (εf )k−2 α,

(6.14b) (6.14c)

δk (f k α) = (δk f )k+2 α, p δk (f k α) = (δkp f )k+2p α,

(6.14d)

Lk (f k α) = (Lk f )k α.

Here f k α for k ∈ / Z can be deﬁned by (f k α)(z) = jα (z)−k f (αz) with any choice of a branch of jα (z)−k . Then we deﬁne (f k+2p α)(z) with jα (z)−k−2p = jα (z)−k jα (z)−2p for every p ∈ Z. From (6.13c) we easily obtain (6.14e)

Lk−2 ε = ε(Lk − k + 2),

Lk+2 δk = δk (Lk + k).

To prove the above formulas, we ﬁrst note that −2 ∂f ∂f ∂ ∂ f (αz) = (αz)jα (z)−2 , f (αz) = (αz)jα (z) . (6.15) ∂z ∂z ∂ z¯ ∂ z¯ Employing (6.3) and (6.15), we have k δk f k α = y −k (∂/∂z) y k jα−k f (αz) = y −k (∂/∂z) y(αz)k jα f (αz) k k = y −k jα (∂/∂z) (y k f ) ◦ α = y −k jα jα−2 {(∂/∂z)(y k f )}(αz) = jα−k−2 y(αz)−k {(∂/∂z)(y k f )}(αz) = (δk f )k+2 α, which gives (6.14b). Formula (6.14a) can be proved in a similar way. Then (6.14c) and (6.14d) follow immediately from (6.14a, b). From (6.2) we easily see that y −2(dx2 + dy 2 ) is a Riemannian metric on H invariant under SL2 (R). Therefore −L0 is exactly the Laplace-Beltrami operator with respect to this metric. Theorem 6.8. Let f ∈ Ck (Γ ) and h ∈ Ck−2 (Γ ) with a congruence subgroup Γ. Then (6.16)

f, δk−2 h = εf, h,

provided f h, f · δk−2 h and (εf )h are rapidly decreasing at every cusp. Proof. Replacing Γ by Γ ∩ Γ (4) if necessary, we may assume that Γ ⊂ Γ (4). Then Γ has no elements of ﬁnite order other than 1. Throughout the proof, we put y = Im(z). For 0 < r ∈ R put Mr = z ∈ H y = r . (6.17) Tr = z ∈ H y > r , Take a ﬁnite Then Γ \(Q ∪ {∞}) is repre X ofΓ (1) as in (6.10). subset Qξ = ξ −1 Γ ξ ∩ P for each ξ ∈ X. Then sented by ξ(∞) ξ ∈ X . Put ξQξ ξ −1 = γ ∈ Γ γξ(∞) = ξ(∞) . Now Γ \(H ∪ Q ∪ {∞}) can be viewed as a compact Riemann surface. We can ﬁnd a suﬃciently large r such that the set ξ(Qξ \Tr ) for ξ ∈ X can be embedded in Γ \H without overlap. Let K be the complement of ξ∈X ξ(Qξ \Tr ) in Γ \H. Then K is a compact manifold with boundary, and

36

II. THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

∂K =

ξ(Bξ ),

Bξ = Qξ \Mr .

ξ∈X

Let ϕ be a Γ -invariant C ∞ 1-form on H. Then dϕ = ϕ= ϕ ◦ ξ. K

∂K

ξ∈X

Bξ

Given f and h as in our theorem, take ϕ = f¯hy k−2 d¯ z . Then dϕ = (∂/∂z)(f¯hy k−2 )dz ∧ d¯ z k−2 ¯ ¯ z. = (∂ f /∂z)hy + f (∂h/∂z)y k−2 + (−i/2)(k − 2)f¯hy k−3 dz ∧ d¯ Since dz ∧ d¯ z = −2idx ∧ dy and (∂ f¯/∂z) = (∂f /∂ z¯), we see that (6.18)

(2i)−1 dϕ = εf · hy k−4 dx ∧ dy − f¯ · (δk−2 h)y k−2 dx ∧ dy.

Thus

εf · hy k−4 dx ∧ dy −

K

f¯ · (δk−2 h)y k−2 dx ∧ dy = (2i)−1

K

ξ∈X

ϕ ◦ ξ.

Bξ

We now take the limit assumption the left-hand side when r → ∞. By our z with converges to μ(Γ \H) εf, h − f, δk−2 h . We have ϕ ◦ ξ = pξ (z)d¯ −2 k−2 k−1 ¯ ¯ pξ (z) = jξ (z) (f hy ) ◦ ξ. Notice that y|p | ◦ ξ. Now Qξ is ξ (z)| = |f hy 1 tξ with 0 < tξ ∈ Q, and so Qξ \Mr generated by a matrix of the form 0 1 can be identiﬁed with the line segment x + ir 0 ≤ x ≤ tξ . Thus tξ pξ (x + ir)dx. ϕ ◦ ξ ≤ Bξ

0

Suppose f h is rapidly decreasing at every cusp; then |pξ (x + iy)| ≤ Aξ y −c with positive constants Aξ and c for suﬃciently large y. Therefore we obtain our theorem. Corollary 6.9. (i) Let Γ be a congruence subgroup and let f ∈ S k . Then f, δk−2 h = 0 for every h ∈ Ck−2 (Γ ) such that both h and δk−2 h are slowly increasing at every cusp. (ii) Let f ∈ Ck (Γ ). Suppose both f and εf are rapidly decreasing at every cusp and Lk f = 0. Then f ∈ S k . (iii) Let f, g ∈ Ck (Γ ). Then under a suitable condition (see the following Proof) we have (6.19) (6.20)

f, Lk g = Lk f, g, f, Lk f ≥ 0.

Proof. Let f and h be as in (i). Then, by Lemma 6.4(ii), both f h and f δk−2 h are rapidly decreasing at every cusp. Since f is holomorphic, we have εf = 0, and so f, δk−2 h = 0 by (6.16). This proves (i). Next let f be as

6. HOLOMORPHIC AND NONHOLOMORPHIC MODULAR FORMS ON H1 37

in (ii). Then δk−2 εf = 4−1 Lk f = 0, and so εf, εf = f, δk−2 εf = 0 by (6.16). Thus εf = 0, which means that f is holomorphic, and so f ∈ S k by Lemma 6.4(ii). As for (iii), we have, by (6.16), f, δk−2 εg = εf, εg = δk−2 εf, g, which gives (6.19). To justify the last sequence of equalities, we need some conditions on f and g as stated in Theorem 6.8, which are often easy to verify, and so we leave the precise statements to the reader. If we take f = g, then f, Lk f = 4εf, εf ≥ 0, which proves (6.20). This completes the proof. Remark. In Corollary 6.9(ii) the condition on εf is unnecessary. This will be explained after the proof of Lemma 9.3. Lemma 6.10. If f ∈ M k (Γ ), then δkp f for every p ∈ Z, ≥ 0, belongs to Ck+2p (Γ ), and is slowly increasing at every cusp. Moreover, it is rapidly decreasing at every cusp if f ∈ S k . Proof. That δkp f ∈ Ck+2p (Γ ) follows from (6.14c). Let α ∈ Γ (1) and g(z) = jα (z)−k f (αz) = m∈Z cα (m)e(mz/rα ) as in (3.4d). By (6.14c) we have jα (z)−k−2p (δkp f )(αz) = δkp g(z), and by induction on p we easily see p that δkp g = ν=0 aν y −ν (∂/∂z)p−ν g with aν ∈ C, and so p ∞ aν y −ν cα (m)(2πim/rα )p−ν e(mz/rα ). δkp g(z) = ν=0

m=0

Since cα (m) = O(mk ) by Lemma 6.2(iii), we can easily verify the inequality of (6.9a) for δkp g. If f ∈ S k , then cα (0) = 0, and so δkp g satisﬁes (6.9b). Thus we obtain our lemma. 6.11. We have been discussing modular forms as functions on H. Instead, we can treat them as functions on SL2 (R) or its us explain the covering. Let idea in the case k ∈ Z for simplicity. Put K = α ∈ SL2 (R) t αα = 12 and ρ(ξ) = jξk (i)−1 for ξ ∈ K. Then ρ is a continuous homomorphism of K into T. Given f ∈ Ck (Γ ), deﬁne a function f˜ on SL2 (R) by f˜(α) = (f k α)(i) for α ∈ SL2 (R). Then f˜(γα) = f˜(α) for every γ ∈ Γ and f˜(αξ) = ρ(ξ)f˜(α) for every ξ ∈ K. In this way we can associate with f a function on Γ \G belonging to a representation ρ of K. One consequence of this association is that the action of the diﬀerential operators ε and δkp corresponds to that of some elements of the universal enveloping algebra U of the Lie algebra of SL2 (R). This approach gives a certain conceptual perspective, and even clariﬁes some technical points, especially when we deal with higher-dimensional Lie groups and symmetric spaces. In this book, however, we stay within the traditional framework of functions on H. The reader who is interested in the higher-dimensional cases and also in the Lie-theoretical treatment of this topic is referred to the author’s articles as follows: the operators in the higher-dimensional cases are discussed in [S94],

38

II. THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

[S00, Sections 12 and A8], and [S04, Section A1]; the connection with U is explained in [S90, Section 7], and [S02, vol. IV, pp. 739–740]. In particular, (6.16) formulated on a Lie group G can be given in the form Xf · h dμ = − f · Xh dμ, (6.21) Γ \G

Γ \G

where X is an element of the Lie algebra of G. However, in almost all papers and textbooks this is proved under the condition that f and h have compact support, or under a similar strong condition, which makes its application impractical. The fact under a much weaker condition is given in [S00, p. 287, Lemma A8.3].

CHAPTER III

THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

7. The rationality of modular forms 7.1. We employ the symbols Q and Qab deﬁned in §0.1, which are the algebraic closure of Q in C and the maximal abelian extension of Q in Q. We also denote by Aut(C) the group of all ring-automorphisms of C, and for σ ∈ Aut(C) and x ∈ C we denote by xσ the image of x under σ. Thus, for τ ∈ Aut(C) the product στ is deﬁned by xστ = (xσ )τ . These are consistent with what we said in §0.4. Given two subﬁelds K and L of a ﬁeld M, we denote by KL their composite, that is, the subﬁeld of M generated by K and L. Putting H∗ = H ∪ Q ∪ {∞}, we recall the basic fact that for a congruence subgroup Γ of SL2 (Q) the orbit space Γ \H∗ has a structure of compact Riemann surface, which can naturally be viewed as an algebraic curve deﬁned over C; for this the reader is referred to [S71]. (In the present book we mean by an algebraic curve a nonsingular projective curve.) We denote by A0 (Γ ) the ﬁeld of all Γ -invariant meromorphic functions on H which can be viewed as meromorphic functions on the compact Riemann surface Γ \H∗ , and put ∞ A0 Γ (N ) . (7.0) A0 = N =1

If f ∈ A0 , we can put (7.1)

f (z) =

an e(nz/t)

n0 ≤n∈Z

with n0 ∈ Z, 0 < t ∈ Z and an ∈ C. For a subﬁeld Φ of C we denote by A0 (Φ) the set of all f ∈ A0 such that an ∈ Φ for every n, and put A0 (Γ, Φ) = A0 (Φ) ∩ A0 (Γ ). If A0 (Γ ) = CA0 (Γ, Φ), then the curve Γ \H∗ has a model over Φ. Now we have: Theorem 7.2. (i) A0 Γ (N ) = CA0 Γ (N ), Q for every N ∈ Z, > 0. (ii) Given σ ∈ Aut(C) and f ∈ A0 as in (7.1), there exists an element f σ of A0 such that aσn e(nz/t). (7.2) f σ (z) = n0 ≤n∈Z

G. Shimura, Modular Forms: Basics and Beyond, Springer Monographs in Mathematics, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-2125-2_3, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

39

40

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

(iii) A0 (Γ ) = CA0 (Γ, Qab ) for every congruence subgroup Γ of SL2 (Q). Proof. The ﬁrst assertion is proved in [S71, Proposition 6.9]. To prove (ii), let A denote the set of all formal inﬁnite sums of the form (7.1). We easily see that A is a ﬁeld containing A0 . For f ∈ A as in (7.1) and σ ∈ σ Aut(C) deﬁne f σ ∈ A of by (7.2). Clearly f → f is an automorphism A. Let f ∈ A0 Γ (N ) . By (i) we can put f = ( μ cμ gμ )/( ν dν hν ) with ﬁnitely many elements cμ , dν ∈ C and gμ , hν ∈ A0 Γ (N ), Q . Viewing this expression of f as an equality in A0 and applying σ to it, we obtain f σ = ( μ cσμ gμ )/( ν dσν hν ), since gμσ = gμ and hσν = hν . This shows that f σ ∈ A0 , which proves (ii). As for (iii), a detailed discussion about the ﬁelds of deﬁnition for Γ \H∗ is given in [S71, Section 6.7], which includes (iii); see especially Propositions 6.27 and 6.30 of the book. 7.3. We next consider M k with 0 ≤ k ∈ 2−1 Z and deﬁne f σ for f ∈ M k . In fact, we do this for a more general class of functions. Namely we consider a weight k ≥ 0 and a function f on H such that m ca (ξ)(πy)−a e(ξz), y = Im(z), (7.3a) f (z) = 0≤ξ∈Q a=0

(7.3b)

f k γ = f for every γ ∈ Γ,

where 0 ≤ m ∈ Z, ca (ξ) ∈ C, and Γ is a congruence subgroup of SL2 (Q), / Z. One more condition: which is contained in Γ θ if k ∈ (7.3c) For every α ∈ SL2 (Q) the function jα (z)−k f (αz) can be written in the form (7.3a). Since (7.3b) implies that f (z + t) = f (z) for some t ∈ Z, > 0, we have ca (ξ) = 0 in (7.3a) only for tξ ∈ Z. Then we denote by N m k (Γ ) the set of all f satisfying (7.3a, b, c), and put ∞ m Nk = ∞ (7.3d) N km = N =1 N km Γ (2N ) , m=0 N k . For a subﬁeld Φ of C we denote by N km (Φ) the set of all f ∈ N km such that ca (ξ) in (7.3a) belongs to Φ for every a and ξ; we then put N km (Γ, Φ) = N km (Γ ) ∩ N km (Φ). We also use these symbols with N k in place of N km , when m is not speciﬁed, or rather N k is understood in the sense of (7.3d). Clearly M k = N k0 ; notice that (7.3c) implies (3.4d) if f ∈ M k . We call an element of N k a nearly holomorphic modular form of weight k. If an element of N k belongs to N k (Φ), then we call it Φ-rational. We put M k (Φ) = M k ∩ N k (Φ), M k (Γ, Φ) = M k (Γ ) ∩ M k (Φ), S k (Φ) = S k ∩ M k (Φ), and S k (Γ, Φ) = S k (Γ ) ∩ M k (Φ). 7.4. Let Γ be a congruence subgroup of Γ (1) such that CA0 (Γ, Q) = A0 (Γ ). Then the curve Γ \H∗ has a Q-rational model V whose function-ﬁeld

7. THE RATIONALITY OF MODULAR FORMS

41

over Q can be identiﬁed with A0 (Γ, Q). We then denote by VC the algebraic curve Γ \H∗ over C in which V is embedded. By a divisor on VC we mean as usual a formal ﬁnite sum A = P ∈VC cP P with cP ∈ Z. We write A A if A = P ∈VC cP P and cP ≥ cP for every P. We also consider a sum B = P ∈VC dP P with dP ∈ Q; we call it a fractional divisor on VC . Given a divisor A we put (7.4) L(A) = {0} ∪ 0 = g ∈ A0 (Γ, C) div(g) −A , (7.4a)

L(A, Φ) = L(A) ∩ A0 (Γ, Φ),

where div(g) is a divisor of g and Φ is a subﬁeld of C. It is well known that if A is Φ-rational, then (7.4b)

L(A) = L(A, Φ) ⊗Φ C.

By Theorem 7.2 we can take Γ (N ) as Γ ; then we denote V by VN . Let p be the natural projection map of VN onto V1 . Then p is deﬁned over Q, since it corresponds to the injection A0 (Γ (1), Q) → A0 (Γ (N ), Q). Let CN be the divisor that is the sum of all inequivalent cusps of ΓN viewed as points of (VN )C . Then C1 is the point on V1 represented by ∞, which is Q-rational. We have p−1 (C1 ) = μN CN with a positive integer μN , and so CN is a Qrational divisor on VN . Now, for 0 = f ∈ M k (Γ (N )) with k ∈ Z we can deﬁne the divisor of f, written div(f ), as a fractional on (VN )C ; see divisor [S71, §2.4]. We can even deﬁne div(f ) for f ∈ M k Γ (N ) with N ∈ 2Z and 4 k ∈ / Z. We merely put div(f ) = (1/4)div(f ), which is well deﬁned, since 4 f ∈ M 4k Γ (N ) as can be seen from Theorem 4.4(iii). Theorem 7.5. Let k be a weight ≥ 0, and let X denote any of the three symbols M , N , and S . For σ ∈ Aut(C) and f ∈ N k given by (7.3a) deﬁne f σ as a formal inﬁnite series by m ca (ξ)σ (πy)−a e(ξz). (7.5) f σ (z) = 0≤ξ∈Q a=0

Then the following assertions hold: (i) We have Xk = Xk (Q) ⊗Q C, and consequently for every f ∈ Xk and σ ∈ Aut(C) the series of (7.5) is convergent and deﬁnes an element of Xk . (ii) For two positive integers M and N put Γ (M, N ) = γ ∈ Γ (1) bγ ∈ M Z, cγ ∈ N Z . (This is clearly a congruence subgroup of Γ (1).) Given a character ψ modulo M N, assuming that M, N ∈ 2Z if k ∈ / Z, put (7.6) Xk (M, N ; ψ) = f ∈ Xk f k γ = ψ(dγ )f for every γ ∈ Γ (M, N ) . Then (iia) Xk (M, N ; ψ)σ = Xk (M, N ; ψ σ ); (iib) Xk (M, N ; ψ) is spanned by its Qab -rational elements.

42

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

(iii) For every subﬁeld Φ of C containing Qab , the set Xk (Φ) is stable under f → (cα z + dα )−k f (αz) for every α ∈ GL+ 2 (Q). (iv) Xk is spanned by Xk (M, N ; ψ) for all combinations of (M, N, ψ). (v) If f (z) = ξ∈Q c(ξ)e(ξz) ∈ M k , then the coeﬃcients c(ξ) belong to a ﬁeld that is ﬁnitely generated over Q. Proof. Before starting our proof, we note that Xk (M, N ; ψ) = {0} only if ψ(−1) = (−1)[k] , since f k (−1) = (−1)[k] f. Now we prove the statements of our theorem ﬁrst for M k and S k . The case of N k will be treated in §7.9. We take η and Δ of (5.12) and assume that 24|N. By Theorem 4.7(2) and (5.12a), η2k ∈ M k Γ (N ), Q for every weight k > 0. Clearly Δ has no zeros in H, and so div(Δ) considered on V1 is C1 . Since e(z/N ) is the local parameter at ∞ on (VN )C and (VN )C is a Galois covering of (V1 )C , we see that div(Δ) considered on VN is N CN . Thus div(η) considered on VN is (N/24)CN . Suppose f ∈ M k Γ (N ) . Put g = f /η 2k and DN = (kN/12)CN . Then g ∈ A0 Γ (N ) and div(g) = div(f )− div(η2k ) −DN , and so g ∈L(DN ). Conversely, given f ∈ M k (Q) g ∈ L(DN ), we easily see that gη2k ∈ M k Γ (N ) . Moreover, 2k if and only if g ∈ A0 Q), and so M k Γ (N ), Q = gη g ∈ L(DN , Q) . Thus from (7.4b) we obtain (7.7) M k Γ (N ) = M k Γ (N ), Q ⊗Q C for every weight k at least when 24|N. Therefore M k = M k (Q) ⊗Q C, and so every element f of M k is a sum f = a∈A aqa with a ﬁnite subset A of C and qa ∈ M k (Q). Then for σ ∈ Aut(C) we see that f σ deﬁned by (7.5) equals a∈A aσ qa , which belongs to M k . This proves (i) for M k . Also, if f is as in (v), then the c(ξ) are contained in the ﬁeld generated by all a ∈ A over Q. This proves (v). To discuss S k , we have to be careful about the contribution of cusps to the divisor in question. To simplify the matter, put tα (z) = η(αz)/η(z) for α ∈ Γ (1). Then tα (z)2 = ζjα (z) with a root of unity ζ, tαβ (z) = tα (βz)tβ (z) for α, β ∈ Γ (1), and by (5.12a), tα (z) = hα (z) if α ∈ Γ (24). Put g|k α = tα (z)−2k g(αz) for a function g on H. Let f ∈ Sk Γ (N ) with N ∈ 24Z. Then for every α ∈ Γ (1), we see that f |k α ∈ S k Γ (N ) and f |k α = ∞ n=1 cα (n)e(nz/N ) with cα (n) ∈ C, and so we see that div(f ) CN , where div(f ) is considered argument about g = f /η2k with f restricted to S k Γ (N ) on VN . The above 2k g ∈ L(DN − CN ) and S k Γ (N ), Q = shows 2k that S k Γ (N ) = gη g ∈ L(DN − CN , Q) . Thus from (7.4b) we obtain gη (7.7b) S k Γ (N ) = S k Γ (N ), Q ⊗Q C (7.7a)

if 24|N. This proves (i) for S k .

7. THE RATIONALITY OF MODULAR FORMS

43

As for (iii), we note that GL+ 2 (Q) is generated by ι, P, and the elements diag[e, 1] with 0 < e ∈ Q, by Lemma 2.2(iv) and (1.3). Thus it is suﬃcient to prove (iii) for α of three such types. The cases with the latter two types are easy. We also note that A0 (Qab ) is stable under ι. (In fact A0 (Qab ) is stable under GL+ 2 (Q); see [S71, Theorem 6.23].) Now let f ∈ M k (Qab ). Then f |k ι ∈ M k by Lemma 5.4, f /η2k ∈ A0 (Qab ), and (f |k ι)/(η 2k |k ι) = (f /η 2k ) ◦ ι ∈ A0 (Qab ). Since η2k |k ι = η 2k , we see that f |k ι ∈ M k (Qab ). Thus we obtain (iii) for M k . Since S k (Qab ) = M k (Qab ) ∩ S k and S k is stable under f → f |k ι as noted at the end of §5.8, we obtain (iii) for S k . To prove (iv), we observe that f → f ||k γ for γ ∈ Γ (N, N ) for even N deﬁnes an action of Γ (N, N )/Γ (N ) on Xk Γ (N ) with X = M or S . (This is so even for N k , provided (iii) is established for N k .) Now the map γ → aγ is a homomorphism of Γ (N, N ) into (Z/N Z)× whose kernel is Γ (N ), and so Xk Γ (N ) as a representation space of Γ (N, N )/Γ (N ), or rather of (Z/N Z)× , can be decomposed as the direct sum of Xk (N, N ; ψ) with the characters ψ modulo N such that ψ(−1) = (−1)[k] , from which we can easily derive (iv). As for (ii), we ﬁrst prove: Lemma 7.6. (i) Given σ ∈ Aut(C), three positive integers M, N, K such that K ∈ M Z∩N Z, and γ ∈ Γ (M, N ), there exists an element β ∈ Γ(M, N) such that dβ − dγ ∈ KZ and f σ k γ = (f k β)σ for every f ∈ M k Γ (K) , where we assume that both M and N are even if k ∈ / Z. / Z and even M, N, deﬁne (ii) For f ∈ M k (M, N ; ψ)∩ M k (Qab ) with k ∈ −1 ¯ ∩ . Then f X ∈ M k (2, M N ; ψρ) f X by f X (z) = (−iN z)−k

f − (N z) N , and for every σ ∈ Gal(Qab /Q) we have M k (Qab ), with ρ(d) = d

[k] −1 σ X σ X σ and s is an integer prime (f ) = χ(s) (f ) , where χ(d) = ψ(d) d σ to M N such that e(1/M N ) = e(s/M N ). Proof. We put G = GL2 (Q) and deﬁne the adelization GA of G as usual; see [S71, §6.4] or [S97, Section 8]. We also put Ga+ = GL+ 2 (R) and deﬁne subgroups GA+ , U, and UN of GA by (7.7c) GA+ = x ∈ GA xa ∈ Ga+ , U = Ga+ p GL2 (Zp ), (7.7d) UN = x ∈ U xp − 1 ≺ N Zp for every p , where xa resp. xp denotes the archimedean component resp. p-component of x, and p is the product over all prime numbers p. Notice that Γ (1) = SL2 (Q) ∩ U and Γ (N ) = SL2 (Q) ∩ U (N ). We can let GA+ act on A0 (Qab ) as a group of automorphisms; see [S71, Theorem 6.23]. This action can be ex∞ tended to the graded algebra k=0 Ak (Qab ), where Ak (Qab ) is the A0 (Qab )linear span of M k (Qab ). This is explained in [S07, Section A5]. Namely, there

44

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

∞ is an action of GA+ on k=0 Ak (Qab ), written (x, f ) → f [x] for x ∈ GA+ and f ∈ Ak (Qab ), with the following properties: (7.8a) The map f → f [x] gives a Q-linear map of Ak (Qab ) onto itself. (7.8b) (f [x] )[y] = f [xy] , (f g)[x] = f [x] g [x] . (7.8c) f [α] = (cα z + dα )−k f (αz) if α ∈ GL+ 2 (Q). [u] {t} −1 if u = diag[1, t ] with t ∈ p Z× (7.8d) f = f p , where {t} is the image of t under the canonical homomorphism of Q× A onto Gal(Qab /Q) and f {t} is understood in the sense of (7.5). (7.8e) For f, g ∈ Ak (Qab ), g = 0, we have f [x] /g [x] = (f /g)τ (x) with τ (x) deﬁned in [S71, §6.6]. (7.8f) Given f ∈ Ak (Qab ), there exists M ∈ Z, > 0, such that f [v] = f for every v ∈ UM . (7.8g) If t ∈ p Z× p , s ∈ Z, 0 < N ∈ Z, and stp − 1 ∈ N Zp for all prime numbers p, then e(1/N ){t} = e(s/N ). We put Ak Γ (N ), Qab = f ∈ Ak (Qab ) f k γ = f for every γ ∈ Γ (N ) and prove (7.9) f [w] = f for every f ∈ Ak Γ (N ), Qab and w ∈ UN ∩ SL2 (Q)A . To prove this, given f ∈ M k Γ (N ), Qab , take M as in (7.8f). We may assume that N |M. Put WN = UN ∩ SL2 (Q)A . By strong approximation (see [S71, Lemma 6.15]), SL2 (Q)A = WM SL2 (Q), and so if w ∈ WN , then w = yγ with y ∈ WM and γ ∈ SL2 (Q). We see that γ ∈ UN ∩ SL2 (Q) = Γ (N ) and f [y] = f by (7.8f). Thus f [w] = f [y][γ] = f [γ] = f k γ = f, which proves (7.9). when f ∈ M k Γ (K), In view of (7.7) it is suﬃcient to prove (i) of our lemma Q . Let σ ∈ Aut(C) and γ ∈ Γ (M, N ). We can ﬁnd t ∈ p Z× p such that σ = −1 {t} on Qab . Put u = diag[1, t ]. Again by strong approximation, uγu−1 = xβ with x ∈ WK and β ∈ SL2 (Q). Then dβ − dγ ∈ KZ, β ∈ Γ (M, N ), and f [uγ] = f [xβu] . By (7.8c, d), f [uγ] = f σ k γ and by (7.9), f [xβu] = f [βu] = (f k β)[u] = (f k β){t} = (f k β)σ . This proves (i) for integral k. Γ (K), Q . Put m = k − 1/2. Suppose k ∈ / Z and M, N ∈ 2Z; let f ∈ M k −1 Then θ f ∈ Am Γ (K), Q , and the above argument with f replaced by σ θ−1 f shows that (θ−1 f )σ m γ = (θ−1 f )m β . We have (θ−1 f )σ m γ = (θ1/2 γ)−1 (f σ k γ), (θ−1 f )m β = (θ1/2 β)−1 (f k β), and θ1/2 γ = θ1/2 β = θ, and so we obtain our lemma when k ∈ / Z. This completes the proof of (i). As for (ii), f X ∈ M k (Qab ) by Theorem 7.5(iii). Now take t ∈ p Z× p and s ∈ Z so that σ = {t} on Qab and stp − 1 ∈ M N Zp for all prime num0 −1 ,u= bers p. Then e(1/M N )σ = e(s/M N ) by (7.8g). Put α = N 0

7. THE RATIONALITY OF MODULAR FORMS

45

diag[1, t−1 ], and v = diag[t−1 , t]. Take γ ∈ Γ (1) so that γ − vp ≺ M N Zp for all prime numbers p. Then αu = vuα. Put g = θ−2k f. Then g ∈ A0 (Qab ). [k]

−1 2k Since θ ∈ M k (2, 2; ϕ) with ϕ(d) = , we see that g ◦ ε = χ(dε )g d for every ε ∈ Γ (M, N ), where χ = ψϕ. By (7.9), g ◦ γ = g [v] , and so ¯ σ g σ ◦ α. Now θ − (g ◦ α)σ = g [αu] = g [vuα] = (g ◦ γ)σ ◦ α = χ(dγ )σ g σ ◦ α = χ(s) −1 1/2 2k X 2k (N z) = (−iN z) θ(N z), and so (θ ) = θ (N z). Since θσ = θ, we have 2k X σ 2k σ X = (θ ) . We have f X = (θ2k )X g ◦ α = θ2k (N z)g ◦ α. We easily (θ ) see that g ◦ α ◦ δ = χ(d ¯ δ )g ◦ α for every δ ∈ Γ (1, M N ) and θ2k (N z) belongs ¯ and to M k (2, N ; ϕρ) with ρ as in our lemma. Thus f X ∈ M k (2, M N ; ψρ), X σ 2k X σ σ 2k σ σ σ X (f ) = (θ ) (g ◦ α) = χ(s) ¯ θ (N z)g ◦ α = χ(s) ¯ (f ) . This proves (ii) and completes the proof. 7.7. We now prove Theorem 7.5(iia) for M k and S k . Put K = M N. Given σ ∈ Aut(C), f ∈ M k (M, N ; ψ), and γ ∈ Γ (M, N ). take β ∈ Γ (M, N ) as in Lemma 7.6. Then f σ k γ = (f k β)σ = ψ(dβ )σ f σ = ψ(dγ )σ f σ , and so f σ ∈ M k (M, N ; ψ σ ), which proves Theorem 7.5(iia) for M k . Then the case of S k follows immediately. Theorem 7.5(iib) will be proven in §7.9. To prove Theorem 7.5 for N k , we ﬁrst put ∞ 1 1 − + (7.10) E2 (z) = d e(nz), 8πy 24 n=1 0 a > 0,

which can easily be veriﬁed. From the deﬁnition of Dk and (6.14b), we easily see that (i) is true if p = 1. Then the general case can be proved by induction on p. To prove (iii), suppose f of (7.13) belongs to N k (Γ, Φ); suppose also k ∈ Z for the moment. For γ ∈ SL2 (Q) we have (y ◦ γ)−a = |jγ |2a y −a and j γ = jγ − 2icγ y, and so t (πy)−a jγa−k (jγ − 2icγ y)a (fa ◦ γ), (7.15) f k γ = a=0

t

which can be written a=0 (πy)−a gaγ with holomorphic functions gaγ . Viewing this as a polynomial in y −1 and comparing the coeﬃcients of y −t , we obtain gtγ = jγ2t−k (ft ◦ γ), that is, gtγ = ft k−2t γ, because the function y −1 is an algebraically independent variable over the ﬁeld of meromorphic functions on H. In particular, gtγ = ft if γ ∈ Γ, and so ft k−2t γ = ft for γ ∈ Γ. By condition (7.3c), gtγ has a Fourier expansion ﬁnite at ∞ for every γ ∈ SL2 (Q). This shows that ft ∈ M k−2t (Γ ). Therefore, if t > 0 and ft = 0, then k ≥ 2t. Consequently, t = 0 if k < 2, which proves (iii). We prove (ii) for f ∈ N kt (Γ, Φ) as above with ft = 0 by induction on t. We have seen that ft ∈ M k−2t (Γ ). This combined with the deﬁnition of N kt (Γ, Φ) shows that ft ∈ M k−2t (Γ, Φ). Suppose k = 2t; then ft ∈ M 0 (Γ, Φ) = Φ. From (7.14) we see that D2t−1 E2 = b(πy)−t + q with b ∈ Q× and q ∈ At−1 . Put p = f − (ft /b)D2t−1 E2 . Then p ∈ N kt−1 (Γ, Φ). In particular, if k = 2, then p ∈ N 2 (Γ, Φ) ∩ A0 = M 2 (Γ, Φ), which settles the problem. If k > 2, we apply induction to p. Thus we obtain (ii) when k = 2t. It remains to consider the case k > 2t > 0. Then ft ∈ M k−2t (Γ, Φ), and by (7.14) we see that t t Dk−2t ft = c(πy)−t ft +r with c ∈ Q× and r ∈ At−1 . Put g = f −c−1 Dk−2t ft . t−1 Then g ∈ N k (Γ, Φ), and applying induction to g, we can complete the proof of (ii). So far we have assumed k ∈ Z. The case k ∈ / Z can be proved in the same way; we have only to make the meaning of f k α or jγ−k precise, which can easily be done. Our proof is now complete. 7.9. We now return to Theorem 7.5 and prove the assertions concerning N k . Given σ ∈ Aut(C) and f as in (7.3a), deﬁne f σ formally by (7.5). Clearly E2σ = E2 . Also, we can easily verify that (Dk f )σ = Dk f σ for every

7. THE RATIONALITY OF MODULAR FORMS

47

f ∈ N k , and so (Dkp f )σ = Dkp f σ for every p. Since Theorem 7.5(i) for M k was proved, from Lemma 7.8(ii) we obtain Theorem 7.5(i) for N k . As for (iii), it is suﬃcient to prove it for α = diag[e, 1] with 0 < e ∈ Q, α ∈ P, and α ∈ Γ (1). The ﬁrst two cases are clear. If α ∈ Γ (1), we have E2 2 α = E2 , and so the desired result follows from Lemma 7.8(ii), (6.14c), and Theorem 7.5(iii) for M k . To prove Theorem 7.5(iia) for N k , we consider the sum expression for f as in Lemma 7.8(ii), and take γ and β in Γ (M, N ) as in the ﬁrst paragraph of p gp )σ k γ = §7.7. Since they are independent of the weight k, we have (Dk−2p p p p (Dk−2p gpσ )k γ = Dk−2p (gpσ k−2p γ) = Dk−2p (gp k−2p β)σ by (6.14c); sim(k/2)−1

(k/2)−1

E2 )σ k γ = D2 (E2 2 β)σ , and so f σ k γ = (f k β)σ , ilarly (D2 from which we obtain Theorem 7.5(iia) for N k . Theorem 7.5(iv) for N k was proved in the paragraph above Lemma 7.6. It remains to prove Theorem 7.5(iib). From Lemma 7.8(ii) and (7.7) we obtain (7.16) N k Γ (N ) = N k Γ (N ), Q ⊗Q C if 24|N. We apply Lemma 2.11 to the present setting with Xk Γ (N0 ), Qab , Qab , and ˜} C as V, F, and K in that lemma, where N0 = 24M N ; we also take {α there to be the set of the maps f → f γ − ψ(d )f for all γ ∈ Γ (M, N ). k γ Then W = V ⊗F K = Xk Γ (N0 ) by (7.7), (7.7b), and (7.16). By Theorem 7.5(iii) that is already proved, V is stable under these maps. Then α) = Xk (M, N ; ψ) and α∈A Ker(α) = Xk (M, N ; ψ) ∩ Xk (Qab ). α∈A Ker(˜ Therefore Lemma 2.11 gives Theorem 7.5(iib), and the proof of Theorem 7.5 is now complete. We add here two remarks. First, in (5.14) we deﬁned fρ for f ∈ M k . If we mean by ρ the complex conjugation in C, then this coincides with f ρ deﬁned by (7.5). However, we employ fρ in addition to f ρ for some notational reasons. Next, we assumed 24|N in (7.7) and (7.7b) merely for expediency. In fact, we can prove better and more comprehensive results as follows. Theorem 7.10. Let X denote M , S , or N as in Theorem 7.5 and let k ∈ 2−1 Z, > 0. Then the following assertions hold. (i) For every congruence subgroup Γ of Γ (1) the set Xk (Γ ) is spanned by / Z. its Qab -rational elements, provided Γ ⊂ Γ θ if k ∈ (ii) Let Γ denote any one of the groups Γ0 (N ), Γ1 (N ), Γ (M, N ), and cγ ∈ N Z Γ (N ) with positive integers M and N, where Γ (N ) = γ ∈ Γ (1) 0 and Γ1 (N ) = γ ∈ Γ0 (N ) dγ − 1 ∈ N Z . Then Xk (Γ ) = Xk (Γ, Q) ⊗Q C, provided Γ ⊂ Γ θ if k ∈ / Z. Proof. To prove (i), take a multiple N0 of 24 so that Γ (N0 ) ⊂ Γ. We then

48

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

apply Lemma 2.11 to the present setting by taking Xk Γ (N0 ), Qab , Qab , and C to be V, F, and K in that lemma. We also take {α ˜ } there to be the set of the maps f → f k γ − f for all γ ∈ Γ. Then W = V ⊗F K = Xk Γ (N0 ) by (7.7), (7.7b), and (7.16). By Theorem 7.5(iii), V is stable under these α) = Xk (Γ ) and α∈A Ker(α) = Xk (Γ, Qab ), and so maps. Then α∈A Ker(˜ we obtain (i) from Lemma 2.11. Given Γ as in (ii), we note (7.17) Xk (Γ )σ = Xk (Γ ) for every σ ∈ Aut(C). This in Theorem 7.5(iia) if Γ is Γ0(N ) or Γ (M, N ), because is included Xk Γ0 (N ) = Xk (1, N ; χ0 and Xk Γ (M, N ) = Xk (M, N ; χ0 , where character. Now, as shown in the proof of Theorem 7.5(iv), χ0 is the trivial Xk Γ (N ) is the sum of Xk (N, N ; ψ) for all characters ψ of (Z/N Z)× such that ψ(−1) = (−1)[k] , and so (7.17) for Γ = Γ (N ) follows from Theorem 7.5(iia). Also, (7.17) for X = N follows from Lemma 7.8(ii) combined with (7.17) for X = M . Therefore we have only to prove (7.17) for X = M or S when Γ = Γ1 (N ). Clearly M k Γ1 (N ) = f ∈ M k Γ (N ) f k γ = f for every γ ∈ Γ1 (N ) . Let f ∈ M k Γ1 (N ) , γ ∈ Γ1 (N ), and σ ∈ Aut(C). Taking M = 1 and N = K in Lemma 7.6(i), we have f σ k γ = (f k β)σ with some β ∈ Γ1 (N ). Then we ﬁnd that f σk γ = f σ , and so f σ ∈ M k Γ1 (N ) , which proves (7.17) when Xk (Γ ) = M k Γ1 (N ) . The case of S k follows from this immediately, since S σk = S k . To prove (ii), in view of (i), it is suﬃcient to show that Xk (Γ, Qab ) is spanned by its Q-rational elements. Take a Qab -basis B of Xk (Γ, Qab ). By Theorem 7.5(v) and Lemma 7.8(ii) we can ﬁnd a ﬁnite extension K of Q contained in Qab such that every member of B is K-rational. By (7.17), Xk (Γ, K)σ = Xk (Γ, K) for every σ ∈ Gal(K/Q). Therefore Xk (Γ, K) = Xk (Γ, Q) ⊗Q K by Lemma 2.13. This proves (ii) and completes the proof. Lemma 7.11. Every element of N k is slowly increasing at every cusp. Proof. Given f ∈ N k , take the expression for f as in Lemma 7.8(ii). p By Lemma 6.10, Dk−2p gp is slowly increasing at every cusp. Now take E2 in place of g in the proof of Lemma 6.10. Then from the expression (7.10) we easily see that δ2p E2 is slowly increasing at every cusp, and so we obtain our lemma. Lemma 7.12. Given 0 < t ∈ Q, put θt (z, λ) = θ(0, tz; λ) with θ(u, z; λ) as in (4.48b). Then for α ∈ Sp(n, Q) and r(z) = jα (z)1/2 there exists an element μ of L (Qn ) such that θt (αz, λ) = r(z)θt (z, μ). Moreover, if λ is Qab -valued, then so is μ.

7. THE RATIONALITY OF MODULAR FORMS

49

Proof. Put β = diag[t1n , 1n ]α·diag[t1n , 1n ]−1 . Then β ∈ Sp(n, Q), t·α(z) = β(tz), jβ (tz) = jα (z), and θt (αz, λ) = θ(0, β(tz); λ) = r(z)θ(0, tz; μ) with μ ∈ L (Qn ) determined for λ and β by (4.49g). This proves the ﬁrst part of our lemma. Suppose λ is Qab -valued; then θt (z, λ) ∈ M 1/2 (Qab ), and so θt (z, μ) belongs to M 1/2 (Qab ) by Theorem 7.5(iii). This completes the proof when n = 1, since the quoted theorem concerns only that case. However, a similar fact is true in the case n > 1 too, as proved in [S00, Theorem 7.11]. We will later employ this lemma only in the case n = 1. ∞ Lemma 7.13. (i) Let f (z) = n=0 an e(nz/ν) ∈ M k (ν, N/ν; ψ), where 0 < N ∈ Z, ν = 1 if k ∈ Z, and ν = 2 if k ∈ / Z; we assume N ∈ 4Z if k∈ / Z. Let s be the conductor of ψ. Given a character χ modulo rt, where ∞ 0 < t ∈ Z and r is the conductor of χ, put g(z) = n=0 χ(n)an e(nz/ν). Let t0 be the product of all the prime factors of t. Then g ∈ M k (ν, M/ν; χ2 ψ), where M is the least common multiple of N, t20 , r2 , and rs. (ii) Given f as in (i), put h(z) = (n,t)=1 an e(nz/ν) with a positive integer t. Deﬁne t0 as in (i). Then h ∈ M k (ν, M/ν; ψ), where M is the least common multiple of N and t20 . Proof. We ﬁrst prove (i) when χ is primitive, that is, when t = 1.

1 νu/r For u ∈ Z let ξ(u) = . Using (2.3a), we easily see that G(χ)g ¯ = 0 1

r b ν a bν a ∈ Γ (ν, M/ν) and γ χ(u)f ¯ ξ(u). Let γ = = k u=1 M c/ν d M c/ν d 2 2 2 with a = a + M cu/r, b = b + du(1 − ad)/r − cd u M/r , and d = d − cd2 uM/r. Then γ ∈ Γ (ν, M/ν), d − d ∈ sZ, and ξ(u)γ = γ ξ(d2 u). Assuming that k ∈ Z for the moment, we have f k ξ(u)γ = f k γ ξ(d2 u) = ψ(d)f k ξ(d2 u),

(∗) and so G(χ)g ¯ kγ =

r u=1

χ(u)f ¯ k ξ(u)γ = ψ(d)

r

χ(u)f ¯ k ξ(d2 u) = ψ(d)χ(d2 )G(χ)g, ¯

u=1

which proves (i) when k ∈ Z and t = 1. If k ∈ / Z, we have to justify (∗) by checking (4.40) for hγ and hγ . First suppose r is

odd; then 4r2 q

with q ∈ Z,

andso d − d ∈ 4qcZ. Thus M

= Mc 4qc 4qc Mc = , from which we obtain = = εd = εd and d d d d (∗). Next suppose r is even; then r = 2α r1 with α > 1 and an odd r1 . Thus M = 22α r12 q with q ∈ Z and d − d ∈ 4qcZ, and so we obtain (∗) in this case too. This completes the proof of (i) when t = 1. We next prove (ii). Taking the prime decomposition of t, we can reduce the problem to the case where t is a prime number.Assuming this to be so, put t ∞ 1 νu/t . Then u=1 f k η(u) = t. (z) = n=0 atn e(tnz/ν) and η(u) = 0 1

50

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

Deﬁne the matrices γ and γ in the above proof of (i) with t in place of r and M deﬁned as in (ii). Then γ, γ ∈ Γ (ν, M/ν), η(u)γ = γ η(d2 u), and we ﬁnd that f k η(u)γ = f k γ η(d2 u) = ψ(d)f k η(d2 u). Since d is prime to t, we easily see that tk γ = ψ(d)t, and so ∈ M k (ν, M/ν; ψ). We have clearly h = f − , from which we obtain (ii). Finally to prove (i) in the general case, we have only to observe that it can be obtained by combining (ii) and the special case of (i) in which t = 1. This completes the proof. In the proof of Lemma 5.5 we proved (5.8) only when ψ is primitive. That result combined with Lemma 7.3(ii) settles the case of imprimitive ψ. ∞ Lemma 7.14. For f (z) = n=0 c(n)e(nz/N ) ∈ M k Γ (N ) with N ∈ N/ν νZ, put (P f )(z) = (ν/N ) u=1 f (z + νu), where ν is as in Lemma 7.13. ∞ Then (P f )(z) = n=0 c(N n/ν)e(nz/ν), and P f, h = f, P h for every h ∈ S k Γ (N ) . Moreover, if f ∈ M k (N, N ; ψ), then P f ∈ M k (ν, N ; ψ). Proof. The ﬁrst equality for (P f )(z) is easy. Next, for h ∈ S k Γ (N ) we have, by (6.12), ! N/ν " ! N/ν " P f, h = (ν/N ) f (z + νu), h = (ν/N ) f, h(z − νu) = f, P h. u=1

u=1

a bν ∈ Γ (N, N ) deﬁne γ = Suppose f ∈ M k (N, N ; ψ). Given γ = Nc d

a b ν as in the proof of Lemma 7.13 with r = 1 and M = νN. Then N c d we see that γ ∈ Γ (N, N ), d − d ∈ νcN Z, and (∗) in the proof holds with 1 νu ξ(u) = , and so 0 1 N/ν N/ν (P f )k γ = (ν/N ) f k ξ(u)γ = ψ(d)(ν/N ) f k ξ(d2 u) = ψ(d)P f. u=1

u=1

Now (P f )(z + ν) = P f, and Γ (ν, N ) can be generated by Γ (N, N ) and ξ(1), as will be proven in Lemma 8.18. Therefore P f ∈ M k (ν, N ; ψ), which completes the proof. Lemma 7.15. Let K be a multiple of N, and A a complete set of repre- sentatives for Γ (N )/Γ (K); suppose N ∈ 2Z if k ∈ / Z. For f ∈ M k Γ (K) put q(f ) = #(A)−1 γ∈A f k γ. Then q(f ) ∈ M k Γ (N ) , q(f )σ = q(f σ ) for every σ ∈ Aut(C), and f, h = q(f ), h for every h ∈ S k Γ (N ) . Proof. That q(f ) ∈ M k Γ (N ) is easy. For h ∈ S k Γ (N ) we have, by (6.12), ! ! " " −1 −1 −1 f, = f, h. f k γ, h = #(A) hk γ q(f ), h = #(A) γ∈A

γ∈A

8. DIRICHLET SERIES AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

51

Let σ ∈ Aut(C). Then the proof of Lemma 7.6(i) shows that the element β there can be chosen so that γ → β gives an automorphism of Γ (N )/Γ (K). Writing βγ for β, we obtain q(f σ ) = #(A)−1 γ∈A f σ k γ = #(A)−1 γ∈A (f k βγ )σ = q(f )σ . This completes the proof. 8. Dirichlet series and Eisenstein series 8.1. We are going to consider various types of Dirichlet series associated with modular forms. In order to study their analytic properties, the gamma function Γ (s) is essential, and so we ﬁrst recall its basic properties: (8.1a)

Γ (s) is a meromorphic function on the whole C.

(8.1b)

Γ (s)−1 is an entire function.

(8.1c)

Γ (s + 1) = sΓ (s).

(8.1d) The set of poles of Γ consists of 0 and all negative integers, and each pole is of order 1. Γ (n) = (n − 1)! if 0 < n ∈ Z.

(8.1e)

These are well known. We will often be using ∞ e−at ts−1 dt if a ∈ C, Re(a) > 0, and Re(s) > 0. (8.2) Γ (s)a−s = 0 −s

Here a = exp(−s log a) with the standard branch of log a for Re(a) > 0. Indeed, the formula is well known for 0 < a ∈ R. Now the integral is meaningful for Re(a) > 0, and deﬁnes a holomorphic function of a. Since it coincides with Γ (s)a−s for 0 < a ∈ R, we obtain (8.2) as stated. Given f (z) = ξ∈Q aξ e(ξz) ∈ M k with an integral or a half-integral weight k, we put, ignoring a0 , (8.3) D(s, f ) = aξ ξ −s , ξ>0 −s

R(s, f ) = (2π) Γ (s)D(s, f ). ∞ We can put f (z) = m=0 cm e(mz/N ) as in Lemma 6.2. Then D(s, f ) = ∞ N s m=1 cm m−s , and so from (ii) of the same lemma, we see that the righthand side of (8.3) is convergent for Re(s) > k + 1, and so D(s, f ) is holomorphic for such s. For z = iy with 0 < y ∈ R we have f (iy) − a0 = ξ>0 aξ e−2πξy , and so in view of (8.2) we obtain ∞ f (iy) − a0 y s−1 dy = (2π)−s Γ (s) (8.5) aξ ξ −s = R(s, f ) (8.4)

0

ξ>0

for Re(s) > k + 1. Termwise integration is justiﬁed, since the series for such s is absolutely convergent. Fixing a positive integer N, put

52

(8.6)

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

f # (z) = N −k/2 (−iz)−k f − (N z)−1 ,

where the branch of (−iz)−k is taken so that it is real and positive if z ∈ H∩iR. By Lemma 5.4, f # ∈ M k , and so we can put f # (z) = ξ∈Q bξ e(ξz). Thus D(s, f # ) and R(s, f # ) are meaningful. Theorem 8.2. In the above setting R(s, f ) and R(s, f # ) can be continued as meromorphic functions to the whole s-plane with the following properties: b0 a0 + an entire function, (8.7a) N s/2 R(s, f ) = − + s s−k (8.7b) R(k − s, f ) = N s−k/2 R(s, f # ). In particular, R(s, f ) is an entire function if a0 = b0 = 0. This is a standard theorem ﬁrst proved by Hecke in a somewhat diﬀerent formulation. For the proof, see [S07, Theorem 3.2]. 8.3. For a Dirichlet character ψ and a positive integer N we put, as we did in §2.9, (8.8) LN (s, ψ) = ψ(n)n−s , (n, N )=1

where the sum is extended over the positive integers n prime to N. If ψ is primitive, then L1 (s, ψ) is the L-function of ψ, and is usually denoted by L(s, ψ). Let χ be the primitive character associated with ψ. Then (8.9) LN (s, ψ) = L(s, χ) 1 − χ(p)p−s . p|N

Thus the analytic properties of LN (s, ψ) can be reduced to those of L(s, χ), which can be summarized as follows. Let r be the conductor of χ and let χ(−1) = (−1)ν with ν = 0 or 1. Put (8.10) R(s, χ) = (r/π)(s+ν)/2 Γ (s + ν)/2 L(s, χ). Then R(s, χ) as a meromorphic function of s can be continued to the whole C, and satisﬁes the functional equation (8.10a)

R(s, χ) = W (χ)R(1 − s, χ) with W (χ) = i−ν r−1/2 G(χ),

where G(χ) is deﬁned by (2.3). Notice that |W (χ)| = 1 because of (2.3c). Moreover, R(s, χ) is entire except when χ is the principal character, in which case it is holomorphic on C except for simple poles at s = 0 and 1, with residues 1 and −1 respectively. These are well known, and in fact, can be obtained from Theorem 8.2 by taking f to be θψ of (5.7). For simplicity we treat here the case of nontrivial χ. (If χ is the principal character, then L(s, χ) = ζ(s), and its functional equation is well known.)

8. DIRICHLET SERIES AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

53

The notation being as in Lemma 5.5, put f (z) = θψ (z/r), f ∗ (z) = θψ¯ (z/r),

0 −r−1 α= , and ω = ψ(−1)r−1/2 G(ψ). Since jαk (z) = rk jιk (z), we have r 0 f (−1/z)r−k jιk (z/r)−1 = θψ (−1/rz)jαk (z/r)−1 = (θψ k α)(z/r). By (5.9) this can be written f (−1/z)z −ν (−iz)−1/2 = ωf ∗ (z).

(8.10b)

Take N = 1 in (8.6). Then the left-hand side of (8.10b) is i−ν f # . Thus f # = iν ωf ∗ = W (ψ)f ∗ with W (ψ) of (8.10a). We see that R(s, f ) = (2π)−s Γ (s) ∞ ∞ · n=1 ψ(n)nν (n2 /2r)−s = (r/π)s Γ (s) n=1 ψ(n)nν−2s , and so (8.10c) R (s + ν)/2, f = R(s, ψ). By (8.7b) we have R(k − s, f ) = R(s, f # ) = W (ψ)R(s, f ∗ ). Substituting (s + ν)/2 for k − s, we obtain (8.10a) with ψ in place of χ. We add here a formula that will be needed in Section A3. In [S07, p. 20] it was shown that ∞ ∞ f (iy)y k−s−1 dy + f # (iy)y s−1 dy, R(k − s, f ) = 1

and so

(8.10d) R(s, ψ) =

∞

f (iy)y

1 (s+ν−2)/2

1 ∞ ν n=1 ψ(n)n

dy + W (ψ)

∞

f ∗ (iy)y (ν−1−s)/2 dy.

1

exp(−πn2 y/r) and f ∗ (iy) is the series of the We have f (iy) = ¯ same type with ψ in place of ψ. 8.4. There are two types of Eisenstein series with respect to SL2 (Q). The ﬁrst type can be deﬁned for both integral and half-integral weights, but the second type can be deﬁned only for integral weights. There is also the question whether the series involves a complex variable, which is usually denoted by s. In this book we ﬁrst deﬁne the series with s, and specialize s to an element of 2−1 Z. We begin our discussion with two easy lemmas: / Lemma 8.5. + The series 0=(m,n)∈Z2 |mz + n|−σ with a ﬁxed z ∈ C, ∈ R, is convergent for 2 < σ ∈ R. Proof. Let L = Zz + Z. For 0 < n ∈ Z let Qn be the parallelogram on the plane C whose vertices are ±(nz + n) and ±(nz − n). Then there are exactly 8n points of L lying on the sides of Qn . Take r ∈ R, > 0, so that the circle |z| = r is inside Q1 . Then |ξ| ≥ nr for any ξ of such 8n points, and so for ∞ −σ σ > 0 we have 0=ξ∈L |ξ|−σ ≤ ∞ = 8r−σ n=1 n1−σ , which is n=1 8n(nr) convergent for σ > 2 as expected. 8.6. For two positive integers M and N we put (as we did in Theorem 7.5) (8.11) Γ (M, N ) = γ ∈ Γ (1) bγ ∈ M Z, cγ ∈ N Z . We also put

54

(8.11a)

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

Γ0 (N ) = Γ (1, N ),

Γ1 (N ) = γ ∈ Γ0 (N ) aγ − 1 ∈ N Z .

These are traditional. Notice that the condition aγ − 1 ∈ N Z is equivalent to dγ − 1 ∈ N Z. For a character ψ modulo M N we put (8.11b) M k (M, N ; ψ) = f ∈ M k f k γ = ψ(dγ )f for every γ ∈ Γ (M, N ) , S k (M, N ; ψ) = S k ∩ M k (M, N ; ψ),

(8.11c) (8.11d)

M k (N, ψ) = M k (1, N ; ψ),

S k (N, ψ) = S k (1, N ; ψ),

where we assume that M, N ∈ 2Z if k ∈ / Z. In fact, (8.11b) and (8.11c) are included in (7.6). Since f k (−1) = (−1)[k] f, we have M k (M, N ; ψ) = {0} if ψ(−1) = (−1)[k] . Observing that γ → aγ (mod N ) gives an isomor- × phism of Γ0 (N )/Γ 1 (N ) onto (Z/N Z) (if N > 1), we see that M k Γ1 (N ) resp. S k Γ1 (N ) is the direct sum of M k (N, ψ) resp. S k (N, ψ) for all characters ψ modulo N. For two characters ψ and χ modulo N we have $ # (8.11e) M k (N, ψ), S k (N, χ) = 0 if χ = ψ. This can be seen by taking α of (6.12) to be an element γ of Γ0 (N ) such that ψ(dγ ) = χ(dγ ). Lemma 8.7. Put Γ = Γ (M, N ) and Γ∞ = Γ ∩ P with ﬁxed M and N ; put also if M N > 1, (c, d) ∈ N Z × Z M cZ + dZ = Z, d > 0 M WN = {(1, 0)} ∪ (c, d) ∈ Z × Z cZ + dZ = Z, d > 0 if M N = 1. Then each coset Γ∞ α in Γ∞ \Γ contains an element γ such that (cγ , dγ ) ∈ WNM , and the map Γ∞ α → (cγ , dγ ) with such a γ gives a bijection of Γ∞ \Γ onto WNM . Proof. Since Γ∞ = γ ∈ Γ (0, 1)γ = ±(0, 1) and Γ∞ is generated by −1

1 M and , we easily see that the map from Γ∞ \Γ to WNM can be deﬁned 0 1 as described above and that it is injective. Conversely, let (c, d) ∈ WNM with M N > 1. Then d is prime to M

c, and so we can ﬁnd a, b ∈ Z such that a bM ad − M bc = 1. Put γ = . Then γ ∈ Γ and our map sends Γ∞ γ to c d (c, d), which proves our lemma when M N > 1. The case M N = 1 requires only an additional observation that (1, 0) corresponds to Γ∞ ι. 8.8. The ﬁrst type of Eisenstein series is deﬁned for any weight k and a congruence subgroup Γ = Γ (M, N ) with some M and N ; we assume that M ∈ 2Z and N ∈ 2Z if k ∈ / Z. We put Γ∞ = P ∩ Γ and (8.12) Ek (z, s) = Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) = ψ(dγ )y s k γ, γ∈Γ∞ \Γ

or more explicitly,

8. DIRICHLET SERIES AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

(8.12a)

Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) = y s

55

ψ(dγ )jγk (z)−1 |jγ (z)|−2s .

γ∈Γ∞ \Γ

Here z ∈ H, s ∈ C, y = Im(z), ψ is a character modulo M N such that ψ(−1) = (−1)[k] , and jγk is as in (5.1b). Clearly the sums of (8.12) and (8.12a) are formally well deﬁned. By Lemma 8.7, for σ = Re(s) these sums are majorized by yσ 0=(c, d)∈Z2 |cz +d|−2σ−k , which is convergent for 2σ+k > 2 by Lemma 8.5. Thus Ek (z, s) is deﬁned as a holomorphic function of s at least for Re(s) > 1 − k/2. Moreover, we easily see that Ek (γz, s) = ψ(dγ )−1 jγk (z)Ek (z, s) for every γ ∈ Γ, ¯ = y k Ek (z, s¯ − k; Γ, χ0 ψ), (8.13a) E−k (z, s; Γ, ψ) if k ∈ / Z; we where χ0 is the principal character if k ∈ Z and χ0 (d) = −1 d use (5.3c) for the proof of (8.13a). (8.13)

8.9. The second type of Eisenstein series is deﬁned for an integral weight k. For k ∈ Z, a positive integer N, and (p, q) ∈ Z2 we put s (8.14) EN (mz + n)−k |mz + n|−2s (z ∈ H, s ∈ C), k (z, s; p, q) = y (m, n)

where the sum is taken over all (m, n) ∈ Z2 such that 0 = (m, n) ≡ (p, q) (mod N Z2 ). From Lemma 8.5 we see that the series of (8.14) is convergent for Re(2s) + k > 2. Also, we can easily verify that N for every γ ∈ Γ (1), (8.14a) jγ (z)−k EN k (γz, s; p, q) = Ek z, s; (p, q)γ (8.14b) (8.14c)

k N EN ¯ − k; p, q), −k (z, s; p, q) = y Ek (z, s r rs ErN EN k (z, s; rp, q + iN ) k (rz, s; p, q) =

(0 < r ∈ Z),

i=1

(8.14d)

−k−2s N Ek (z, s; p, q) EhN k (z, s; hp, hq) = h

(0 < h ∈ Z).

Theorem 8.10. (i) If k ∈ Z, there is a real analytic function F (z, s) of (z, s) ∈ H×C which is holomorphic in s and coincides with s(s − 1)Γ (s + k )EN k (z, s; p, q) for Re(2s) + k > 2, where k = Max(k, 0). The factor s(s − 1) is unnecessary −2 if k = 0. If k = 0, then Γ (s)EN at s = 1, and 0 (z, s; p, q) has residue πN −δ(p/N )δ(q/N ) at s = 0, where δ(x) = 1 if x ∈ Z, and δ(x) = 0 otherwise. (ii) For every ﬁxed s ∈ C, F (z, s) as a function of z belongs to Ck Γ (N ) . Moreover, F (z, s) is slowly increasing at every cusp locally uniformly in s. Proof. In view of (8.14b) it is suﬃcient to prove the case k ≥ 0. The ﬁrst assertion can be proved in a rather elementary way as an application of Theorem 8.2. For details, the reader is referred to [S07, Theorem 9.7]. The ﬁrst part of (ii) follows from (8.14a), since EN k (z, s; p, q) depends only on

56

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

(p, q) modulo N Z2 . The second part of (ii) will be proven in §A3.7 of the Appendix. Notice that EN k (z, 0; p, q) is meaningful for k > 0. In particular, put (8.14e)

Ek (z) = 2−1 (2πi)−k E1k (z, 0; 0, 0)

(2 ≤ k ∈ 2Z).

Then Ek ∈ M k (Q) if k > 2; E2 is exactly the function of (7.10); see [S07, §9.2]. 8.11. For k ∈ Z, 0 < N ∈ Z, and a primitive or an imprimitive character ψ modulo N such that ψ(−1) = (−1)k , we put (8.15) EkN (z, s; ψ) = y s ψ(n)(mN z + n)−k |mN z + n|−2s , 0=(m, n)∈Z2

where we put ψ(n) = 0 if n is not prime to N. Notice that the sum over (m, n) is 0 if ψ(−1) = (−1)k . Again Lemma 8.5 guarantees the convergence of (8.15) for Re(s) > 1 − k/2. We easily see that N ψ(q)EN (8.16) EkN (z, s; ψ) = k (z, s; 0, q), q=1

and so from (8.14a) we obtain (8.16a)

jγ (z)−k EkN (γz, s; ψ) = ψ(aγ )EkN (z, s; ψ) for every γ ∈ Γ0 (N ).

From (8.16) and Theorem 8.10 we immediately obtain Theorem 8.12. (i) There is a real analytic function Fψ (z, s) of (z, s) ∈ H × C such that Fψ (z, s) = s(s − 1)Γ (s + k )EkN (z, s; ψ) for Re(2s) + k > 2, where k = Max(k, 0); moreover Fψ is holomorphic in s. The factor s(s − 1) is unnecessary if k = 0 or ψ is nontrivial. If k = 0 and ψ is trivial, then Γ (s)E0N (z, s; ψ) has residue πN −2 ϕ(N ) at s = 1, and −δ(1/N ) at s = 0, where ϕ is Euler’s function. (ii) For every ﬁxed s ∈ C, Fψ (z, s) as a function of z belongs to Ck Γ (N ) , and is slowly increasing at every cusp locally uniformly in s. 8.13. Returning to (8.12) with k ∈ Z, by Lemma 8.7 we have (8.17) Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) = y s ψ(d)(cz + d)−k |cz + d|−2s M (c,d)∈WN

for Γ = Γ (M, N ). Let us now assume that M |N and ψ is a character modulo N. Given mN z + n as in (8.15), put (m, n) = ±r(m , n ) with 0 < r ∈ Z and relatively prime m and n such that n > 0. If ψ(n) = 0, then (m N, n ) ∈ WNM . Therefore we ﬁnd that (8.18)

EkN (z, s; ψ) = 2LN (2s + k, ψ)Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ),

and so the analytic properties of Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) can be obtained from those of LN (s, ψ) and EkN (z, s; ψ). We note here only its residue at s = 1.

8. DIRICHLET SERIES AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

57

(8.19) For Γ = Γ (M, N ) and ψ as above and k ≥ 0, Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) has nonzero residue at s = 1 only if k = 0 and ψ is trivial, in which case the residue is (3/π)N −1 p|N (1 + p−1 )−1 . This follows from Theorem 8.12, since if χ0 is the principal character, then (8.19a) LN (2, χ0 ) = ζ(2) p|N (1 − p−2 ) and ζ(2) = π 2 /6. The case k ∈ / Z is more complex and diﬃcult. Indeed, we have the following theorem which will be proven in §A3.6 of the Appendix. Theorem 8.14. Suppose k ∈ / Z and Γ = Γ (M, N ) with N ∈ M Z ⊂ 2Z; put κ = 2k, λ = (1 − κ)/2, and λ0 = 0 or 1 according as λ is even or odd. For z ∈ H and s ∈ C put F ∗ (z, s) = (2s − λ − 1)LN (4s − 2λ, ψ 2 )E k (z, s; Γ, ψ) Γ (s)Γ s + (1 − λ − λ0 )/2 (κ ≤ 1), · (κ ≥ −1). Γ s + k Γ s + (λ0 − λ)/2 Then F ∗ (z, s) can be continued as a holomorphic function of s to the whole s-plane. for any ﬁxed s ∈ C, F ∗ (z, s) as a function of z belongs Moreover, to Ck Γ (N ) . Moreover, F ∗ (z, s) is slowly increasing at every cusp, locally uniformly in s. The factor 2s−λ−1 is necessary only if (|κ|+1)/2 is odd and ψ2 is trivial, in which case F ∗ (z, s) at s = (λ + 1)/2 is a nonzero function on H, whose nature is described in Theorem 8.16 below when k > 0. Theorem 8.15. (i) If 0 < k ∈ Z, then Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) with Γ = Γ (M, N ) and ψ as in (8.12) is ﬁnite at s = 0 and Ek (z, 0; Γ, ψ) belongs to M k (Qab ) except when k = 2 and ψ is trivial, in which case it is a nonholomorphic element of N 21 (Qab ). Moreover, Ek (z, 0; Γ, ψ)σ = Ek (z, 0; Γ, ψ σ ) for every σ ∈ Gal(Qab /Q). (ii) If 0 < k ∈ Z, then EkN (z, s; ψ) is ﬁnite at s = 1−k and EkN (z, 1−k; ψ) belongs to πM k (Qab ) except when k = 2 and N = 1, in which case it is a nonholomorphic element of πN 21 (Qab ). Moreover, k σ i G(ψ)−1 π −1 EkN (z, 1 − k; ψ) = ik G(ψσ )−1 π −1 EkN (z, 1 − k; ψ σ ) for every σ ∈ Gal(Qab /Q), where G(ψ) is the Gauss sum deﬁned in §2.7. (iii) If 3/2 ≤ k ∈ / Z, then Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) of (8.12) is ﬁnite at s = 0, and Ek (z, 0; Γ, ψ) belongs to M k (Qab ) except when k = 3/2 and ψ 2 is trivial. Moreover, when it belongs to M k (Qab ) we have Ek (z, 0; Γ, ψ)σ = Ek (z, 0; Γ, ψ σ ) for every σ ∈ Gal(Qab /Q). (iv) If 3/2 ≤ k ∈ / Z, then LN (4s + 2k − 1, ψ2 )Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) is ﬁnite at s = 1 − k and its value at s = 1 − k is π times a nonzero element of M k (Qab ) except when k = 3/2 and ψ 2 is trivial. Denote this Qab -rational element times 2k i[k] G(ψ)−1 by Ck∗ (Γ, ψ), that is,

58

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

Ck∗ (Γ, ψ) = 2k i[k] G(ψ)−1 π −1 LN (4s + 2k − 1, ψ 2 )Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) s=1−k . Then Ck∗ (Γ, ψ)σ = Ck∗ (Γ, ψ σ ) for every σ ∈ Gal(Qab /Q). Proof. Suppose k ∈ Z. From (8.16) and (8.18) we obtain 2(πi)−k LN (k, ψ)Ek (z, 0; Γ, ψ) =

N

ψ(q)(πi)−k EN k (z, 0; 0, q).

q=1

Let A(ψ) denote the right-hand side times G(ψ)−1 , and let σ ∈ Aut(C). In [S07, (9.4)] we gave a Fourier expansion of (πi)−k EN k (z, 0; p, q), which shows that A(ψ) is Qab -rational. Applying σ to the expansion and employing (2.17b), we ﬁnd that A(ψ)σ = A(ψ σ ). Combining this with Lemma 2.10, we obtain (i). Assertion (ii) can be derived similarly from (8.16) and [S07, (9.14)]. In the case k ∈ / Z assertion (iii) will be proven in §A3.8 and (iv) in §A3.9 of the Appendix. Notice that 4s + 2k − 1 becomes 3 − 2k at s = 1 − k, and 0 ≥ 3 − 2k ∈ 2Z if k ≥ 3/2. Since Γ (s/2)LN (s, ψ 2 ) is ﬁnite for Re(s) ≤ 0, we see that LN (m, ψ 2 ) = 0 for every m ∈ 2Z, ≤ 0. Thus LN (4s + 2k − 1, ψ 2 ) = 0 at s = 1 − k. For this reason, Theorem 8.15(iv) cannot be given as a statement on the value of Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) at s = 1 − k. Similarly, Theorem 8.15(ii) cannot be stated in terms of Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) at s = 1 − k. Theorem 8.16. Let the notation be as in Theorem 8.14 with k ∈ / Z; suppose that k > 0, λ is even, and ψ 2 is trivial. Then F ∗ (z, s) is nonzero at s = (λ + 1)/2, and the following assertions hold: (i) If k = 1/2, then λ = 0, and F ∗ (z, 1/2) belongs to π3/2 M 1/2 (Qab ). More precisely, F ∗ (z, 1/2) = π 3/2 ξ∈Q μ(ξ)e(tξ 2 z/2) with 0 < t ∈ Q and a Qab -valued element μ of L (Q). (ii) If k > 1/2, then k = 2p + 1/2 with 0 < p ∈ Z, and F ∗ z, (λ + 1)/2 belongs to π 3/2+p N kp (Qab ). Proof. Assertion (i) will be proven in §A3.10 of the Appendix. To prove (ii), we take the operator δkp of (6.13d) and Dkp of (7.11). Then we have (8.20)

Dkp Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) = (−4π)−p εk (s)Ek+2p (z, s − p; Γ, ψ) with

p−1

εk (s) =

(s + k + a) = Γ (s + k + p)/Γ (s + k).

a=0

(This is true even for integral k.) Indeed, we can easily verify (by induction on p, for example) that δkp y s = (2i)−p εk (s)y s−p . By (6.14c), δkp (y s k γ) = (δkp y s )k+2p γ = (2i)−p εk (s)y s−p k+2p γ for every γ ∈ Γ, and so we obtain (8.20) at least formally. To justify termwise diﬀerentiation of the inﬁnite series of (8.12), we note a well-known principle on the validity of (d/dx) γ∈A fγ (x) = γ∈A dfγ /dx. If it is applied to (8.12) p times, then we see that (8.20) holds

8. DIRICHLET SERIES AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

59

at least for suﬃciently large Re(s). Since δkp commutes with ∂/∂¯ s, we easily see that the left-hand side of (8.20) is meromorphic in s when Ek (z, s) is deﬁned, and the same is true with the right-hand side. This proves (8.20) in the domain of s in which both sides of (8.20) are meaningful as meromorphic functions. (There are alternative methods that are applicable to the case of many complex variables instead of a single z. We refer the reader to Lemma A in [S02, vol. III, p. 922].) Now in the setting of (ii) put −λ = 2p. Then 0 < p ∈ Z and k = 2p + p 1/2, and so from (8.20) we obtain (2i)p δ1/2 E1/2 (z, s + p) = ε0 Ek (z, s) with ∗ ε0 = Γ (s + k)/Γ (s + p + 1/2). Let Fk denote F ∗ of Theorem 8.14. Then, after verifying the cancellation of all gamma factors, we see that Fk∗ (z, s) = p p p ∗ ∗ ∗ F1/2 (z, 1/2) (2i) δ1/2 F1/2 (z, s+ p), and therefore Fk z, (λ+ 1)/2 = (2i)p δ1/2 p p ∗ ∗ = (−4π) D1/2 F1/2 (z, 1/2). By Lemma 7.8(i) we see that Fk z, (λ + 1)/2 belongs to π3/2+p N kp (Qab ). This proves (ii) and completes the proof. Lemma 8.17. Let 0 < m ∈ Z and f ∈ M k (M, N ; ψ) in the notation of §8.6; suppose 2|M and 2|N if k ∈ / Z. Then the following assertions hold. (i) Put g1 (z) = f (mz) and g2 (z) = f (z/m). Then g1 ∈ M k

(M, mN ; χ) m ψ(a) if and g2 ∈ M k (mM, N ; χ), where χ = ψ if k ∈ Z and χ(a) = a k∈ / Z. Moreover, g2 ∈ M k (mM, N/m; χ) if 2m|N. (ii) The map f → f k ι is a bijection of M k (M, N ; ψ) onto M k (N, M ; ψ −1 ) and (f k ι)k ι = (−1)[k] f. / Z and 0 < K ∈ 4Z deﬁne f τ by (iii) For f ∈ M k (2, K/2; ψ) with k ∈ τ k −1 f (z) = f (−4/Kz)jι (z) . Then

f →f τ is a bijection of M k (2, K/2; ψ) K ψ(a)−1 and (f τ )τ = (−1)[k] (K/4)k f. onto M k (2, K/2; ζ), where ζ(a) = a (iv) The forms g1 , g2 , f k ι and f τ belong to S k if f ∈ S k .

a mb a b . ∈ Γ (M, mN ) with d > 0 put β = Proof. For α = c/m d c d Then β ∈ Γ (M, N ) and g1 (αz) = f β(mz) = ψ(d)jβk (mz)f (mz). We have

m [k] [k] clearly jβ (mz) = jα (z) and hβ (mz) = hα (z) by (4.40). Thus g1 ∈ d

a b/m M k (M, mN ; χ) in view of Lemma 5.4. As for g2 , taking in cm d place of β, we obtain the desired results in the same way. To prove (ii), put δ = ι−1 γι for γ ∈ Γ (M, N ). Then δ ∈ Γ (N, M ) and aδ = dγ , and so (ii) can easily be veriﬁed. In the proof of (i) suppose 2m|N ; then we see that g2 ∈ M k (mM, N/m; χ). Now, to prove (iii), take M = 2, N = K/2, and m = K/4. Then g 2 (z)= f (4z/K) and f τ = g2 k ι. Thus g2 ∈ M k (K/2, 2; χ) K ψ(a), and f τ ∈ M k (2, K/2; χ−1 ) by (ii). Now (f τ )τ (z) = with χ(a) = a

60

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

f (z)jιk (−4/Kz)−1jιk (z)−1 . We easily see that jι (−4/Kz)jι (z) = (−4/K)[k] and hι (−4/Kz)hι(z) is (4/K)1/2 times an element t of T. Taking z = iy with y > 0, we ﬁnd that t = 1, and so jιk (−4/Kz)jιk(z) = (−1)[k] (4/K)k , which completes the proof of (iii). Assertion (iv) follows immediately from the last statement of §5.8. [k]

[k]

Lemma 8.18. Let M, N, K be positive integers such that K ∈ M N Z.

1 0 1 M , and Γ (K, K). , Then Γ (M, N ) can be generated by N 1 0 1 Proof. This is not so easy as it looks. We put U = p SL2 (Zp ), E(M ) = p Ep (M ), E (N ) = p Ep (N ), and D(M, N ) = p Dp (M, N ), where p runs over all prime numbers and 1 b 1 0 , E Ep (M ) = b ∈ M Z c ∈ N Z (N ) = p p , p 0 1 c 1 Dp (M, N ) = γ ∈ SL2 (Zp ) bγ ∈ M Zp , cγ ∈ N Zp . Then D(M, N ) can be generated by E(M ), E (N ), and D(K, K). To prove this, we ﬁrst note that Dp (M, N ) = Dp (K, K) if p K. Thus it is suﬃcient to show that Dp (M, N ) is generated by Ep (M ), Ep (N ), and Dp (K, K) if p|K. If p M N, then Dp (M, N ) = SL2 (Zp ), and the fact is easy to verify, noting that

0 −1 1 −1 1 0 1 −1 = . 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1

a b ∈ Dp (M, N ). Then a ∈ Z× Suppose p|M N and let α = p and c d

a 0 a b 1 ba−1 1 0 , = −1 −1 0 1 0 a c d a c 1 and so we obtain the desired fact. Now put H= Hp , Hp = w ∈ Dp (K, K) w − 1 ≺ KZp . p

Then H is a normal subgroup of U. Let β ∈ Γ (M, N ). Since β ∈ D(M, N ), we have β = u1 · · · um with ui ∈ E(M ) ∪ E (N ) ∪ D(K, K). By strong approximation in SL2 (Q) (see [S71, Lemmas 1.38 and 6.15] or [S10, Theorem 10.21], for example) we can put ui = γi vi with γi ∈ SL2 (Q)

and vi ∈ H. 1 Mb If ui ∈ E(M ), then clearly we can take γi of the form γi = with 1

0 1 0 b ∈ Z; similarly, if ui ∈ E (N ), then we can take γi = with c ∈ Z. If Nc 1 ui ∈ D(K, K), then γi − ui ≺ KZp for every p|K, and so γi ∈ Γ (K, K). Put γ = γ1 · · · γm . Then we see that β = γz with z ∈ H, that is, γ −1 β ∈ Γ (K, K). This proves our lemma. This lemma can be generalized to the case of Sp(n, F ) with an arbitrary algebraic number ﬁeld F ; see [S93, Lemma 3b.4].

8. DIRICHLET SERIES AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

61

8.19. Let us add some technical and historical remarks on the Eisenstein series discussed in this section. Let Ek (z, s) denote any function belonging to types (8.12), (8.14), and (8.15). If the series expressing Ek (z, s) is absolutely convergent at s = 0, then obviously Ek (z, 0) is a holomorphic function in z, which one can deﬁne without the parameter s. For example, if it is of type (8.12) with k ∈ Z, the function is γ∈Γ∞ \Γ ψ(dγ )jγk (z)−1 , which is meaningful only for k ≥ 3. In order to include the cases k = 1 and 2, Hecke introduced in [H27] the parameter s and proved that Ek (z, s) can be continued analytically to a neighborhood of 0, and obtained the explicit forms of the Fourier expansions of the value at s = 0. Similar results in the case of half-integral weight were obtained by Maass. However, neither Hecke nor Maass investigated analytic continuation of Ek (z, s) as a meromorphic function in s on the whole complex plane. Analytic continuation of Ek (z, s), especially in the case k = 0, was investigated by several researchers, Rankin [Ra39] for example. The proof of the fact alone is not diﬃcult. However, it is important to show that Ek (z, s) is slowly increasing at every cusp locally uniformly in s, which guarantees the convergence of the integral of the type (8.27) below, a highly nontrivial fact that almost all authors took for granted without proof. I found that the Fourier expansion of Ek involving both z and s was also important, and conﬂuent hypergeometric functions were quite eﬀective in obtaining such basic pieces of information. In fact, I investigated such Fourier expansions in [S75], and eventually similar expansions, as well as analytic continuation, of Eisenstein series on Hn . In §A2 of the Appendix we will give an exposition of conﬂuent hypergeometric functions, and employing them, we will discuss in the next section various properties of Ek (z, s) in the context of eigenforms of the operator Lk of (6.13c). 8.20. For f ∈ M k with k ∈ 2−1 Z we put μf (ξ)e(ξz). (8.21) f (z) = 0≤ξ∈Q

Let f ∈ M k (K, M ; ψ) and g ∈ M (K , M ; ϕ) with characters ψ and ϕ. We naturally assume (see §8.6) (8.22)

ψ(−1) = (−1)[k] ,

ϕ(−1) = (−1)[] .

We now deﬁne a Dirichlet series D(s; f, g) by (8.23) D(s; f, g) = μf (ξ)μg (ξ)ξ −s−(k+)/2 . 0 (k + )/2 + 1. Thus D(s; f, g) is holomorphic for such s. We assume: (8.24) k ≥ and f is a cusp form.

62

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

To ﬁnd an integral expression for (8.23), we ﬁrst take gρ deﬁned by (5.14) with n = 1 and g in place of f there, and observe that μf (ξ)μg (η)e2πi(ξ−η)x e−2π(ξ+η)y f (z)gρ (z) = 0 (k + )/2 + 1. The expression of a series of type (8.23) by an integral of type (8.27) was ﬁrst given in [Ra39] by Rankin when g = fρ and k ∈ Z. Thus this technique may be called Rankin’s transformation. We will later use this transformation at various places. Let us now put if k − ∈ Z, LN (2s + 2, ω) (8.28) DN (s; f, g) = D(s; f, g) · 2 LN (4s + 3, ω ) if k − ∈ / Z, ⎧ if k − ∈ Z,

1

k− ⎨

k+ ˜ Γ s+1+ · (8.29) Γ (s) = Γ s+ 3 λ ⎩ Γ s + + 0 if k − ∈ 2 2 / Z, 4 2 where λ0 is 0 or 1 according as [k − ] is even or odd. Theorem 8.21. Under (8.24) the product Γ˜ (s)DN (s; f, g) can be continued to the whole s-plane as a meromorphic function, which is holomorphic except for possible simple poles at the following points: s = 0 only if k = and ϕψ is trivial; s = −1 only if k = ∈ Z and N = 1; s = −1/4 only if ψ 2 ϕ2 is trivial and k − − 1/2 ∈ 2Z. The residue of DN (s; f, g) at s = 0 is π 2+k Γ (k)−1 gρ , f r0 , where r0 is a positive rational number that depends on the choice of the levels of f and g. Proof. Suppose k − ∈ Z; then by Theorem 8.12, s(s − 1)Γ (s + k − N )Ek− (z, s; ω) is entire in s; moreover, for each ﬁxed s the product as a function of z is slowly increasing at every cusp locally uniformly in s. Since f is a cusp form, we see that s(s + 1)LN (2s + 2, ω)Γ s + 1 + (k − )/2 times the right-hand side of (8.27) is meaningful for the reason explained in §6.5; s(s + 1) is unnecessary if k = or ω is nontrivial. From the reasoning there we also see that the integral is convergent locally uniformly in s. Suppose k = and ω is trivial; then a pole may occur at s = 0 and s = −1. By Theorem 8.12 we ﬁnd that the residue of DN (s; f, g) at s = 0 is N −1 Γ (k)−1 (4π)k μ(Φ) gρ , f · 2−1 πN −2 ϕ(N ). By (6.6), μ(Φ) ∈ πQ, and so we obtain the residue as stated in our theorem. Next suppose k − ∈ / Z. We apply Theorem 8.14 to Ek− (· · · ) in (8.27). ∗ Deﬁne κ, λ, and F (z, s) as in that theorem. Then we ﬁnd that κ = 2k − 2, λ = −[k − ], and F ∗ z, s + ( − k)/2 + 1 equals

λ0 k− 3 −k 2 (2s+1/2)LN (4s+3, ω )Γ s+ 2 Γ s+ 4 + 2 Ek− z, s+ 2 +1; Γ, ω ¯ .

64

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

Then we obtain the results in this case as stated in our theorem. This completes the proof. If f and g of §8.20 are eigenfunctions of Hecke operators of integral weight, then D(s; f, g) has an Euler product that can be given as follows. ∞ Lemma 8.22. Let f (z) = n=1 a(n)e(nz) ∈ S k (N, ψ) and g(z) = ∞ b(n)e(nz) ∈ M (M, ϕ) with k, ∈ Z. Suppose that these are nor n=0 malized eigenfunctions of Hecke operators in the sense that we can put ∞ −1 a(n)n−s = , 1 − a(p)p−s + ψ(p)pk−1−s p

n=1 ∞

b(n)n−s

−1 = , 1 − b(p)p−s + ϕ(p)p−1−s p

n=1

where p means the product over all the prime numbers p (see [S71,Theorem 3.43]). Taking an indeterminate X, put, for each prime number p, X 2 − a(p)X + ψ(p)pk−1 = (X − αp )(X − βp ), X 2 − b(p)X + ϕ(p)p−1 = (X − γp )(X − δp ) with complex numbers αp , βp , γp , δp . Then ∞ a(n)b(n)n−s LN M (2s + 2 − k − , ψϕ) n=1

−1 = (1 − αp γp p−s )(1 − αp δp p−s )(1 − βp γp p−s )(1 − βp δp p−s ) . p

Proof. We have ∞

∞ n=0

−1 a(pn )X n = 1 − a(p)X + ψ(p)pk−1 X 2 , and so

(αnp − βpn )X n = (1 − αp X)−1 − (1 − βp X)−1

n=0

∞ −1 = (αp − βp )X (1 − αp X)(1 − βp X) = (αp − βp ) a(pn )X n+1 . n=0

Thus we obtain a(p ) = − − βp ) if αp = βp . Similarly, −s = b(pn ) = (γpn+1 − δpn+1 )/(γp − δp ) if γp = δp . Now ∞ m=1 a(m)b(m)m ∞ n n −ns and a(p )b(p )p n=0 p n

(αp − βp )(γp − δp )

∞ n=0

(αn+1 p

βpn+1 )/(αp

a(pn )b(pn )X n =

∞

(αn+1 − βpn+1 )(γpn+1 − δpn+1 )X n p

n=0

αp δp βp γp βp δp αp γp − − + = 1 − αp γp X 1 − αp δp X 1 − βp γ p X 1 − βp δp X =

(αp − βp )(γp − δp )(1 − αp βp γp δp X 2 ) . (1 − αp γp X)(1 − αp δp X)(1 − βp γp X)(1 − βp δp X)

8. DIRICHLET SERIES AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

65

This gives the desired result when αp = βp and γp = δp . However, we have n n i and b(pn ) = i=0 γpn−i δpi unconditionally, and so our a(pn ) = i=0 αn−i p βp n n n−i i n−i i δp X n , which is valid result is a formula for ∞ n=0 i=0 αp βp i=0 γp even if αp = βp or γp = δp . This completes the proof. ∞ Theorem 8.23. Given f (z) = n=1 a(n)e(nz) ∈ S k (N, ψ) and a primitive or an imprimitive Dirichlet character χ, put (8.30)

D(s; f, χ) = LN (2s − 2k + 2, χ2 ψ 2 )

∞

χ(n)a(n2 )n−s

n=1

and χ(−1) = (−1) with μ = 0 or 1. Put also Γ˜ (s) = Γ (s/2)Γ (s + 1)/2 Γ (s − k − 1 + λ0 )/2 , where λ0 = 0 or 1 according as k − μ − 1 is even or odd. Then Γ˜ (s)D(s; f, χ) can be continued to a meromorphic function on the whole complex plane, which is holomorphic except for a possible simple pole at s = k, that occurs only if ψ2 χ2 is trivial and k − μ − 1 ∈ 2Z. Proof. Put θ1 (z) = 2−1 m∈Z χ(m)mμ e(m2 z). Then θ1 (z) = θχ (2z) with θχ of (5.7). Suppose χ is deﬁned modulo r; then by Lemmas

5.5 and 8 2 8.17, θ1 ∈ M (2, 4r ; χ1 ), where = μ + 1/2 and χ1 (a) = χ(a). We a then see that ∞ χ(m)a(m2 )m−2s−k−1/2 , D(s; f, θ1 ) = μ

m=1

and so D(s; f, χ) = L(2s − 2k + 2, χ2 ψ 2 )D(s/2 − k/2 − 1/4; f, θ1 ). Comparing this with (8.28), we ﬁnd that D(s; f, χ) = DM (s/2 − k/2 − 1/4; f, θ1 ), where M is the least common multiple of N and 4r2 . Thus we obtain the desired result from Theorem 8.21. The above theorem was essentially given in [S75, Theorem 1], which stated that another pole at s = k − 1 might occur, but that is not the case as shown here. The pole at s = k can indeed happen; see Theorem 2 and the discussion on page 97 of that paper. Notice that if k − μ − 1 ∈ 2Z, then (ψχ)(−1) = −1, and so ψχ is nontrivial. Lemma 8.24. Suppose that f of Theorem 8.23 is a normalized Hecke eigenform as in Lemma 8.22; deﬁne αp and βp as in that lemma. Then −1 D(s; f, χ) = (1 − χ(p)α2p p−s )(1 − χ(p)αp βp p−s )(1 − χ(p)βp2 p−s ) . p

66

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

Proof. We have and (αp − βp )

∞

n=1 χ(n)a(n

∞

2

)n−s =

a(p2m )X m =

m=0

∞

∞ p

m=0

χ(p)m a(p2m )p−2ms ,

(α2m+1 − βp2m+1 )X m p

m=0

αp βp (αp − βp )(1 + αp βp X) = − = 1 − α2p X 1 − βp2 X (1 − α2p X)(1 − βp2 X) −1 . = (αp − βp )(1 − α2p βp2 X 2 ) (1 − α2p X)(1 − αp βp X)(1 − βp2 X) Thus we obtain the desired equality. The result is valid even if αp = βp for the reason explained at the end of the proof of Lemma 8.22. Comparing this with the case f = g in Lemma 8.22, we obtain ∞ (8.31) L(s − k + 1, χψ)D(s; f, χ) = L(2s − 2k + 2, χ2 ψ 2 ) χ(n)a(n)2 n−s n=1

(8.32)

= L(2s − 2k + 2, χ2 ψ 2 )D(s − k; f, h), ∞ ∞ L(s − k + 1, χψ) χ(n)a(n2 )n−s = χ(n)a(n)2 n−s , ∞

n=1

n=1

where h(z) = n=1 χ(n)a(n)e(nz). By Lemma 7.13, h ∈ S k (M, ψχ2 ) with a multiple M of N, and so the analytic continuation of D(s, f, h) follows from Theorem 8.21. Therefore we can derive the analytic continuation of D(s; f, χ) also by combining this with (8.31), but this gives a weaker result than Theorem 8.23, because of the factor L(s − k + 1, χψ). 9. Eisenstein series as automorphic eigenforms 9.1. Given a congruence subgroup Γ of Γ (1) and a weight k (not necessarily ≥ 0) we consider a C ∞ function f on H satisfying the following three conditions: (9.1a)

f k γ = f for every γ ∈ Γ ;

(9.1b)

Lk f = λf with λ ∈ C, where Lk is as in (6.13c);

(9.1c)

f is slowly increasing at every cusp, that is, f satisﬁes (6.9a).

Such an f is called an automorphic eigenform, or simply, an eigenform of Lk belonging to the eigenvalue λ. It is also called a Maass form, as Maass introduced this type of function and made some fundamental contributions in [Ma49] and [Ma53]. We denote by Ak (Γ, λ) the set of all such functions f. / Z. We put We naturally assume that Γ ⊂ Γ θ if k ∈ ∞ (9.2) Ak (λ) = Ak Γ (2N ), λ . N =1

9. EISENSTEIN SERIES AS AUTOMORPHIC EIGENFORMS

67

By (6.14d), for every f ∈ Ak (λ) and α ∈ SL2 (Q), we see that jα (z)−k f (αz) ∈ / Z, then we have to invoke Theorem Ak (λ). This is clear if k ∈ Z, but if k ∈ 4.7(4); cf. Lemma 5.4. If f is holomorphic, then Lk f = 4δk−2 εf = 0, since ε = −y 2 ∂/∂ z¯, and so from Lemma 6.4(i) we see that (9.3) M k consists of the holomorphic elements of Ak (0). As the title of this section indicates, we are mainly interested in the signiﬁcance of Eisenstein series among eigenforms in general; we will not investigate much about the so-called cusp eigenforms, though we will deﬁne them and prove a few of their elementary properties. If f ∈ Ak (Γ, λ), we have f (z + b) = f (z) for b ∈ N Z for some positive integer N, for the same reason as in (3.6a). Therefore, putting r = N −1 , we see that f (x + iy) as a function of x has a Fourier expansion ch (y)e(hx) (9.4) f (x + iy) = h∈rZ

with C ∞ functions ch (y) of y. It should be noted that h may be negative. Moreover, termwise partial diﬀerentiation is valid (see [S07, §A2]), and so (2πih)a (∂/∂y)b ch (y)e(hx) (∂/∂x)a (∂/∂y)b f (x + iy) = h∈rZ

for every a and b. Therefore, applying Lk to (9.4), we ﬁnd that ch is a solution of the diﬀerential equation 2 (9.5) y (d/dy)2 + ky · d/dy − 4π 2 h2 y 2 + 2πhky + λ c(y) = 0. If h = 0, the solutions of this equation are given by Whittaker functions, which we use in the form ∞ (9.6) V (y; α, β) = e−y/2 Γ (β)−1 y β e−yt (1 + t)α−1 tβ−1 dt, 0

where 0 < y ∈ R and (α, β) ∈ C2 . The last integral is convergent for Re(β) > 0. In fact, V (y; α, β) can be deﬁned as a holomorphic function of (α, β) on the whole C2 . In §A2 of the Appendix we give an exposition of some basic facts on this function. Given k and λ ∈ C, we take (α, β) ∈ C2 so that (9.7)

k = α − β,

λ = β(1 − α),

and deﬁne a function Wk (t, λ) for t ∈ R× by V (4πt; α, β) if t > 0, (9.8) Wk (t, λ) = −k |4πt| V (|4πt|; β, α) if t < 0. If (α, β) is a solution of (9.7), then the other solution is (1 − β, 1 − α) (which may be equal to (α, β)), but Wk (t, λ) is determined by k and λ, since V (y; 1 − β, 1 − α) = V (y; α, β), as will be shown in Lemma A2.2 of the Appendix.

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III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

Returning to ch (y) of (9.4), we have 1/r f (x + iy)e(−hx)dx, (9.9) ch (y) = r 0

and so (9.1c) implies that ch (y) = O(y B ) as y → ∞ with B ∈ R. By Lemma A2.4 of the Appendix every solution c of (9.5) such that c(y) = O(y B ) as y → ∞ is a constant times Wk (hy, λ), and vice versa. Thus ch (y) = bh Wk (hy, λ) with bh ∈ C, and so bh Wk (hy, λ)e(hx) (9.10) f (x + iy) = b0 (y) + 0=h∈rZ ∞

with a C function b0 . We call this the Fourier expansion of f, and b0 the constant term of f. (The word “constant” is used with respect to the variable x, and b0 (y) may involve y nontrivially.) Let α ∈ SL2 (Q). Then jα (z)−k f (αz) belongs to Ak (λ), and so has a Fourier expansion of the type (9.10). We call f a cusp form if the constant term of jα (z)−k f (αz) is 0 for every α ∈ SL2 (Q), and we denote by Sk (λ) the set of cusp forms of Ak (λ), and put Sk (Γ, λ) = Ak (Γ, λ) ∩ Sk (λ). Taking h = 0 in (9.5), we obtain a diﬀerential equation y 2 b0 + kyb0 + λb0 = 0,

(9.11)

which is easy to solve. Indeed, let X 2 + (k − 1)X + λ = (X − p)(X − q) with p, q ∈ C, and p = q if and only if 4λ = (k − 1)2 ; if 4λ = (k − 1)2 , then X 2 + (k − 1)X + λ = (X − p)2 with p = (1 − k)/2. With these p and q equation (9.11) has linearly independent solutions as follows: (9.12a)

y p and y q with p + q = 1 − k and pq = λ if 4λ = (k − 1)2 ,

(9.12b)

y p and y p log y with p = (1 − k)/2 if 4λ = (k − 1)2 .

Thus b0 is a C-linear combination of these two functions in each case. We call the eigenvalue λ critical in the latter case. Lemma 9.2. For f, b0 , and bh as in (9.10), the following assertions hold: (i) There exist two positive constants M and m such that |bh | ≤ M |h|k/2+m for every h ∈ rZ, = 0. Moreover, we can take m = 0 if f is a cusp form. (ii) There exist positive constants A, B, and C such that bh Wk (hy, λ) ≤ Ae−By if y ≥ C. y k/2 0=h∈rZ

(iii) Sk (λ) consists of all the elements of Ak (λ) that are rapidly decreasing at every cusp. (iv) Sk (0) = S k . Proof. We have

bh Wk (hy, λ) = r

f (x + iy)e(−hx)dx, 0

and so by Lemma 6.4(iv) we have

1/r

9. EISENSTEIN SERIES AS AUTOMORPHIC EIGENFORMS

69

k/2 y bh Wk (hy, λ) ≤ A(y c + y −c )

(9.13) with positive Appendix we a constant d 2−1 e−y/2 if y

constants A and c independent of h. In Lemma A2.5 of the will show that limy→∞ ey/2 V (y; α, β) = 1. Thus we can ﬁnd > 1 such that |V (y; α, β)| ≥ 2−1 e−y/2 and |V (y; β, α)| ≥ > d, and so by (9.8) we obtain −1 −2πhy 2 e if h > 0 and 4πhy > d, (9.14) |Wk (hy, λ)| ≥ −1 −2π|h|y −k 2 e |4πhy| if h < 0 and 4π|h|y > d. Dividing (9.13) by this, we can ﬁnd a positive constant M independent of h such that 1 if h > 0 and 4πhy > d, |bh | ≤ M e2π|h|y y −k/2 (y c + y −c ) · |hy|k if h < 0 and 4π|h|y > d. Taking y = d/|2πh|, we obtain |bh | ≤ M ed |h|k/2+c with a constant M independent of h. This proves the ﬁrst part of (i). By Lemma A2.2(i) of the Appendix we have, for any positive number y0 , (9.15)

|V (y; α, β)| + |V (y; β, α)| ≤ A1 e−y/2

for y > y0

with a positive constant A1 . Combining this with (i), we obtain bh Wk (hy, λ) ≤ A2 y k/2 y k/2 |h|k/2+m e−2π|h|y . 0=h∈rZ

0=h∈rZ

for y > 1/2 with a constant A2 > 0. Put |h| = rn with 0 < n ∈ Z. Then ∞ the last sum is majorized by 2ra e−πry n=1 na e−πrny with an integer a ≥ ∞ k/2 + m. We have n=1 na xn = xPa (x)/(1 − x)a+1 with a polynomial Pa of degree a − 1, and so we obtain the estimate of (ii). If f ∈ Ak (λ), then (ii) is applicable to f k α for every α ∈ SL2 (Q). If f ∈ Sk (λ) in particular, (ii) implies that f is rapidly decreasing at every cusp. Conversely, if an element f of Ak (λ) is rapidly decreasing at every cusp, then from (9.9) with h = 0 we see that limy→∞ y c b0 (y) = 0 for every c ∈ R, and so b0 = 0. This is so for f k α in place of f for every α ∈ SL2 (Q). Thus f ∈ Sk (λ). This proves (iii). Returning to (i), suppose f is a cusp form; then Lemma 6.4(v) combined with (iii) shows that |y k/2 f | is bounded on H, and so we can take c = 0 in (9.13). Thus |bh | ≤ M |h|k/2 , which proves the last part of (i). As for (iv), we have S k ⊂ Sk (0) by (9.3) combined with (iii). Let f ∈ Sk (0). As will be shown in Lemma 9.3 below, εf is rapidly decreasing at every cusp. Therefore, by Corollary 6.9(ii), f ∈ S k . This proves (iv) and completes the proof. Remark. For h > 0 and λ = 0 we have Wk (hy, 0) = V (4πhy; k, 0) = e by (A2.3) of the Appendix, and so Wk (hy, 0)e(hx) = e(hz). Thus the Fourier expansion of an element of M k is a special case of (9.10), and (i) of the above lemma includes Lemma 6.2(ii, iii) as special cases. −2πhy

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Lemma 9.3. Let ε and δk be as in (6.13a, b). Then the following assertions hold: (i) εAk (Γ, λ) ⊂ Ak−2 (Γ∗ , λ − k + 2). (ii) δk Ak (Γ, λ) ⊂ Ak+2 (Γ ∗ , λ + k). (iii) These inclusions are true with S in place of A. (iv) Sk (Γ, λ) contains a nonholomorphic function only if 0 < λ ∈ R. For the moment we have Γ∗ = Γ ∗ = Γ. In §9.5 we will generalize the notion of A congruence subgroup, and explain the meaning of Γ∗ and Γ ∗ . Proof. Let f ∈ Ak (Γ, λ). Then, from (6.14a, b, e) we easily see that εf and δk f satisfy (9.1a, b) with k and λ modiﬁed as in (i) and (ii). Thus our task is to show that they are slowly increasing at every cusp. We see that Wk (hy, λ)e(hx) equals ϕA (x + iy; k, λ) of (A2.9) of the Appendix with A = 2πh, and so from (A2.10) and (A2.11) of the Appendix we obtain (8πih)−1 λ if h > 0, ε Wk (hy, λ)e(hx) = Wk−2 (hy, λ + 2 − k)e(hx) · (8πih)−1 if h < 0, 2πih if h > 0, δk Wk (hy, λ)e(hx) = Wk+2 (hy, λ + k)e(hx) · 2πih(λ + k) if h < 0. Therefore, if f is as in (9.10), then εf = εb0 + ch Wk−2 (hy, λ + 2 − k)e(hx) h=0 −1

with ch = (8πih) λbh if h > 0 and ch = (8πih)−1 bh if h < 0. By Lemma 9.2(i), |ch | = M |h|(k−2)/2+m with positive constants M and m. Since the technique of the proof of Lemma 9.2(ii) is applicable to εf − εb0 , we have y (k−2)/2 |εf −εb0 | = O(e−By ) as y → ∞ with some B > 0. Observe that εb0 is a function of the same type as b0 with (k−2, λ+2−k) in place of (k, λ). These are applicable to ε(f k α) with any α ∈ SL2 (Q). Since ε(f k α) = (εf )k−2 α by (6.14a), we see that εf is slowly increasing at every cusp. Thus εf ∈ Ak−2 (Γ, λ−k +2), which is (i). The proof of (ii) can be given in a similar way. Suppose f ∈ Sk (Γ, λ). Then b0 = 0, and so |y (k−2)/2 (εf )k−2 α| = O(e−By ) as y → ∞. Thus εf is rapidly decreasing at every cusp, and the same is true with δk f. This proves (iii). To prove (iv), let 0 = f ∈ Sk (Γ, λ). Then, ¯ f ; also, f, Lk f ≥ 0 by by (6.19), λf, f = f, Lk f = Lk f, f = λf, (6.20). Therefore, in view of Lemma 9.2(iv) we obtain (iv). This completes the proof. Returning to Corollary 6.9(ii), we see that the assumption on εf is unnecessary in view of (iii) of the above lemma. Theorem 9.4. The vector space Ak (Γ, λ) is ﬁnite-dimensional.

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71

Proof. We ﬁrst note that given 0 < r < 1 and two positive integers a and p, we have ∞ ma xm ≤ Ca,r pa xp for 0 ≤ x ≤ r (9.16) m=p

with a constant Ca, r independent of p and x. Indeed, ∞ ∞ a ∞ a ma xm−p = (n + p)a xn ≤ ni r n pa−i i m=p

n=0

i=0

n=0

for 0 ≤ x ≤ r, which proves (9.16). Next, take a ﬁnite subset X of Γ (1) such that H = Γ XT with T = x + iy ∈ C |x| ≤ 1/2, y > 1/2 , as we did in the proof of Lemma 6.4. By Lemma 9.2(iii) and Lemma 6.4(v), |y k/2 f | is bounded on H. Given f ∈ Sk (Γ, λ) and ξ ∈ X, put Mf = Maxz∈H |y k/2 f (z)| and f k ξ = 0=h∈rZ bh,ξ Wk (hy, λ)e(hx) with the same r for all ξ ∈ X and all f ∈ Sk (Γ, λ). Since |y k/2 (f k ξ)| = |(y k/2 f ) ◦ ξ| ≤ Mf , from (9.9) we obtain y k/2 |bh,ξ Wk (hy, λ)| ≤ Mf . Dividing this by (9.14) and employing the technique of a few lines below (9.14), we ﬁnd that |bh,ξ | ≤ BMf |h|k/2 with a constant B independent of h, ξ, and f. Fix an integer p > 1 and suppose bh,ξ = 0 for all ξ ∈ X and all h such that |h| < rp. Then by (9.15), |y k/2 (f k ξ)| ≤ y k/2 |bh,ξ Wk (hy, λ)| ≤ DMf |h|k/2 e−2π|h|y |h|≥p

|h|≥rp

for y > 1/2 with a constant D independent of f and ξ. The last sum is a −2πrmy with a positive integer a ≥ k/2. By (9.16) majorized by 2ra ∞ m=p m e a a −2πrpy this is ≤ 2r Cp e for y > 1/2 with some C independent of p. Thus (9.17)

|y k/2 (f k ξ)| ≤ 2ra CDMf pa e−2πrpy for y > 1/2.

Now, given z ∈ H, take γ ∈ Γ, ξ ∈ X, and w ∈ T so that z = γξw. Then |y f (z)| = |y k/2 f (γξw)| = |v k/2 (f k ξ)(w)|, where v = Im(w). Therefore, by (9.17) we have k/2

(9.17a)

|y k/2 f (z)| ≤ 2ra CDMf pa e−2πrpv ≤ 2ra Ca,1 DMf pa e−πrp ,

since v > 1/2. The last quantity of (9.17a) tends to 0 as p → ∞. Thus if p is suﬃciently large, we obtain Mf = 0. This means that for f ∈ Sk (Γ, λ) if bh,ξ = 0 for all ξ ∈ X and all h such that |h| < rp with a large enough p, then f = 0. This shows that dim Sk (Γ, λ) is ﬁnite. Since an element of Ak (Γ, λ)/Sk (Γ, λ) is determined by the terms of f k ξ for all ξ ∈ X, constant #(X) . This proves our theorem. we see that dim Ak (Γ, λ)/Sk (Γ, λ) ≤ 2 9.5. So far it was unnecessary to specify a branch of jαk for an arbitrary α in SL2 (Q) when k ∈ / Z, but in the following treatment, that is not satisfactory. To make it more speciﬁc, for a weight k we deﬁne a group Gk as follows: / Z, Gk consists of all couples (α, q), where Gk = SL2 (Q) if k ∈ Z. If k ∈

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III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

α ∈ SL2 (Q) and q is a holomorphic function on H such that q(z)2 = tjα (z)2k with a root of unity t. We make Gk a group by the law of multiplication (9.18) (α, q)(α , q ) = αα , q(α z)q (z) . We deﬁne a projection map pr : Gk → SL2 (Q) by pr(α, q) = α if k ∈ / Z, and take the identity map to be pr if k ∈ Z. We put Pk = α ∈ Gk pr(α) ∈ P . (This is diﬀerent from what was deﬁned in Lemma 2.2(iii), since we are in the one-dimensional case.) Notice that Pk is isomorphic to P × T0 , where T0 is the group of all roots of unity. Thus Pk is commutative. If Γ is a congruence subgroup of Γ θ , then the map γ → (γ, jγk ) for k ∈ /Z with jγk as in (5.1b) is an injection of Γ into Gk . We identify Γ with its image under this map, and view Γ as a subgroup of Gk . For ξ = (γ, q) ∈ Gk , z ∈ H, and a function f on H we put aξ = aγ , bξ = bγ , cξ = cγ , dξ = dγ , jξk (z) = q(z), ξz = γz, and (9.19)

(f k ξ)(z) = q(z)−1 f (γz).

From (9.18) we easily obtain (9.19a)

f k (ξη) = (f k ξ)k η.

We also deﬁne elements ξ∗ of Gk−2 and ξ ∗ of Gk+2 by (9.20)

ξ∗ = (γ, qjγ−2 ),

ξ ∗ = (γ, qjγ2 ).

Then from (6.14a, b) we obtain (9.21)

ε(f k ξ) = (εf )k−2 ξ∗ ,

δk (f k ξ) = (δk f )k+2 ξ ∗ .

We easily see that (6.12) is valid for α ∈ Gk . Also, we have (9.21a) Let the notation be as in Theorem 7.5, and let Φ be a subﬁeld of C containing Qab . Then Xk (Φ) is stable under the map f → f k ξ for every ξ ∈ Gk . This follows immediately from Theorem 7.5(iii). By a congruence subgroup of Gk we mean a subgroup Γ of Gk that contains Γ (N ) (viewed as a subgroup of Gk ) for some even N as a subgroup of ﬁnite index, and such that pr restricted to Γ is injective. For such a Γ and ξ ∈ Gk we see that ξΓ ξ −1 is a congruence subgroup of Gk . This follows from Theorem 4.7(4). Ak (Γ, Given a congruence subgroup Γ of Gk , we can deﬁne λ) by (9.1a, b, c). If Γ (N ) ⊂ Γ as above, then Ak (Γ, λ) ⊂ Ak Γ (N ), λ , and so what we have done in §9.1 is applicable to the elements of Ak (Γ, λ); also, Sk (Γ, λ) can be deﬁned in an obvious fashion. Lemma 9.2 and Theorem 9.4 arevalid in this generalized sense. In Lemma 9.3 we take Γ = ξ∗ ξ ∈ Γ and ∗ ∗ ∗ Γ = ξ ξ ∈ Γ . These are congruence subgroups of Gk−2 and Gk+2 .

9. EISENSTEIN SERIES AS AUTOMORPHIC EIGENFORMS

73

We note here an alternative way of treating factors of automorphy of nonintegral weight. In [S74] we developed an axiomatic (and algebraic) theory of automorphic forms of an arbitrary weight. The advantage of this method is that we can prove a certain trace formula for Hecke operators, which is quite practicable. Indeed, in [N77] Niwa computed the traces of some Hecke operators of half-integral weight, and investigated the structure of Hecke algebras eﬀectively. Though we do not discuss this theory here, those researchers interested in the computation of the trace of a Hecke operator of half-integral weight may be encouraged to look at [S74]. 9.6. Given a congruence subgroup Γ of Gk , we put Γ∞ = Pk ∩ Γ and y s k α, (9.22) Ek (z, s; Γ ) = α∈Γ∞ \Γ

where z ∈ H, s ∈ C, and y = Im(z); we assume that jγk = 1 for γ ∈ Γ∞ . Then the sum of (9.22) is formally well deﬁned, and convergent for Re(s) > 1 − k/2 by Lemma 8.7. This series is called the Eisenstein series of Γ. Let Γ be a congruence subgroup of Gk contained in Γ, and let Γ∞ = Γ ∩ Pk . Then we easily see that ]Ek (z, s; Γ ) = Ek (z, s; Γ )k α. (9.23) [Γ∞ : Γ∞ α∈Γ \Γ

Take a multiple N of 4 so that Γ (N ) ⊂ Γ. Let Ψk be the set of all characters ψ modulo N such that ψ(−1) = (−1)[k] . Then we easily see that Ek z, s; Γ (N, N ), ψ . (9.24) 2#(Ψk )Ek z, s; Γ (N ) = ψ∈Ψk

This combined with (9.23) on analytic properties of reduces the problems Ek (z, s; Γ ) to those of Ek z, s; Γ (N, N ), ψ . Therefore from Theorems 8.12 and 8.14 we see that Ek (z, s; Γ ) can be continued as a meromorphic function of s to the whole complex plane. We will give more precise statements in Theorem 9.9. In view of (9.21) we can easily verify, by termwise diﬀerentiation, that (9.25a) (9.25b) (9.25c)

εEk (z, s; Γ ) = (−si/2)Ek−2 (z, s + 1; Γ∗ ), δk Ek (z, s; Γ ) = − (s + k)i/2 Ek+2 (z, s − 1; Γ ∗ ), Lk Ek (z, s; Γ ) = s(1 − k − s)Ek (z, s; Γ ).

Strictly speaking, termwise diﬀerentiation is ﬁrst justiﬁed for suﬃciently large Re(s), but meromorphic continuation of both sides guarantees the equalities on the whole s-plane. For more details, see the paragraph below (8.20). Given a congruence subgroup Γ of Gk , the projection map pr gives a bijection of Pk \Gk /Γ onto P \SL2(Q)/pr(Γ ), which corresponds to the pr(Γ )equivalence classes of cusps as observed in §6.3. We call each coset Pk ξΓ

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III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

with ξ ∈ Gk a cusp-class of Γ, and call it regular if jηk = 1 for every η ∈ Pk ∩ ξΓ ξ −1 . This is the condition on Pk ξΓ, and is independent of the choice of ξ. Then Ek (z, s; ξΓ ξ −1 ) is well deﬁned. Lemma 9.7. Let Γ be a congruence subgroup of Gk , Y˜ a complete set of representatives for Pk \Gk /Γ, and Y the set of all ξ ∈ Y˜ such that Pk ξΓ is regular. Then the following assertions hold: (i) Let f ∈ Ak (Γ, λ) and ξ ∈ Y˜ . Then the Fourier expansion of f k ξ −1 has a nontrivial constant term only if ξ ∈ Y. (ii) For ξ, η ∈ Y we have gξη (h, s, y)e(hx), Ek (z, s; ξΓ ξ −1 )k ξη −1 = δξη y s + fξη (s)y 1−k−s + 0=h∈pZ

where δξη is Kronecker’s delta, fξη and gξη are meromorphic functions in s, and 0 < p ∈ Q. Proof. Put Γξ = ξΓ ξ −1 . Let α ∈ Pk ∩ Γξ and β = pr(α). Then β ∈ 1 b with b ∈ Q. Thus y s k α = (jαk )−1 y s . Since P ∩ pr(Γξ ), and so β = ± 0 1 f k ξ −1 α = f k ξ −1 in the setting of (i), f k ξ −1 has a nontrivial constant term only if jαk = 1. This proves (i). To prove (ii), for a ∈ Q deﬁne an element r(a) of Pk by

1 a (9.26) r(a) = ,1 . 0 1 Then r(Q) ∩ Γξ = r(qZ) with 0 < q ∈ Q. (This is because Γ (N ) ⊂ Γ for some even N.) Take a subset Φ of Γ so that 1 ∈ / Φ and Φ ∪ {1} is a complete set of representatives for (Pk ∩ Γξ )\Γξ /r(qZ). Then 1 and the elements ϕr(a) with ϕ ∈ Φ and a ∈ qZ represent (Pk ∩ Γξ )\Γξ without overlap. Therefore y s k ϕr(qm). Ek (z, s; Γξ ) = y s + ϕ∈Φ m∈Z

For a ﬁxed ϕ ∈ Φ put c = cϕ and d = dϕ . Then c = 0 and jϕk (z)/(cz + d)k ∈ T, and so y s k ϕr(qm) = ty s c−2s−k (z + c−1 d + qm)−s−k (¯ z + c−1 d + qm)−s m∈Z

m∈Z

with an element t ∈ T determined by ϕ. By Lemma A2.3 of the Appendix the last sum over Z has an expansion of the form i−k (2π/q)2s+k e q −1 n(x + c−1 d) + q −1 |n|iy gn (q −1 y; s + k, s) n∈Z

with gn as in (A2.4). For n = 0, from (A2.4) we obtain y 1−2s−k h(s) with a meromorphic function h(s). Multiplying by ty s c−2s−k and taking the sum over all ϕ ∈ Φ, we obtain the Fourier expansion of Ek (z, s; Γξ ) as stated in our lemma in the case ξ = η.

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75

Next, let ξ = η ∈ Y.Let Z be a complete set of representatives for (Pk ∩ Γξ )\ξΓ η −1 / r(Q) ∩ Γη . Then the elements ζr(a) with ζ ∈ Z and r(a) ∈ r(Q)∩Γη represent (Pk ∩Γξ )\ξΓ η −1 without overlap, because of the following simple fact:

1 x α−1 ∈ P with x ∈ Q× , then α ∈ P. (9.27) If α ∈ SL2 (Q) and α 0 1

−1

u v 1 x −1 . Then cα = vcα and Indeed, suppose x = 0 and α α = 0 v 0 1 cα x + dα = vdα . If cα = 0, then v = 1 and x = 0, a contradiction. This proves (9.27). Therefore the same argument as above establishes the Fourier expansion of Ek (z, s; Γξ )k ξη −1 ; the only new feature is that y s does not appear. This proves (ii) and completes the proof. Lemma 9.8. Let Q be a ﬁnite set of functions q(z, s) of the form q(z, s) = E(z, s)k α with E of type (8.12a) or (9.22) and α ∈ Gk , and let g(z, s) = q∈Q fq (s)q(z, s) with meromorphic functions fq on C. Then, for every s0 ∈ C there exists an integer m and a neighborhood V of s0 such that (s − s0 )m g(z, s) is a real analytic function on H × V that is holomorphic in s, and, as a function of z, is slowly increasing at every cusp, locally uniformly in s ∈ V. In particular, if g is ﬁnite at s = s0 , then g(z, s0 ) is an element of Ak (λ) with λ = s0 (1 − k − s0 ). Proof. In view of (9.23) and (9.24), it is suﬃcient to prove our lemma when q = Ek α with a function E of type (8.12). Then our ﬁrst assertion follows immediately from Theorems 8.12 and 8.14. From (9.25c) and (6.14d) we obtain Lk g(z, s) = s(1 − k − s)g(z, s), and so Lk g(z, s0 ) = λg(z, s0 ) with λ = s0 (1 − k − s0 ) if g is ﬁnite at s = s0 . Moreover, those theorems show that m and V can be taken in such a way that (s − s0 )m g(z, s) is slowly increasing at every cusp, locally uniformly in s ∈ V. This shows that g(z, s0 ), if ﬁnite, belongs to Ak (λ). This proves our lemma. Theorem 9.9. Given a congruence subgroup Γ of Gk , there exist a nonzero entire function A(s) and a real analytic function B(z, s) on H × C holomorphic in s such that A(s)Ek (z, s; Γ ) = B(z, s). Moreover, Ek (z, s; Γ ) is holomorphic in s except at the points given in (1), (2), (1 ), (2 ), and (3 ) below, and E0 (z, s; Γ ) has a pole as described in (4). (1) k ∈ Z and −k/2 ≤ Re(s) < (1 − k)/2. (2) k ∈ Z and s is an integer such that s ≤ −(k + ν)/2, where ν is 0 or 1 determined by k + ν ∈ 2Z. (1 ) k ∈ / Z and (1 − 2k)/4 ≤ Re(s) < (1 − k)/2. / Z and s is an element of 4−1 Z such that 0 ≥ 2s + k − 1/2 ∈ Z. (2 ) k ∈ (3 ) k ∈ / Z and |k| − 1/2 ∈ 2Z; then Ek (z, s; Γ ) has at most a simple pole at s = (3 − 2k)/4.

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III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

(4) If k = 0, then E0 (z, s; Γ ) has a simple pole at s = 1, and the residue is π −1 times a positive rational number. Proof. By (9.23) and (9.24) our problem can be reduced to the functions of type (8.12). Therefore the existence of A(s) and B(z, s) follows from Theorems 8.12 and 8.14 combined with those formulas. Suppose k ∈ Z. We employ Theorem 8.12 and (8.18), which involves a character ψ such that ψ(−1) = (−1)k . Thus ψ(−1) = (−1)ν with ν as in (2). Let ψ be the primitive character associated with ψ. It is well known that L(s, ψ ) can be 0 only if 0 < Re(s) < 1 or 0 ≥ s + ν ∈ 2Z. We have LN (2s + k, ψ) in (8.18), and so we have to consider 1 − ψ (p)p−2s−k , which becomes 0 only if Re(2s + k) = 0. Therefore LN (2s + k, ψ) = 0 only if −k/2 ≤ Re(s) < (1 − k)/2 or 0 ≥ 2s + k + ν ∈ 2Z. Thus, from (8.18), (9.23), and (9.24) we see that Ek (z, s; Γ ) is ﬁnite except at the points of (1) and (2). Suppose k = 0; then E0N (z, s; χ0 ) = 2ζ(2s)E0 z, s; Γ (1) by (8.18), where χ0 is the principal character. From Theorem 8.12 we see that E0 z, s; Γ (1) has a simple pole at s = 1 with residue π/[2ζ(2)], which equals 3/π. This combined with (9.23) proves (4). Next suppose k ∈ / Z. We employ Theorem 8.14, in which LN (4s−1+2k, ψ 2 ) appears. In this case N > 1. For the same reason as in the case k ∈ Z we see that it becomes 0 only if (1 − 2k)/4 ≤ Re(s) < (1 − k)/2 or 0 ≥ 4s − 1 + 2k ∈ 2Z. Also, a factor 2s − λ − 1 appears in Theorem 8.14, where λ = 1/2 − k. This is necessary only if |k| + 1/2 is odd. Thus Ek (z, s; Γ ) may have a simple pole at s = (3 − 2k)/4 if |k| + 1/2 is odd. Therefore we have conditions (1 ), (2 ), and (3 ) when k ∈ / Z. This completes the proof. 9.10. Let Γ be a congruence subgroup of Gk and X a ﬁnite subset of Gk % such that Gk = ξ∈X Γ ξPk . (This is consistent with (6.10). Then we can take Y˜ = ξ −1 ξ ∈ X in Lemma 9.7.) Let f ∈ Ak (Γ, λ) and g ∈ Ak (Γ, μ). Assuming that both λ and μ are noncritical, denote by {p}λ the set {p, q} with p, q such that p + q = 1 − k and pq = λ. Then for each ξ ∈ X we put ap,ξ y p + nonconstant terms, (9.28a) f k ξ = p∈{p}λ

(9.28b)

gk ξ =

bp,ξ y p + nonconstant terms

p∈{p}μ

with ap,ξ , bp,ξ ∈ C. If both λ and μ are critical, we put (9.28c)

f k ξ = aξ y p + aξ y p log y + nonconstant terms,

(9.28d)

gk ξ = bξ y p + bξ y p log y + nonconstant terms

with aξ , bξ , aξ , bξ ∈ C, where p = (1−k)/2. We also put Qξ = P ∩pr(ξ −1 Γ ξ) and R = ξ∈X Qξ .

9. EISENSTEIN SERIES AS AUTOMORPHIC EIGENFORMS

77

¯ and λ is not Theorem 9.11. With f and g as above, suppose μ = λ critical. Fix one p ∈ {p}λ and put q = 1 − k − p. Then (9.29a) νξ (¯ ap,ξ bq¯,ξ − a ¯q,ξ bp,ξ ¯ ) = 0, ξ∈X

−1 where νξ = {±1}Qξ : {±1}R . If λ = μ and λ is critical, then νξ (¯ aξ bξ − a ¯ξ bξ ) = 0. (9.29b) ξ∈X

Proof. The idea of the proof is the same as in the proof of Theorem 6.8. Deﬁne Tr and Mr as in (6.17), and take a suﬃciently large r so that the sets ξ(Qξ \Tr ) for ξ ∈ X can be embedded into Γ \H without overlap. Also, take a union J of small neighborhoods of elliptic ﬁxed points on Γ \H. Let K be the complement of ξ∈X ξ(Qξ \Tr ) ∪ J in Γ \H. Then K is a compact manifold with boundary, and ξ(Qξ \Mr ) − ∂J. ∂K = ξ∈X

Let ϕ be a 1-form on H that is C ∞ and Γ -invariant. Then (9.30) dϕ = ϕ= νξ ϕ◦ξ− ϕ, K

∂K

ξ∈X

Br

∂J

where Br = R\Mr with a natural orientation. Take ϕ = f¯ · εg · y k−2 d¯ z . Then by (6.18) with εg as h, we have dϕ = (2i)−1 f¯ · Lk g · y k dz + 2iεf · εg · y k−2 dz with dz viewed as a 2-form. Putting similarly ψ = g¯ · εf · y k−2 d¯ z , we ﬁnd that dϕ + dψ = (2i)−1 (f¯ · Lk g − Lk f · g)y k dz = 0, ¯ Applying (9.30) to this form, we obtain since Lk f = λf and Lk g = λg. ¯ ◦ξ− ¯ = 0. νξ (ϕ + ψ) (ϕ + ψ) ξ∈X

Br

∂J

We now take the expansions (9.28a, b) into consideration. We have ϕ ◦ ξ = f k ξ · ε(gk ξ)y k−2 d¯ z , and a similar formula holds for ψ¯ ◦ ξ. Fix one p ∈ {p}λ ¯ we have {p}μ = {¯ and put q = 1 − k − p. Then for μ = λ p, q¯}, and so p+1 ¯ 2iϕ ◦ ξ = (¯ ap,ξ y p¯ + a ¯q,ξ y q¯)(¯ pbp,ξ + q¯bq¯,ξ y q¯+1 )y k−2 d¯ z ¯ y

+ nonconstant terms, p¯ q¯ ¯ ¯ − 2iψ ◦ ξ = (bp,ξ pa ¯p,ξ y p+1 + q¯a ¯q,ξ y q¯+1 )y k−2 dz ¯ y + bq¯,ξ y )(¯ + nonconstant terms. Since Br y s (dx ± dy) = − we have

h s 0 r dx

with a constant h > 0 independent of ξ,

78

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

h

¯ ◦ ξ = (¯ 2i(ϕ + ψ) p − q¯)(¯ ap,ξ bq¯,ξ − a ¯q,ξ bp,ξ ¯ )

dx + nonconstant terms. 0

Br

By Lemma 9.2(ii) the sum of the nonconstant terms of (9.28a, b, c, d) are O(e−cy ) as y → ∞ with some c > 0, and so the same is true for the nonconstant terms of ϕ ◦ ξ and ψ¯ ◦ ξ, and even for their integrals over Br . We have q − p = 1 − k − 2p = 0, since λ is noncritical. Therefore, taking the limit as r → ∞ and making J shrink to the elliptic points, we obtain (9.29a). When λ is critical, the constant terms involving log y cancel each other, and so equality (9.29b) can be proved in a similar way. Our proof is now complete. 9.12. We put (9.31a) (9.31b)

Nk (λ) = g ∈ Ak (λ) f, g = 0 for every f ∈ Sk (λ) , Nk (Γ, λ) = g ∈ Ak (Γ, λ) f, g = 0 for every f ∈ Sk (Γ, λ) ,

where Γ is a congruence subgroup of Gk . The inner product f, g is meaningful in view of (9.1c), Lemma 9.2(iii), and what we said in §6.5. From (6.12) we see that Nk (λ)k α = Nk (λ) for every α ∈ Gk . We have also (9.32a)

Ak (λ) = Sk (λ) ⊕ Nk (λ),

(9.32b)

Ak (Γ, λ) = Sk (Γ, λ) ⊕ Nk (Γ, λ),

(9.33)

Nk (Γ, λ) = Nk (λ) ∩ Ak (Γ, λ).

Indeed, (9.32b) is easy, since Ak (Γ, λ) is of ﬁnite dimension, as proved in Theorem 9.4. Clearly the left-hand side of (9.33) contains the right-hand side. To prove the opposite inclusion, let g ∈ Nk (Γ, λ) and f ∈ Sk (λ). Take a normal congruence subgroup Δ of Γ so that f ∈ Sk (Δ, λ). By (9.32b), g = p + q with p ∈ Sk (Δ, λ) and q ∈ Nk (Δ, λ). For γ ∈ Γ we have g = gk γ = pk γ + qk γ. We easily see that pk γ ∈ Sk (Δ, λ) and qk γ ∈ Nk (Δ, λ) by virtue of (6.12), and so (9.32b) with Δ in place of Γ shows that pk γ = p and qk γ = q, and so p ∈ Sk (Γ, λ) and q ∈ Nk (Γ, λ). By (9.32b), g = q ∈ Nk (Δ, λ), and so g, f = 0, which shows that g ∈ Nk (λ). This proves (9.33). Since Ak (λ) is the union of Ak (Γ, λ) for all Γ, we obtain (9.32a) from (9.32b) and (9.33). 9.13. Lemma 9.8 shows that a function of type Ek (z, s; Γ )k α, if ﬁnite, belongs to Ak (λ) with λ = s(1−k−s). We are going to show that the function actually belongs to Nk (λ), and moreover, Nk (λ) is generated by such functions for almost all values of λ. To prove the ﬁrst statement, given f ∈ Sk (λ1 ) with any λ1 ∈ C, take an even integer N > 2 so that f ∈ Sk Γ (N ), λ1 ). We have expansion (9.10) N with r = 1/N. Since the constant term of f is 0, we have 0 f (z)dx = 0, and ∞ N so 0 0 f (z)dx y s+k+2 dy = 0. Let Γ (N )∞ = Pk ∩ Γ (N ), Ψ = Γ (N )∞ \H,

9. EISENSTEIN SERIES AS AUTOMORPHIC EIGENFORMS ∞

79

N

and Φ = Γ (N )\H. Then we see that 0 0 · · · y −2 dxdy = Ψ · · · dz. Since % Ψ can be given by γ∈R γΦ with R = Γ (N )∞ \Γ (N ), we have by Rankin’s transformation, at least formally, s+k f (z)y dz = 0= f¯y s+k ◦ γdz

Ψ

f (z)

= Φ

γ∈R

Φ

jγk (z)|jγ (z)|−2s−2k y s+k dz =

f (z)Ek z, s; Γ (N ) y k dz. Φ

γ∈R

This can be justiﬁed for suﬃciently large Re(s). Indeed, Ek z, s; Γ (N ) is majorized by |jγ (z)|−2σ = E0 z, σ; Γ (N ) yσ γ∈R

for σ ∈ R, which, if ﬁnite, is slowly increasing at every cusp. Since f, being an element of Sk (λ1 ), is rapidly decreasing at every cusp, our formal calculation is justiﬁed for suﬃciently large σ. Combining this with (9.23), for every f ∈ Sk (λ1 ) and every congruence subgroup Γ of Gk we have (9.34) f (z)Ek (z, s; Γ )y k dz = 0 Γ \H

at least for suﬃciently large Re(s). By Lemma 9.8, for every s0 ∈ C there is an integer m and a neighborhood V of s0 such that (s−s0 )m Ek (z, s; Γ ) is slowly increasing at every cusp, locally uniformly in s ∈ V. Therefore the left-hand side of (9.34) is meaningful as a meromorphic function of s on the whole C, and also is valid whenever Ek (z, s; Γ ) is ﬁnite at s. Thus Ek (z, s; Γ ), if ﬁnite at s, belongs to Nk (λ1 ) with any λ1 ∈ C. For the moment λ1 is unrelated to s, but we will eventually take λ1 = s(1 − k − s). 9.14. Let Γ be a congruence subgroup of Gk . Taking Y as in Lemma 9.7, we denote by Ek (Γ ) the C-linear span of Ek (z, s; ξΓ ξ −1 )k ξ for all ξ ∈ Y. Given s0 ∈ C, we denote by Ek [s0 , Γ ] the subset of Ek (Γ ) consisting of all ) that are ﬁnite at s = s , and put E (s , Γ ) = g(z, s0 ) g(z, s) in Ek (Γ 0 k 0 ∗ g ∈ Ek [s0 , Γ ] . We also denote by Ek [s0 , Γ ] the set of all g ∈ Ek (Γ ) that have at most a simple pole at s0 , and by E∗k (s0 , Γ ) the set of the residues at s0 of the elements of E∗k [s0 , Γ ]. Let us now prove (9.35)

Ek (s0 , Γ ) + E∗k (s0 , Γ ) ⊂ Nk (Γ, λ) with λ = s0 (1 − k − s0 ).

Indeed, from Lemma 9.8 it follows that both Ek (s0 , Γ ) and E∗k (s0 , Γ ) are contained in Ak (Γ, λ). Now the elements of Ek (Γ ) are functions of the type g(z, s) of Lemma 9.8, and so formula (9.34) can be generalized to f (z)g(z, s)y k dz = 0 (9.36) Γ \H

for every f ∈ Sk (λ1 ) with any λ1 ∈ C in the sense that the left-hand side is meromorphic in s on the whole C, and is valid whenever g(z, s) is ﬁnite at

80

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

s. This shows that Ek (s0 , Γ ) ⊂ Nk (Γ, λ). Considering (s − s0 )g instead of g, we see similarly that E∗k (s0 , Γ ) ⊂ Nk (Γ, λ), and so we obtain (9.35). Lemma 9.15. (i) The symbols being as in §9.14, we have dim Ek (Γ ) = #Y. (ii) The map g(z, s) → g(z, s0 ) is a bijection of Ek [s0 , Γ ] onto Ek (s0 , Γ ), provided s0 = (1 − k)/2. (iii) Ek (Γ ) = Ek [s0 , Γ ] if Re(s0 ) ≥ (1 − k)/2 except in the following two cases: (a) s0 = 1 and k = 0; (b) s0 = (3 − 2k)/4 and |k| − 1/2 ∈ 2Z. Proof. Let g(z, s) = ξ∈Y cξ Ek (z, s; ξΓ ξ −1 )k ξ with cξ ∈ C. Suppose g ∈ Ek [s0 , Γ ]. Then from Lemma 9.7 we obtain, for every η ∈ Y,

−1 s0 g(z, s0 )k η = cη y + cξ fξη (s0 )y 1−k−s0 + · · · . ξ∈Y

If s0 = (1 − k)/2, then s0 = 1 − k − s0 , and so if g(z, s0 ) = 0, we have cη = 0 for every η ∈ Y. This proves (ii). In particular, if g = 0, then cξ = 0 for every ξ ∈ Y, which proves (i). Assertion (iii) follows immediately from Theorem 9.9. Theorem 9.16. (i) The notation being as in §9.14, suppose that Ek (Γ ) = Ek [s0 , Γ ] = Ek [¯ s0 , Γ ] and s0 = (1 − k)/2; let λ = s0 (1 − k − s0 ). Then Nk (Γ, λ) = Ek (s0 , Γ ) and dim Nk (Γ, λ) = #Y. (ii) In the setting of (i) let f ∈ Ak (Γ, λ) and f k ξ −1 = aξ y s0 + aξ y 1−k−s0 + nonconstant terms. If aξ = 0 for every ξ ∈ Y, then f is a cusp form. ¯ for each ξ ∈ Y put Proof. Given f ∈ Ak (Γ, λ) and g ∈ Ak (Γ, λ), f k ξ −1 = aξ y s0 + aξ y 1−k−s0 + nonconstant terms, gk ξ −1 = bξ y s¯0 + bξ y 1−k−¯s0 + nonconstant terms. (We can consider such expansions even for ξ ∈ Y˜ , but the constant term is 0 by Lemma 9.7(i) if ξ ∈ / Y.) By Theorem 9.11 (with X = ξ −1 ξ ∈ Y˜ ) we have νξ−1 aξ ¯bξ − aξ¯bξ = 0, (9.37) ξ∈Y

where ν∗ is as in that theorem. Moreover, the map (9.38)

f → (aξ , aξ )ξ∈Y

gives an injection of Ak (Γ, λ)/Sk (Γ, λ) into C2κ , where κ = #Y. A sim¯ in place of λ. By Lemma 9.15 and our asilar statement holds with λ s0 , Γ ) = κ. Each nonzero element g sumption, dim Ek (s0 , Γ ) = dim Ek (¯ of Ek (¯ s0 , Γ ) deﬁnes a nontrivial linear relation on (aξ , aξ ) by (9.37), since ¯ = {0} by (9.32b) and (9.35). Therefore the elements s0 , Γ ) ∩ Sk (λ) Ek (¯ s0 , Γ ) produce κ linearly independent relations on (aξ , aξ ), which of Ek (¯

9. EISENSTEIN SERIES AS AUTOMORPHIC EIGENFORMS

81

means that dim Nk (Γ, λ) = dim Ak (Γ, λ)/Sk (Γ, λ) ≤ κ. Since Ek (s0 , Γ ) ⊂ Nk (Γ, λ), this proves (i). Let f be as in (ii). By (i) we can put f (z) = g(z, s0 ) + h(z) with g ∈ Ek (s0 , Γ ) and h ∈ Sk (Γ, λ). Take this g as g in the proof of Lemma 9.15. Then our assumption aξ = 0 means cξ = 0 in that lemma, and so g = 0. This proves (ii). Theorem 9.17. The notation being as in §9.14, deﬁne a CY -valued function Ek on H × C by Ek (z, s; Γ ) = Ek (z, s; ξΓ ξ −1)k ξ ξ∈Y . Then there exists an End(CY )-valued meromorphic function Φk (s, Γ ) such that (9.39a)

Ek (z, s; Γ ) = Φk (s, Γ )Ek (z, 1 − k − s; Γ ),

(9.39b)

Φk (1 − k − s, Γ )Φk (s, Γ ) = 1.

Moreover, there is a diagonal element A of End(CY ), depending only on Γ and Y, whose diagonal entries are positive integers such that Φk (s, Γ )A · t Φk (1 − k − s¯, Γ ) = A.

(9.39c)

Proof. Put Γξ = ξΓ ξ −1 and Eξ (s) = Ek (z, s; Γξ )k ξ. By Lemma 9.7, for ξ, η ∈ Y we have Eξ (s)k η−1 = δξη y s + fξη (s)y 1−k−s + · · ·

(9.40a)

with meromorphic functions fξη on C, and so Eξ (1 − k − s)k η −1 = δξη y 1−k−s + fξη (1 − k − s)y s + · · · .

(9.40b) Therefore (9.41)

fξζ (1 − k − s)Eζ (s) k η−1 Eξ (1 − k − s) −

ζ∈Y = 0 · y s + δξη − fξζ (1 − k − s)fζη (s) y 1−k−s + · · · . ζ∈Y

We can easily ﬁnd a nonempty open subset W of C such that Ek (Γ ) = Ek [s, Γ ] = Ek [¯ s, Γ ] = Ek [1 − k − s, Γ ] = Ek [1 − k − s¯, Γ ], fξη (1 − k − s) is ﬁnite, and s = (1 − k)/2 for every s ∈ W. Then by Theorem 9.16(i) the left-hand side of (9.41) without k η −1 for such an s belongs to Nk (Γ, λ) with λ = s(1 − k − s). By Theorem 9.16(ii) it must be a cusp form, and so fξζ (1 − k − s)fζη (s) = δξη and Eξ (1 − k − s) = fξζ (1 − k − s)Eζ (s) ζ∈Y

ζ∈Y

for every s ∈ W. Writing Φk (s, Γ ) for the matrix [fξη (s)], we obtain (9.39a, ¯ and so from (9.37), (9.40a), and b). Next, Eξ (1 − k − s¯) belongs to Ak (Γ, λ), (9.40b) with ζ in place of ξ we obtain νη−1 δξη δζη − fξη (s)fζη (1 − k − s¯) = 0. η∈Y

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III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

Let A = diag[νη−1 ]η∈Y . Viewing this as an element of End(CY ), we obtain (9.39c). This completes the proof. Theorem 9.18. The notation being as in Theorem 9.17, suppose λ = subgroup Γ of Gk , let Ek (Γ ) μ2 with μ = (1 − k)/2. Given a congruence denote the space spanned by z, μ for g ∈ Ek [μ, Γ ] and E0k (Γ ) the (∂g/∂s) space consisting of (∂g/∂s) z, μ for all g ∈ Ek [μ, Γ ] such that g(z, μ) = 0. Further let κ+ resp. κ− be the multiplicity of 1 resp. −1 in the eigenvalues of Φk (μ, Γ ). Then #Y = κ+ + κ− , dim Ek (μ, Γ ) = κ+ , dim E0k (Γ ) = κ− , and Ek (Γ ) ⊂ Nk (Γ, λ) = Ek (μ, Γ ) ⊕ E0k (Γ ). Moreover, Ek (μ, Γ ) consists of the elements of Nk (Γ, λ) that do not involve y μ log y. Proof. Put κ = #Y. By Lemma 9.15(iii), Ek (Γ ) = Ek [μ, Γ ] and so every function appearing in this proof is ﬁnite at s = μ; also, dim Ek [μ, Γ ] = κ by Lemma 9.15(i). We easily see that the elements of Ek (Γ ) satisfy (9.1a, b), and also (9.1c), in view of Lemma 9.8. Also, equality (9.34) holds with an element g(z, s) of Ek [μ, Γ ] in place of Ek (z, s; Γ ), and the integral is uniformly convergent in a neighborhood of s = μ. Therefore we see that (∂g/∂s)(z, μ) ∈ Nk (λ), and so Ek (Γ ) ⊂ Nk (Γ, λ). From (9.39b) we obtain Φk (μ, Γ )2 = 1. Thus the eigenvalues of Φk (μ, Γ ) are ±1. Let Eξ (s) be as in the proof of Theorem 9.17. Then from (9.40a) we obtain Eξ (μ)k η −1 = δξη + fξη (μ) y μ + · · · , (∂Eξ /∂s)(μ)k η −1 = δξη − fξη (μ) y μ log y + (dfξη /ds)(μ)y μ + · · · for every ξ, η ∈ Y. Let g(z, s) = ξ∈Y cξ Eξ (s) ∈ Ek [μ, Γ ] with cξ ∈ C. Put c = (cξ )ξ∈Y . Then g(z, μ) = 0 if and only if t Φk (μ, Γ )c = −c, which means that dim Ek (μ, Γ ) = κ − κ− = κ+ . If t Φk (μ, Γ )c = −c, then g(z, μ) = 0 and (∂g/∂s)(z, μ)k η−1 = 2cη y μ log y + bη · y μ + · · · with some bη , which shows that dim E0k (Γ ) = κ− . Since no element of Ek (μ, Γ ) involves y μ log y, we see that Ek (μ, Γ ) and E0k (Γ ) form a direct sum. Next, the notation being as in (9.28c, d), consider the map f → (aξ , aξ )ξ∈Y deﬁned for f ∈ Ak (Γ, λ). This sends Ak (Γ, λ) into C2κ with kernel Sk (Γ, λ). Let d be the dimension of the image space. Then d = dim Nk (Γ, λ) and (9.29b) shows that d ≤ 2κ − d, and so d ≤ κ. Since Ek (μ, Γ ) ⊕ E0k (Γ ) is a subspace of Nk (Γ, λ) of dimension κ+ + κ− = κ, we can establish all the statements of our theorem. Theorem 9.19. Let λ = s0 (1 − k − s0 ) with s0 ∈ C. The notation being as in §9.14, suppose that s0 = (1 − k)/2, λ ∈ R, and Ek (Γ ) = E∗k [s0 , Γ ]. Then dim Nk (Γ, λ) = #Y and Nk (Γ, λ) = Ek (s0 , Γ ) ⊕ E∗k (s0 , Γ ).

9. EISENSTEIN SERIES AS AUTOMORPHIC EIGENFORMS

83

Proof. Put κ = #Y. For p ∈ Ek (Γ ) denote by ρ(p) the residue of p at s = s0 . Then ρ is a C-linear map of Ek (Γ ) onto E∗k (s0 , Γ ) with kernel Ek [s0 , Γ ], and so by Lemma 9.15(i,ii), dim Ek (s0 , Γ )+ dim E∗k (s0 , Γ ) = κ. Let h ∈ Ek (s0 , Γ ) ∩ E∗k (s0 , Γ ). Then h(z) = g(z, s0 ) = ρ(p) with g ∈ Ek [s0 , Γ ] and p ∈ Ek (Γ ). Put g = ξ∈Y aξ Eξ (s) and p = ξ∈Y bξ Eξ (s) with aξ , bξ ∈ C and Eξ (s) = Ek (z, s; ξΓ ξ −1 )k ξ. By (9.40a) we have, for η ∈ Y, hk η −1 = aη y s0 + aξ fξη (s0 )y 1−k−s0 + · · · ξ∈Y

= 0·y

s0

+

bξ Ress=s0 fξη (s) y 1−k−s0 + · · · ,

ξ∈Y

and so aη = 0 for every η ∈ Y. Thus h = 0, and consequently, Ek (s0 , Γ ) and E∗k (s0 , Γ ) form a direct sum of dimension κ. Take again the map of Ak (Γ, λ) into C2κ with kernel Sk (Γ, λ) given by (9.38). Let m = dim Nk (Γ, λ), which ¯ = λ, relation (9.37) is the dimension of the image space of (9.38). Since λ shows that m ≤ 2κ − m, and so m ≤ κ. We have seen that the left-hand side of (9.35) has dimension κ, and so we obtain our theorem. Corollary 9.20. Let Γ and Y be as in Lemma 9.7. Then dim Nk (Γ, λ) = #Y for every λ. Proof. If λ is critical, this is included in Theorem 9.18. Suppose λ is not critical. Let s0 be a solution of X 2 + (k − 1)X + λ = 0. Then the other solution is 1 − k − s0 . Replacing s0 by 1 − k − s0 if necessary, we may assume that Re(s0 ) ≥ (1 − k)/2. Excluding cases (a) and (b) of Lemma 9.15(iii), we obtain dim Nk (Γ, λ) = #Y from Theorem 9.16. In cases (a) and (b) we obtain the desired result from Theorem 9.19. 9.21. We now return to holomorphic modular forms on H. Given a congruence subgroup Γ of Gk , we denote by M k (Γ ) resp. S k (Γ ) the set of elements f of M k resp. S k such that f k γ = f for every γ ∈ Γ. This is consistent with what we already have if k ∈ Z or if k ∈ / Z and Γ ⊂ Γ θ . We have then (9.42a) M k (Γ ) consists of the holomorphic elements of Ak (Γ, 0), (9.42b) S k (Γ ) = Sk (Γ, 0). These follow immediately from (9.3) and Lemma 9.2(iv). We put (9.43a) Ek (Γ ) = f ∈ M k (Γ ) f, g = 0 for every g ∈ S k (Γ ) , (9.43b)

Ek =

∞

Ek Γ (2N ) .

N =1

Theorem 9.22. For every congruence subgroup Γ of Gk with k > 0 we have

84

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

(9.44)

Ek (Γ ) = M k (Γ ) ∩ Nk (0),

(9.45a)

M k = S k ⊕ Ek ,

(9.45b)

M k (Γ ) = S k (Γ ) ⊕ Ek (Γ ),

(9.46)

Ek (Γ ) = M k (Γ ) ∩ Ek (0, Γ ) if k ≥ 1,

(9.47)

Ek (Γ ) = Ek (0, Γ ) if k > 2 or k = 1,

(9.48)

E1/2 (Γ ) = E∗1/2 (1/2, Γ ).

Proof. By (9.42b) the right-hand side of (9.44) is contained in Ek (Γ ). Conversely, let f ∈ Ek (Γ ) and g ∈ Sk (Γ , 0) with any Γ ⊂ Γ. Let R be a complete set of representatives for Γ \Γ. Then by (6.12) we have ! " [Γ : Γ ]f, g = f, gk α = f, gk α = 0,

α∈R

α∈R

since α∈R gk α ∈ Sk (Γ, 0) = S k (Γ ) by (9.42b). Thus f ∈ Nk (0), which proves (9.44). Formula (9.45b) follows immediately from the deﬁnition of Ek (Γ ). Then clearly (9.45a) holds. Take s0 = 0 in Lemma 9.15 and Theorem 9.16(i); then we ﬁnd that Ek (0, Γ ) = Nk (Γ, 0) for k ≥ 3/2, which combined with (9.44) proves (9.46) for such k. Next, take k = 1 in Theorem 9.18. Then M 1 ∩N1 (Γ, 0) = M 1 ∩E1 (0, Γ ), which gives (9.46) for k = 1. Formulas (9.47) and (9.48) will be poven in the proof of the following theorem. Theorem 9.23. Let Ek (z, s) denote the analytic continuation of any series of type (8.12) or (9.22) with k > 0. Then the following assertions hold: (i) Ek (z, s) is ﬁnite at s = 0. (ii) Ek (z, 0) belongs to M k (Qab ) if k > 2 or k = 1. (iii) If k = 2, then E2 z, 0; Γ (N, N ), ψ belongs to M 2 (Qab ) except when ψ is trivial, in which case it belongs to N 12 (Qab ). (iv) If k = 3/2, then E3/2 z, 0; Γ (N, N ), ψ belongs to M 3/2 (Qab ) except when ψ 2 is trivial. (v) If k = 1/2, then E1/2 (z, s; Γ ) has at most a simple pole at s = 1/2, and the residue belongs to π−1 M 1/2 (Qab ). More explicitly, the residue is of the form π −1 ξ∈Q λ(ξ)e(tξ 2 z/2) with 0 < t ∈ Q and a Qab -valued element λ of L (Q). Proof. By (9.23), (9.24), and Theorem 7.5(iii) the problems can be reduced to the case of Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ). Assertions (i), (ii), and (iv) follow from Theorem 8.15(iii) if 3/2 ≤ k ∈ / Z. Suppose k ∈ Z; then (8.18) reduces the problem to EkN (z, s; ψ). Indeed, since ψ(−1) = (−1)k , we have LN (k, ψ) ∈ π k Q× ab by Lemma 2.9, and so we obtain (i) and (ii) from Theorem 8.15(i). Combining these results with (9.46), we obtain (9.47). Assertion (iii) follows from Theorem 8.15(i). Suppose k = 1/2; let F ∗ be as in Theorem 8.14. Then

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F ∗ (z, s) = (2s − 1)Γ (s)Γ (s + 1/2)LN (4s, ψ 2 )E1/2 (z, s; Γ, ψ). By Lemma 2.10, LN (2, ψ 2 ) ∈ π 2 Q× ab . Therefore from Theorem 8.16(i) we see that Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) has at most a simple pole at s = 1/2, and the residue is π −1 times a Qab -rational theta series as given in that theorem. Thus we obtain (v), and see that Ek (Γ ) = E∗k [1/2, Γ ] and E∗k (1/2, Γ ) ⊂ M k (Γ ). Therefore, by Theorem 9.19, Nk (Γ, 0) = Ek (1/2, Γ ) ⊕ E∗k (1/2, Γ ). Thus, to prove (9.48), it is suﬃcient to show that the only holomorphic element of Ek (1/2, Γ ) is 0. For that purpose, take h(z) = g(z, 1/2) with g ∈ Ek [1/2, Γ ]. Put g = ξ∈Y aξ Eξ (s) with aξ ∈ C as in the proof of Theorem 9.19. Then hk η −1 = aη y 1/2 + cη + · · · with cη ∈ C for every η ∈ Y. If h is holomorphic, then aη = 0 for every η ∈ Y, and so h = 0 as expected. This proves (9.48) and completes the proof of our theorem. From (v) above and (9.48) we obtain (9.49) E1/2 (Γ ) is spanned by some functions of the form with 0 < t ∈ Q and an element λ of L (Q).

ξ∈Q

λ(ξ)e(tξ 2 z/2)

We also note that

), 0 if k > 0. In particular, Ek (z) (9.50) EN k (z, 0; p, q) belongs to Nk Γ (N deﬁned by (8.14e) belongs to Nk Γ (N ), 0 . In view of (8.14d) we may assume that (N, p, q) = 1. Then there exist relatively prime integers p0 and q0 such that (p0 , q0 ) − (p, q) ∈ N Z2 . We N have EN k (z, s; p, q) = Ek (z, s; p0 , q0 ), and (8.14a) reduces the problem to N Ek (z, s; 0, 1). From (8.16) we see that EkN (z, s; ψ), ϕ(N )EN k (z, s; 0, 1) = ψ∈Ψ

where Ψ is the set of all characters modulo N such that ψ(−1) = (−1)k . Notice that ϕ(N ) = #(Ψ ) = 1 and k ∈ 2Z if N ≤ 2. By (8.18) we obtain LN (2s + k, ψ)Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ), ϕ(N )EN k (z, s; 0, 1) = 2 ψ∈Ψ

which together with (9.35) proves (9.50). 9.24. We note here one of the easiest cases of Φk (s, Γ ) of (9.39a, b). Take Γ = Γ (1) and 0 ≤ k ∈ 2Z. Let χ0 denote the principal character. Then (8.18) shows that 2ζ(2s + k)Ek z, s; Γ (1), χ0 = Ek1 (z, s; χ0 ) = E1k (z, s; 0, 1). The Fourier expansion of E1k (z, s; 0, 1) is a special case of the formula given in [S07, p. 134]. Employing it, we obtain Γ (2s + k − 1)ζ(2s + k − 1) Ek z, s; Γ (1), χ0 = y s + y 1−k−s πi−k 22−k−2s Γ (s)Γ (s + k)ζ(2s + k)

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III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

+ nonconstant terms. Put ξ(s) = π −s/2 Γ (s/2)ζ(s). Since Γ (s)Γ (s − 1/2) = π 1/2 22−2s Γ (2s − 1), we have (9.51) Ek z, s; Γ (1), χ0 = y s + Φk s, Γ (1) y 1−k−s + nonconstant terms ξ(2s + k − 1) Γ (s + k/2)2 · . with Φk s, Γ (1) = i−k · ξ(2s + k) Γ (s)Γ (s + k) Then the relation Φk s, Γ (1) Φk 1 − k − s, Γ (1) = 1 means the well-known equality ξ(1 − s) = ξ(s) combined with the fact that the map s → 1 − k − s transforms Γ (s)Γ (s + k)Γ (s + k/2)−2 (which is a rational expression in s) into its inverse. Lemma 9.25. Given f ∈ M k , α ∈ Gk , and σ ∈ Aut(C), there exists an element β of Gk such that (f k α)σ = f σ k β. Proof. We ﬁrst prove the case k ∈ Z. Since SL2 (Q) = P Γ (1), it is 1 b suﬃcient to prove the cases α ∈ Γ (1) and α is of the form α = or 0 1

a 0 α= . The ﬁrst case is included in Lemma 7.6. The latter two cases 0 d can easily be veriﬁed. Now suppose k ∈ / Z; let f ∈ M k and γ = (α, p) ∈ Gk . Then f 2 ∈ M 2k and we ﬁnd β ∈ SL2 (Q) such that (f 2 2k α)σ = (f 2 )σ 2k β. 2 We easily see that (f k γ)σ = ζ(f 2 2k α)σ with a root of unity ζ. Therefore (f k γ)σ = f σ k (β, q) with a suitable (β, q) ∈ Gk . This completes the proof. Theorem 9.26. For every weight k > 0 the space Ek is spanned by its Q-rational elements. Proof. This follows from (9.49) if k = 1/2. Since the cases k = 3/2 and k = 2 require special considerations, we ﬁrst assume k > 2 or k = 1. Our task is to show that Ek for such a k isspanned by Q-rational elements. By (9.23) and (9.24), Ek is spanned by Ek z, 0; Γ (N, N ), ψ k α for all choices of (N, ψ) and α ∈ Gk . By Theorem 9.23(ii) and (9.21a), such a function is Qab -rational. To obtain the desired result, it is suﬃcient to show that Ek is stable under the action of Aut(C) deﬁned by (7.2). Indeed, assuming such a stability, take a Qab -rational element f (z) = ξ∈Q c(ξ)e(ξz) of Ek . Let K be the ﬁeld generated over Q by the c(ξ). By Theorem 7.5(v), [K : Q] is ﬁnite. Put G = Gal(K/Q) and gb = σ∈G (bf )σ for b ∈ K. Then gb is a Q-rational element of Ek and f is a ﬁnite K-linear combination of gb for elements. Thus our problem is to some b, and soEk is spanned by Q-rational σ show that Ek z, 0; Γ (N, N ), ψ k α belongs to Ek for every σ ∈ Aut(C). This is indeed so by Lemma 9.25, Theorem 8.15(i), and Theorem 8.15(iii). This completes the proof in the case k > 2 or k = 1.

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Next suppose k = 2. By (9.46), E2 (Γ ) consists of the holomorphic elements of E2 (0, Γ ), and the nonholomorphic elements belong to N 12 . Therefore, including elements, we observe that the space spanned such nonholomorphic by E2 z, 0; Γ (N, N ), ψ 2 α is stable under Aut(C). For this, in addition to Theorem 8.15(i), we need Lemma 9.25 for f ∈ N 2 . The statement in the two cases of the elements of P are easy, and so we have only to check the case α ∈ Γ (1). Then expressing f in the form f = g + cE2 with g ∈ M 2 , c ∈ C, and the function E2 of (7.10), we easily obtain the desired result. Thus Γ E2 (0, Γ ) is stable under Aut(C), and its subset consisting of the holomorphic elements is also stable under Aut(C) as expected. Finally suppose k = 3/2. We invoke the result of Pei in [P82, 84], in which a subset F of E3/2 with the following properties is given: (i) F consists of Qab -rational elements, and is stable under Gal(Qab /Q); (ii) E3/2 is spanned by the elements of the form f 3/2 α with f ∈ F and α ∈ SL2 (Q). Therefore our argument in the case k > 2 is applicable and we obtain the desired result. This completes the proof.

CHAPTER IV

THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN FORMS OF INTEGRAL AND HALF-INTEGRAL WEIGHT 10. Theta series of indeﬁnite quadratic forms In this section we will associate a certain theta function with an indeﬁnite quadratic form, and prove its automorphy properties. In later sections we will employ the function in various ways. We consider the set Sn (A) deﬁned by (0.2) with A = Z, Q, or R, and put S[x] = t xSx and S(x, y) = t xSy for x, y ∈ Cn and S ∈ Sn (R). We begin with some easy facts. Lemma 10.1. For two elements S and P of Sn (R)∩GLn (R) the following three conditions are mutually equivalent: (i) P > 0 and P S −1 P = S. (ii) There exists an element A of GLn (R) such that P = t AA and S = t AIp,q A with nonnegative integers p and q such that p + q = n, where Ip,q = diag[1p , −1q ]. (We of course ignore 1p or 1q if p or q is 0.) (iii) There exists a direct sum decomposition Rn = W ⊕ W such that S[x] ≥ 0 and P x = Sx for x ∈ W, S[y] ≤ 0 and P y = −Sy for y ∈ W , and S(x, y) = 0 for x ∈ W and y ∈ W . Proof. Given P and S as in (i), take B ∈ GLn(R) so that P = t BB, and put T = t B −1 SB −1 . Then t T = T and T −1 = BS −1 · t B = BP −1 SP −1 · t B = t −1 B SB −1 = T, and so the eigenvalues of T are ±1. Therefore we can ﬁnd an element C of GLn (R) such that t CC = 1n and C −1 T C = Ip,q with some p and q as in (ii). Putting A = t CB, we obtain (ii). Next, given (p, q) and A as in (ii), let X resp. Y denote the subspace of Rn consisting of the elements of Rn whose last q resp. ﬁrst p coordinates are 0. Let W = A−1 X and W = A−1 Y. Then we obtain (iii). Finally suppose W and W are taken as in (iii); then we can ﬁnd an element U of GLn (R) such that U X = W and U Y = W . We see that t U SU = diag[G, −H] with 0 < G ∈ Sp (R) and 0 < H ∈ Sq (R). Then t U P U = diag[G, H], and so P > 0 and t U P S −1 P U = t U P U (t U SU )−1 · t U P U = diag[G, −H] = t U SU. Thus we obtain (i) and our proof is complete. 10.2. For S ∈ Sn (R) ∩ GLn (R) we put

G. Shimura, Modular Forms: Basics and Beyond, Springer Monographs in Mathematics, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-2125-2_4, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

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(10.1) (10.2)

IV. THE CORRRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

O(S) = α ∈ GLn (R) t αSα = S , P(S) = P ∈ Sn (R) P > 0, P S −1 P = S .

Then we can show that P(S) is a symmetric space that is O(S) modulo a compact subgroup as follows. First take A ∈ GLn (R) and nonnegative integers p and q so that S = t AIp,q A and put P0 = t AA. By Lemma 10.1, P0 ∈ P(S). (Thus P(S) = ∅.) Put K = O(S)∩O(P0 ). Since O(P0 ) is compact, K is a compact subgroup of O(S). In view of Lemma 10.1, it is an easy exercise to show that α → t αP0 α for α ∈ O(S) gives a bijection of K\O(S) onto P(S). (We do not need this fact in our later treatment, however.) 10.3. We ﬁx two elements S and P of Sn (R)∩GLn (R) such that P ∈ P(S). For z = x + iy ∈ H and γ ∈ SL2 (R) we put (10.3) (10.4)

R(z) = xS + iyP,

a γ 1n bγ S σγ = . cγ S −1 dγ 1n

Then clearly R(z) ∈ Hn and

−1 1n 0 a γ 1n b γ 1 n 1n 0 (10.5) σγ = . 0 S cγ 1n dγ 1n 0 S Therefore we easily see that σγ ∈ Sp(n, R) and the map γ → σγ is a homomorphism of SL2 (R) into Sp(n, R). Moreover we have (10.6) (10.7) (10.8)

R(z) − R(z) = 2iyP, σγ R(z) = R γ(z) , q j σγ , R(z) = jγ (z)p jγ (z) ,

where p and q are determined by S as in Lemma 10.1(ii). Formula (10.6) is obvious. To prove the last two formulas, take A as in Lemma 10.1(ii) and put Z z 1q ]. Then we easily see that R(z) = t AZA, and so for p , −¯

= diag[z1 a b γ= we have c d

t t t R(z) a1n bS AZA a · AZA +b · t AIp,q A AXA σγ = = = 1n cS −1 d1n 1n cA−1 Ip,q ZA + d1n A−1 Y A with X = diag[(az + b)1p , −(a¯ z + b)1q ] and Y = diag[(cz + d)1p , (c¯ z + d)1q ], and so

t R(z) A · diag[γ(z)1p − γ(z)1q ]A σγ = A−1 Y A 1n 1n

R γ(z) = A−1 · diag[jγ (z)1p , jγ (z)1q ]A. 1n Recalling formula (1.6), we obtain (10.7) and also (10.9) μ σγ , R(z) = A−1 · diag[jγ (z)1p , jγ (z)1q ]A.

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Taking the determinant, we obtain (10.8). 10.4. We now assume that S ∈ Sn (Q). Then the map γ → σγ sends SL2 (Q) into Sp(n, Q). We then consider the function ϕ(u, Z; λ) of (4.48a) with u ∈ Cn , Z ∈ Hn , and λ ∈ L (Qn ). Put (10.10) f(u, z; λ) = ϕ u, R(z); λ . Here z ∈ H. More explicitly λ(ξ)e 2−1R(z)[ξ] + t ξu . (10.11) f(u, z; λ) = e (4iyP )−1 [u] ξ∈Qn

Put (10.12)

MS = γ ∈ SL2 (Q) σγ ∈ Pn Γnθ

with Pn of Lemma 2.2(iii) and Γnθ of (4.6). Then P1 MS = MS . Take positive integers r and s so that rS ≺ 2Z and sS −1 ≺ 2Z. Then σγ ∈ Γnθ if γ ∈ Γ (r, s); see (8.11) for the notation. Also σι = diag[S, S −1 ]ιn ∈ Pn Γnθ . Thus (10.12a)

Γ (r, s) ⊂ MS

and

σι ∈ MS .

If γ ∈ MS and σ = σγ , then from (10.7) and (4.49a) we obtain (10.13) f t Mγ−1 u, γ(z); λ = hσ R(z) f(u, z; λσ ), where Mγ = μ σγ , R(z) . Also, from (10.8) and (4.49b) we see that z + d)q/2 with κγ ∈ T. (10.14) hσ R(z) = κγ (cz + d)p/2 (c¯ 10.5. Let S, P, and R(z) be as in §10.3 with S ∈ Sn (Q). Put V = Rn , VC = Cn , and (10.15) VC+ = x ∈ VC P x = Sx , VC− = x ∈ VC P x = −Sx . We consider a C-valued polynomial function χ on V given by (t ρSξ)ρ (t τ Sξ)mτ (ξ ∈ V ). (10.16) χ(ξ) = ρ∈{ρ}

τ ∈{τ }

Here {ρ} resp. {τ } is a ﬁnite subset of VC+ resp. VC− ; 0 ≤ ρ ∈ Z, 0 ≤ mτ ∈ Z. We assume: S(ρ, ρ ) = 0 if ρ, ρ ∈ {ρ} and ρ = ρ ; S(τ, τ ) = 0 if τ, τ ∈ {τ } and τ = τ ; S[ρ] = 0 if ρ > 1; S[τ ] = 0 if mτ > 1. We then put (10.17) f (z, λ) = f (z; λ, χ) = λ(ξ)χ(ξ)e 2−1 R(z)[ξ] , ξ∈V

where z ∈ H and λ ∈ L (Qn ). We call f (z, λ) a theta series associated with S. Take A as in Lemma 10.1(ii). Then we easily see that (10.18) Ax = Ip,q Ax if x ∈ VC+ and Ay = −Ip,q Ay if y ∈ VC− ; (10.19)

the last q resp. ﬁrst p coordinates of Ax are 0 if x ∈ VC+ resp. x ∈ VC− .

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IV. THE CORRRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

We deﬁne a factor of automorphy Jαp,q (z) as follows: jα (z)(p−q)/2 |jα (z)|q if n ∈ 2Z, (10.20) Jαp,q (z) = p−q q if n∈ / 2Z, hα (z) |jα (z)| / 2Z; hα is deﬁned in where α ∈ SL2 (Q) if n ∈ 2Z and α ∈ P1 Γ θ if n ∈ Theorem 4.12. Notice that p − q − n ∈ 2Z. In the following theorem S and χ are ﬁxed. Theorem 10.6. Let γ ∈ SL2 (Q) if n ∈ 2Z and γ ∈ P1 Γ θ if n ∈ / 2Z. Then for λ ∈ L (Qn ) we can deﬁne an element λγ of L (Qn ) such that m (10.21) f γ(z), λ = jγ (z) jγ (z) Jγp,q (z)f (z, λγ ), where = ρ∈{ρ} ρ and m = τ ∈{τ } mτ . Moreover, λγ is independent of χ γ and γ ∈ SL2 (Q) λ = λ contains a congruence subgroup of SL2 (Q). Proof. From (10.14) we see that hσ R(z) is Jγp,q (z) times an element of T. Therefore we can reformulate (10.13) in the form (10.22) f t Mγ−1 u, γ(z); λ = Jγp,q (z)f(u, z; λγ ) with a well-deﬁned λγ ∈ L (Qn ) for γ ∈ MS ∩ P Γ θ . Suppose n ∈ 2Z; p,q then Jβγ (z) = Jβp,q (γz)Jγp,q (z) for every β, γ ∈ SL2 (Q). By Lemma 2.2(iv), SL2 (Q) is generated by P and ι. Since (10.22) is valid for γ ∈ P and γ = ι, we can deﬁne λγ by (10.22) for every γ ∈ SL2 (Q) when n ∈ 2Z. Next suppose n∈ / 2Z. Then a similar reasoning establishes (10.22) for every γ ∈ SL2 (Q) q/2

if we replace Jγp,q and λγ by J = jγ (z)p/2 jγ (z) and some element λ ∈ n L (Q ). Here λ depends on the choice of J . Therefore, if we take J = Jγp,q (z) as deﬁned by (10.20), then (10.22) is valid for γ ∈ P Γ θ with a well-deﬁned λγ when n ∈ / 2Z. Thus (10.22) can be extended to γ ∈ SL2 (Q) or γ ∈ P Γ θ ; we call this extended formula (10.22). We will derive (10.21) by applying some diﬀerential operators to (10.22) and putting u = 0. We ﬁrst treat the case with χ(ξ) = (t ρSξ) (t τ Sξ)m , and will add a comment in a more general case at Put the end of the proof. n Dx = i=1 (Sx)i ∂/∂ui for x ∈ VC and g(u) = e (4iyP )−1 [u] + t ξu . Then (10.23)

(Dρ Dτm g)(0) = (2πi)+m χ(ξ).

To prove this we ﬁrst observe that Dx B[u] = 2B(Sx, u) for every B ∈ Sn (R). Then (Dx g)(u) = 2πi S(ξ, x) + (2iyP )−1 (Sx, u) g(u), 2 (Dx2 g)(u) = (2πi)2 S(ξ, x) + (2iyP )−1 (Sx, u) g(u) + 2πi(2iyP )−1 [Sx]g(u).

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Now P −1 [Sx] = t xP x = ±t xSx for x ∈ VC± . Therefore, by our assumption S[τ ] = 0 if mτ > 1, we obtain (Dτm g)(0) = (2πi)m S(τ, ξ)m for 0 ≤ m ∈ Z. Also, Dρ Dτ g involves P −1 (Sτ, Sρ), which equals t τ P ρ = t τ Sρ = 0. Thus we obtain (10.23), and consequently termwise diﬀerentiation of (10.11) gives (10.24) (Dρ Dτm ) f(u, z; λ) u=0 = (2πi)+m f (z, λ). On the other hand,

(Dρ Dτm ) f(t Mγ−1 u, γz; λ)

(10.25)

= jγ (z)− jγ (z)

−m

(Dρ Dτm f)(t Mγ−1 u, γz; λ).

Indeed, in view of (10.9) and (10.19) we have t

Mγ−1 Sρ = t A · diag[jγ (z)1p , jγ (z)1q ]−1 · t A−1 Sρ = t A · diag[jγ (z)1p , jγ (z)1q ]−1 Ip,q Aρ = jγ (z)−1 Sρ, −1

and similarly t Mγ−1 Sτ = jγ (z) Sτ, and so (10.25) holds. Therefore, applying Dρ Dτm to (10.22) and putting u = 0, we obtain −m

(2πi)+m jγ (z)− jγ (z)

f (γz, λ) = (2πi)+m Jγp,q (z)f (z, λγ ),

which can be written in the form (10.21). When χ is deﬁned in the most general form, we apply ρ Dρρ τ Dτmτ to (10.22). In view of our assumption that t ρSρ = t τ Sτ = 0, we obtain (10.21) in the general case. Clearly λγ is independent of χ. The last assertion will be proven in §10.10. Lemma 10.7. Let the symbols be as in §10.5 and Theorem 10.6. Then f (z, λ) is slowly increasing or rapidly decreasing at every cusp, locally uniformly in the parameters ρ and τ of (10.16), according as = m = 0 or + m > 0. Proof. Let α ∈ SL2 (Q) and κ = + m + (p + q)/2. Then by (10.21), |Im(αz)κ/2 f (αz, λ)| = |Im(z)κ/2 f (z, λα )|, and so our task is to make an estimate of |f (z, μ)| for an arbitrary μ ∈ L (Qn ). Clearly it is suﬃcient to treat the case in which μ is the characteristic function of L = Zn . Let χ be a homogeneous polynomial function of ξ ∈ V of degree d. Then we can ﬁnd a positive constant C such that |χ(ξ)| ≤ CP [ξ]d/2 for −1 every ξ ∈ V. Since |e 2 R(z)[ξ] | = exp(−πyP [ξ]), we have −1 ≤C χ(ξ)e 2 R(z)[ξ] P [ξ]d/2 exp − πyP [ξ] . ξ∈L

ξ∈L

Suppose d = 0. Then we see that |f (z, μ)| ≤ C for y > 1/2 with a constant increasing at every cusp. Suppose C . Thus f (z, λ) is slowly d > 0. Since L is discrete in V and ξ ∈ V P [ξ] ≤ 1 is compact, ξ ∈ L P [ξ] ≤ 1 is a

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IV. THE CORRRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

ﬁnite set, and so we can ﬁnd a positive constant M such that P [ξ] ≥ M for 0 = ξ ∈ L. Therefore if d > 0, we have P [ξ]d/2 exp −πyP [ξ]/2 ≤ C0 exp(−πM y/2) |f (z, μ)| ≤ C exp(−πM y/2) ξ∈L

if y > 1/2 with a positive constant C0 . This shows that f (z, λ) is rapidly decreasing at every cusp. Since we can take the same C when the parameters ρ and τ of (10.16) stay in compact sets, we obtain the desired local uniformity in ρ and τ.

a b ∈ Γ (2) deﬁne σγ by (10.4). Suppose Lemma 10.8. For γ = c d σγ ∈ Γnθ and 0 ≤ d − 1 ∈ 2Z; then

q (−1)p det(bcS) (z ∈ H). hγ (z)p hγ (z) (10.26) h σγ , R(z) = d If S ≺ Z in particular, (−1)p det(bcS) can be replaced by (−1)q det(S). Proof. Since bS ≺ Z, cS −1 ≺ Z, and ad1n−(bS)(cS −1 ) = 12n , we see that det(bS) is prime to d. By Theorem 4.7(1) we have h(σγ , Z) = κj(σγ , Z)1/2 with e bS[x]/(2d) , lim j(σγ , Z)1/2 > 0, κ = d−n/2 Z→0

x∈Zn /dZn

where Z is a variable on Hn . Since d is odd, putting x = 2y with y ∈ Zn /dZn , we obtain e 2bS[y]/d . κ = d−n/2 y∈Zn /dZn

By Lemma 2.3 there exist an element α of Mn (Z) and ri ∈ Z such that αbSα − diag[r1 , . . . , rn ] ≺ dZ and det(α) is a positive integer prime to d. Clearly we may assume that the diagonal elements of t αbSα are r1 , . . . , rn . Then d n κ = d−n/2 e(2ri y 2 /d). t

i=1 y=1

and det(α) det(bS) − r1 · · · rn ∈ dZ. By Theorem 2.6 we have

n

n 2ri det(2bS) 2c det(−bcS) κ= εd = εnd = ε−n . d d d d d i=1 Now μ σγ , R(z) is given by (10.9). Therefore, by (4.40) we obtain

q det(−bcS) hγ (z)p hγ (z) , h σγ , R(z) = ε2q d d which gives (10.26). If S ≺ Z, we can replace −bcS by S, since bc + 1 ∈ dZ. This completes the proof. 2

10. THETA SERIES OF INDEFINITE QUADRATIC FORMS

Theorem 10.9. Given 0 < S ∈ Sn (Z), put χ(ξ)e 2−1S[ξ]z (10.27) f (z) =

95

(z ∈ H)

ξ∈Zn

with χ as in (10.16) such that {τ } = ∅. Then f ∈ M k with k = +n/2, = a b ∈ Γ (1), bS ≺ 2Z, ρ∈{ρ} ρ , and f ∈ S k if > 0. Moreover, if γ = c d cS −1 ≺ 2Z, and d > 0, then

det(S) hγ (z)n jγ (z) f (z). (10.28) f (γz) = d Proof. Since bc ∈ 4Z, d is odd. Take S = P and τ = ∅ in Theorem 10.6; take also λ to be the characteristic function of Zn . Then our f (z) is f (z, λ), or rather, f (z) = f(0, z; λ) with f of (10.11). Therefore we have f(t Mγ−1 u, γz; λ) = h(σγ , zS)f(u, z; λ) for γ ∈ Γ θ . Now h(σγ , zS) is determined by Lemma 10.8. Then the application of Dρ produces jγ (z) as explained in the proof of Theorem 10.6, and so we obtain (10.28). Also, from (10.21) we see that f satisﬁes condition (3.4d). That f ∈ S k if > 0 can easily be seen. This proves our theorem. The fact that a theta series of type (10.27) belongs to M k was proved by Hecke and Schoeneberg when n is even. A general formula for both even and odd n was given in [S73a]. There is a paper cited in [S73a] that treated the case of odd n, but its proof is erroneous. 10.10. Let us now prove the last assertion Theorem 10.6. Take an

of a b ∈ Γ (r, s) with d > 0 integer m so that mS ≺ Z. Suppose γ = c d and positive even integers r and s such that rs ∈ mZ and σγ ∈ Γnθ . Put bc

= mt. Since mt + 1 = bc + 1p ∈n dZ, we have

(−1) t det(mS) (−1)q mn det(mS) (−1)p det(bcS) = = =1 d d d n p,q if d − 1 ∈ 4m det(mS)Z. By Lemma 10.8, we have h σγ , R(z) = Jγ (z) for such a γ, that is, for γ in a suﬃciently small congruence subgroup. Also, our γ depend on χ, that is, λγ is determined proof of (10.21) shows that λ does not p,q by (10.22). Since h σγ , R(z) = Jγ (z) for γ as above, comparing (10.22) with (10.13), we have λσ = λγ for σ = σγ , where λσ is determined by (4.49a). Therefore the last assertion of Theorem 10.6 follows from (4.49f). 10.11. If S of §10.3 has signature (m, 2) with 0 < m ∈ Z (that is, (p, q) above is (m, 2)), then the symmetric space associated with P(S) in the sense of §10.2 is a noncompact hermitian symmetric space, and so has a complex structure. Here, however, without proving this in a precise form, let us merely show that P(S) can be parametrized by some complex variables.

96

IV. THE CORRRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

For that purpose, we take, instead of S ∈ S(Rn ), a vector space V over R of dimension m + 2, and take also an R-bilinear symmetric form S : V × V → R that has signature (m, 2). We put VC = V ⊗R C and extend S to a C-valued C-bilinear form on VC × VC , using the same letter S. For v ∈ VC we can deﬁne its complex conjugate v¯ ∈ VC in an obvious way. We now put (10.29) Y(S) = v ∈ VC S[v] = 0, S(v, v¯) < 0 , where S[v] = S(v, v). Taking 1m,2 as S, we see that Y(S) = ∅. Given v ∈ v , W = Ru + Ru , and W = y ∈ Y(S), put u = v + v¯, u = iv − i¯ V S(y, W ) = 0 . Since S[u] < 0, S[u ] < 0, and S(u, u ) = 0, we see that dim(W ) = 2, V = W ⊕ W , S is negative deﬁnite on W, and S is positive deﬁnite on W . Let WC = W ⊗R C, Then WC = Cv +C¯ v. Deﬁne Pv : V ×V → R so that Pv = −S on W × W, Pv = S on W × W , and Pv (W, W ) = 0. Then Pv is positive deﬁnite, and we have WC = VC+ and WC = VC− in the sense of (10.15) with respect to (S, Pv ); also, we have (10.30)

Pv [ξ] − S[ξ] = −4S(v, v¯)−1 |S( ξ, v)|2 for every ξ ∈ V.

Indeed, given ξ ∈ V, we can ﬁnd c ∈ C and z ∈ W such that ξ = cv + c¯v¯ + z. cS(v, v¯), and Then S(ξ, v) = c¯S(v, v¯) and Pv [ξ] − S[ξ] = −2S[cv + c¯v¯] = −4c¯ so we obtain (10.30). By Lemma 10.1, the matrices representing S and Pv with respect to an R-basis of V are of the type described in (i) of that lemma. 11. Theta integrals 11.1. In the setting of §10.11 let us consider the special case m = 1 by taking (11.1) V = x ∈ M2 (R) tr(x) = 0 , S(x, y) = −2−1tr(xy) (x, y ∈ V ).

a b 2 Thus S[ξ] = −a − bc = det(ξ) for ξ = ∈ VC . We put c −a

∂p(w) 1 −2w w −w2 ¯ , q(w) = = (11.2a) p(w) = (w ∈ H ∪ H), 1 −w 0 −1 ∂w (11.2b) [ξ, w] = 2S ξ, p(w) (ξ ∈ V ). Then we have (11.3a) (11.3b) (11.3c)

[ξ, w] = cw2 − 2aw − b

if

γp(w)γ −1 = jγ (w)2 p(γw) [γ

−1

2

ξγ, w] = jγ (w) [ξ, γw]

ξ= if if

a c

b ∈ V, −a

γ ∈ SL2 (R), γ ∈ SL2 (R).

11. THETA INTEGRALS

97

Formula (11.3a) verify

is easy. As for the latter two formulas, we can easily 0 −1 w for γ ∈ that p(w) = [w 1]ι and γ −1 = ι−1 · t γι with ι = 1 0 1 SL2 (R). Therefore

w −1 t 2 γw γp(w)γ = γ [γw 1]ι, [w 1] · γι = jγ (w) 1 1 which The left-hand side of (11.3c) equals 2S γ −1 ξγ, p(w) = gives (11.3b). 2S ξ, γp(w)γ −1 = 2jγ (w)2 S ξ, p(γw) by (11.3b), and so we obtain (11.3c). Clearly p(w) ∈ VC and S p(w) = 0. Also, a direct calculation shows ¯ 2 = −2Im(w)2 < 0, (11.4) S p(w), p(w) = 2−1 (w − w) and so p(w) ∈ Y(S). 11.2. For v = p(w) deﬁne Pv as in §10.10 and put Rw (z) = xS + iyPv for z = x + iy ∈ H. Then for ξ ∈ VC we have (11.5) Rw (z)[ξ] = S[ξ]z + iy Pv [ξ] − S[ξ] = det(ξ)z + 2−1iy · Im(w)−2 |[ξ, w]|2 , because of (10.30), (11.2b), and (11.4). We have seen that VC− = WC = v. Cv + C¯ v in §10.11, and so Pv v = −Sv and Pv v¯ = −S¯ We now consider a function of the form (11.6) Θ(z, w; η) = Im(z)1/2 Im(w)−2m η(ξ)[ξ, w] ¯ m e 2−1 Rw (z)[ξ] . ξ∈V

Here 0 ≤ m ∈ Z, (z, w) ∈ H × H, and η ∈ L (V ). This is y 1/2 times a special case of (10.17). Indeed, we have S[p(w)] ¯ = 0 and [ξ, w] ¯ = 2S ξ, p(w) ¯ , and ¯ = −Sp(w) ¯ as noted above, and so Im(w)−2m [ξ, w] ¯ m is a special case Pv p(w) of χ(ξ) = (t τ Sξ)m of (10.16). Notice that p = 1 and q = 2 in the present case. We put (11.7)

k = m + 1/2,

jγk (z) = hγ (z)jγ (z)m

(γ ∈ Γ θ ).

This is consistent with (5.1b). Then from Theorem 10.6 we obtain (11.8)

Θ(γz, w; η) = jγk (z)Θ(z, w; η) for every γ ∈ Γ

with a suﬃciently small congruence subgroup Γ of Γ θ . (The factor y 1/2 in (11.6) eliminates |jγ |.) Also, from (11.3c) we easily obtain (11.9)

Θ(z, βw; η) = jβ (w)2m Θ(z, w; η β ) for every β ∈ GL+ 2 (Q),

where η β (ξ) = η(βξβ −1 ). In the rest of this section we assume m > 0.

98

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

Theorem 11.3. (i) Given f ∈ Mk (Γ ) with k = m + 1/2, 0 < m ∈ Z, and a congruence subgroup Γ for which (11.8) holds, put f (z)Θ(z, w; η)y k dz, Φ = Γ \H, (11.10) g(w) = Φ

where dz is as in (6.5). Then the integral is convergent and g belongs to M 2m . (ii) In the setting of (i) suppose that f is a cusp form. Then g is a cusp form at least in the following two cases: (a) m > 1; (b) m = 1 and f, θ∗ (z, μ) = 0 for every μ ∈ L (Q), where θ∗ is as in (4.51). We call the expression on the right-hand side of (11.10) a theta integral. The proof of (i) will be completed in §11.7 and (ii) will be proven in §12.7. 11.4. In this subsection we assume that every integral is convergent. The convergence will be proven in the next subsection. Now we need to compute ¯ [ξ, w] ¯ m−1 , where (∂/∂ w)Θ(z, ¯ w; η). We have (∂/∂ w)[ξ, ¯ w] ¯ m = 2mS ξ, q(w) q(w) = ∂p(w)/∂w, as we deﬁned in (11.2a). Writing simply p and q for p(w) and q(w), we obtain, from (11.5) and (10.30), (∂/∂ w)R ¯ w (z)[ξ] = iy(∂/∂ w)P ¯ v [ξ] = −4iy(∂/∂ w) ¯ S(p, p¯)−1 S(ξ, p)S(ξ, p¯) = 4iyS( ξ, p) S(p, p¯)−2 S(p, q¯)S(ξ, p¯) − S(p, p¯)−1 S(ξ, q¯) = iy · Im(w)−4 S(ξ, p)S(ξ, r) (11.11)

with

p, r = S(p, q¯)¯ p − S(p, p¯)¯ q = 2Im(w) q¯ − 2iIm(w)¯ 2

since S(p, q¯) = −2iIm(w). Notice that (11.12)

S(p, q) = S(p, r) = S(¯ p, r) = 0. −1 Thus, putting E = e 2 Rw (z)[ξ] for simplicity, we have (11.13) (∂/∂ w)Θ(z, ¯ w; η) = −miy 1/2Im(w)−2m−1 η(ξ)[ξ, w] ¯ mE + 2my 1/2 Im(w)−2m − (π/2)y

3/2

ξ∈V

η(ξ)[ξ, w] ¯ m−1 S(ξ, q¯)E

ξ∈V −2m−4

Im(w)

η(ξ)[ξ, w] ¯ m [ξ, w]S(ξ, r)E.

ξ∈V

We need an auxiliary series H deﬁned by (11.14)

H(z, w; η) = y 3/2 Im(w)−2m−2 · η(ξ)[ξ, w] ¯ m−1 S(ξ, r)e 2−1Rw (z)[ξ] , ξ∈V

and also the operator δk−2 = (k − 2)(2iy)−1 + ∂/∂z on H deﬁned in (6.13b). Writing simply H for H(z, w; η), we are going to prove

11. THETA INTEGRALS

(11.15)

99

¯ (∂/∂ w)Θ(z, ¯ w; η) = −2iδk−2 H.

Indeed, since Rw (z) = xS + iyPv , we have, by (10.30), (∂/∂ z¯)Rw (z)[ξ] = 2−1 (S − Pv )[ξ] ¯ = 2S(p, p¯)−1 |S(ξ, p)|2 = −4−1 Im(w)−2 [ξ, w][ξ, w], and so (11.16)

¯ = (2 − k)(2iy)−1 H + (∂/∂ z¯)H δk−2 H η(ξ)[ξ, w] ¯ m−1 S(ξ, r)E = (k − 2)(i/2)y 1/2 Im(w)−2m−2 + (3i/4)y

1/2

−2m−2

Im(w)

ξ∈V η(ξ)[ξ, w] ¯ m−1 S(ξ, r)E

ξ∈V

− (πi/4)y 3/2 Im(w)−2m−4

η(ξ)[ξ, w] ¯ m [ξ, w]S(ξ, r)E.

ξ∈V

The last line times −2i equals the last line of (11.13). Substituting (11.11) into r of the ﬁrst two terms of the right-hand side of (11.16) and multiplying by −2i, we obtain the ﬁrst two terms on the right-hand side of (11.13). This proves (11.15). Now g(w) is μ(Φ) times f¯, Θ(z, w; η), and so ∂g/∂ w ¯ is μ(Φ) times (11.17)

(∂/∂ w) ¯ f¯, Θ(z, w; η) = f¯, (∂/∂ w)Θ(z, ¯ w; η) ¯ δk−2 H ¯ = −2iδk−2 H, ¯ f = −2iH, ¯ εf = −2if,

by (6.16). This is 0, since f is holomorphic. Thus g(w) is holomorphic in w. By Lemma 10.7, Θ(z, w; η) is rapidly decreasing locally uniformly in w, and so the ﬁrst equality of (11.17) is justiﬁed. 11.5. Since m > 0, Θ(z, w; η) is rapidly decreasing at every cusp as a function in z by Lemma 10.7. Every element of M k is slowly increasing at every cusp, and so the integral of (11.10) is convergent. Similarly, H of p, r) = 0, and so (11.14) is a special case of (10.17), since r ∈ VC− and S(¯ by Lemma 10.7, H is rapidly decreasing at every cusp. Also, as can be seen ¯ are rapidly decreasing at every from (11.13) or (11.16), (∂/∂ w)Θ ¯ and δk−2 H cusp. Therefore all the inner products appearing in (11.17) are meaningful; also the last equality of (11.17) can be justiﬁed, since the conditions stated in Theorem 6.8 are satisﬁed. To study the nature of g beyond its holomorphy, we ﬁrst put g(w) = β g(w, η). From β g(w, (11.9) we obtain η)2m β = g(w, η ) for every β ∈ SL2 (Q). Put Δ = β ∈ SL2 (Q) η = η . Then Δ is a congruence subgroup and g2m δ = g for every δ ∈ Δ. Therefore, in view of Lemma 6.4, to show that g ∈ M 2m , it is suﬃcient to show that g is slowly increasing at every cusp. For that purpose, we take T and E as in (6.10a, b) As shown there, Γ \H is covered by ε∈E εT, and so the integral over Φ is majorized by ε∈E εT .

100

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

Thus, putting fε (z) = jε (z)−k f (εz), our question is reduced to the estimate of T fε (z)Θ(z, w; η)y k dz, or rather, to the problem of showing that h(w) = f (z)Θ(z, w; η)y k dz T

as a function of w satisﬁes (6.9a) (with 2m and h in place of k and f there) for every f ∈ M k . Fixing f, let α ∈ SL2 (Q). Then f (z)jα (w)−2m Θ(z, αw; η)y k dz Im(αw)m h(αw) = Im(w)m T m f (z)Θ(z, w; η α )y k dz = Im(w) T

with η α as in (11.9). Our task is to make an estimate of Θ(z, w; ζ) for ζ ∈ L (V ), when Im(w) is suﬃciently large. It is suﬃcient to treat the case in which ζ is the characteristic function of a lattice L in V. Then Θ is invariant under w → w + 2p with a positive number p. Thus our estimate will be made under the condition (11.18)

|Re(w)| ≤ p

and

Im(w) > q

with a positive constant q. Changing the notation, write Pw for Pv of (11.5).

a b For ξ = ∈ V put ξ = (a2 + b2 + c2 )1/2 . In §11.7 we will prove c −a (11.19) (11.20)

Pw [ξ] ≥ 8−1 Im(w)−2 ξ2 under (11.18), [ξ, w]2 ≤ A · Im(w)4 ξ2 under (11.18),

with a constant A depending only on p and a suﬃciently large q. We need two more easy facts. The ﬁrst one is: (11.21) For 0 ≤ m ∈ Z there is a constant Bm depending only on m such m −tN that ∞ ≤ Bm t−m−1 for 0 < t ≤ 1. N =1 N e ∞ Indeed, N =1 N m xN = xFm (x)(1 − x)−m−1 with a polynomial Fm of degree Max{m − 1, 0}. This can be obtained by applying x · d/dx successively to ∞ x/(1 − x) = N =1 xN . Putting x = e−t and observing that t/2 ≤ 1 − e−t for 0 < t ≤ 1, we obtain the desired inequality. Next, for L = Zn and 0 < N ∈ Z we have (11.22) # ξ ∈ L Max1≤ν≤n |ξν | = N ≤ Cn N n−1 with a constant Cn depending only on n. The proof is left to the reader, as it is completely elementary. 11.6. For ξ in the set of (11.22) we have N ≤ ξ2 ≤ nN 2 , and so for 0 < m ∈ Z and y > 1/2 we have

11. THETA INTEGRALS

(11.23)

101

ξm exp − ytξ2 ≤ exp(−yt/2) ξm exp − ytξ2 /2

ξ∈L

≤ Cn exp(−yt/2)

∞

ξ∈L

N n−1 (n1/2 N )m exp(−ytN/2)

N =1

= nm/2 Cn exp(−yt/2) ≤4

m+n m/2

n

∞

N m+n−1 exp(−tN/4)

N =1 Cn Bm+n−1 t−m−n

exp(−yt/2)

for 0 < t ≤ 4, by (11.21). We apply this to Θ(z, w; ζ) with characteristic the −1 function of L = V ∩ M2 (Z) as ζ. (Thus n = 3.) Since e 2 Rw (z)[ξ] = exp − πyPw [ξ] , we have, by (11.6), (11.19), and(11.20), Θ(z, w; ζ) ≤ y 1/2 Im(w)−2m [ξ, w]m exp − πyPw [ξ] ≤ Am/2 y 1/2

ξ∈L

ξm exp − (π/8)yIm(w)−2 ξ2 .

ξ∈L

Applying the estimate of (11.23) to this, we ﬁnd that, under (11.18), Θ(z, w; ζ) ≤ Dy 1/2 Im(w)2m+6 exp − (π/16)yIm(w)−2 with a constant D that depends only on m. (We take z in T, and so y > 1/2.) Now f (z) is bounded on T and k = m + 1/2, and so ∞ k m f (z)Θ(z, w; ζ)y dz ≤ E · Im(w)3m+6 e−ay y m−1 dy Im(w) T

−2

1/2 ∞ by 1/2

∞

with a = (π/8)Im(w) and a constant E. Replacing and noting 0 ∞ −ay m−1 −m that 0 e y dy = Γ (m)a , we see that f (z)Θ(z, w; ζ)y k dz ≤ F · Im(w)5m+6 Im(w)m T

with a constant F, which proves that g of (11.10) is slowly increasing at every cusp, and so g ∈ M 2m as stated in Theorem 11.3(i). 11.7. It remains to prove (11.19) and (11.20). By (11.5) we have 2 (11.24) Pw [ξ] = det(ξ) + 2−1 Im(w)−2 [ξ, w] . Put u = Re(w) and v = Im(w). Then a direct calculation shows that 2 (∗) [ξ, w] = c2 |w|4 + 4a2 |w|2 + b2 − 4acu|w|2 − 2bc(u2 − v 2 ) + 4abu, and so

2 2v 2 Pw [ξ] = [ξ, w] − 2(a2 + bc)v 2 = c2 |w|4 + 4a2 |w|2 + b2 − 2a2 v2 − 2bcu2 − 4acu|w|2 + 4abu.

102

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

We are assuming (11.18). Thus |u| ≤ p, and so −2bcu2 ≥ −2|2−1 b · 2p2 c| ≥ −(4−1 b2 + 4p4 c2 ). Similarly −4acu|w|2 ≥ −(a2 + 4p2 c2 )|w|2 and 4abu ≥ −(8p2 a2 + 2−1 b2 ). Therefore 2v 2 Pw [ξ] ≥ a2 (3|w|2 − 2v2 − 8p2 ) + 4−1 b2 + c2 |w|4 − 4p2 |w|2 − 4p4 . We easily see that the right-hand side is ≥ 4−1 (a2 + b2 + c2 ) for suﬃciently large v, which proves (11.19). As for (11.20), viewing [ξ, w] as the inner product of the vectors (c, a, b) and (w2 , −2w, −1), we ﬁnd that [ξ, w]2 ≤ ξ2 |w|4 + 4|w|2 + 1 , from which we obtain (11.20). This completes the proof of Theorem 11.3(i). 12. Main theorems on the correspondence 12.1. We need nonholomorphic modular forms involving the Hermite polynomial Hn (x) deﬁned by (12.1)

(0 ≤ n ∈ Z).

Hn (x) = (−1)n exp(x2 /2)(d/dx)n exp(−x2 /2)

This is a polynomial of degree n with coeﬃcients in Z. We easily obtain √ √ (12.1a) (− c)n Hn ( c x) = exp(cx2 /2)(d/dx)n exp(−cx2 /2) (c > 0). Here are some basic formulas on Hn , in which Hn (x) = (d/dx)Hn (x) : (12.2)

H0 (x) = 1,

H1 (x) = x,

(12.3)

Hn (−x) = (−1)n Hn (x),

(12.4)

Hn+1 (x) = xHn (x) − Hn (x),

(12.5)

Hn (x) = nHn−1 (x), n n k i Hk (y)Hn−k (x), (x + iy)n = k

(12.6)

k=0

∞

(12.7)

Hn ( 4πy a)e(ia2 y)y (s/2)−1 dy

0

n (s − ν) = 2−n/2 (2π)−s/2 a−s Γ (s − n)/2

(Re(s) > n, a > 0).

ν=1

The ﬁrst three are easy; (12.5) can be derived from (12.4) by induction on n. As

for (12.6), putting E = e−zz¯/2 , we have (x + iy)n E = (−2∂/∂ z¯)n E = n n (−i∂/∂y)k (−∂/∂x)n−k E, which gives the desired result. The case k=0 k n = 0 of (12.7) is ∞ e(ia2 y)y (s/2)−1 dy = Γ (s/2)(2π)−s/2 a−s (Re(s) > 0), 0

12. MAIN THEOREMS ON THE CORRESPONDENCE

103

which follows from (8.2). Applying dn /dan to this, we obtain, by (12.1a), ∞ Hn ( 4πy a)e(ia2 y)(4πy)n/2 y (s/2)−1 dy (−1)n 0

= (2π)−s/2 a−s−n Γ (s/2)

n

(1 − s − ν).

ν=1

Substituting s − n for s, we obtain (12.7). The nonholomorphic form we need is (12.8) θn (z, λ) = (4πy)−n/2 λ(ξ)Hn ( 4πy ξ)e(ξ 2 z/2), ξ∈Q

where z ∈ H, λ ∈ L (Q), and y = Im(z). Since Hn (x) is a polynomial in x of degree n, the sum is convergent. Clearly λ(ξ)e(ξ 2 z/2) = θ(0, z; λ), (12.9a) θ0 (z, λ) = ξ∈Q

(12.9b)

θ1 (z, λ) =

λ(ξ)ξe(ξ 2 z/2) = θ∗ (z, λ),

ξ∈Q

where θ(0, z; λ) is as in (4.48b) with n = 1 and θ ∗ as in (4.51), and so θn (z, λ) is holomorphic in z for n ≤ 1. From (4.50b) and (4.52) we obtain (12.9c)

θ0 (αz, λ) = hα (z)θ0 (z, λα ) for every α ∈ P Γ θ ,

(12.9d)

θ1 (αz, λ) = hα (z)jα (z)θ1 (z, λα ) for every α ∈ P Γ θ .

Consequently θ0 (z, λ) belongs to M 1/2 and θ1 (z, λ) to S 3/2 , as we already observed in §§5.1 and 5.8. Now we have: Lemma 12.2. Let the symbols hα (z) and λα be deﬁned as in Theorem 4.12 in the one-dimensional case. Then for every α ∈ P Γ θ we have (12.10) θn α(z), λ = hα (z)jα (z)n θn (z, λα ). Proof. We ﬁrst prove (12.10a)

(πi)−1 δk θn (z, λ) = θn+2 (z, λ),

k = n + 1/2,

where δk is the operator of (6.13b). To prove this, we put √ (12.11) Kn (z) = Kn (ξ, z) = (4πy)−n/2 Hn ( 4πy ξ)e(ξ 2 z/2), where ξ is ﬁxed. Then our task is to prove that (πi)−1 δk Kn (z) = Kn+2 (z),

(12.12)

which implies (12.10a). To make our formulas short, put Y = (πi)−1 (∂/∂z)Kn(z)

√ 4πy. Then

= Y −n e(ξ 2 z/2) nY −2 Hn (Y ξ) − ξY −1 Hn (Y ξ) + ξ 2 Hn (Y ξ) .

Since δk = k(2iy)−1 + ∂/∂z, we have

104

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

(πi)−1 δk Kn (z) = −2kY −2 Kn (z) + (πi)−1 (∂/∂z)Kn(z) = Y −n−2 e(ξ 2 z/2) − (n + 1)Hn (Y ξ) − ξY Hn (Y ξ) + ξ 2 Y 2 Hn (Y ξ) . By (12.4) we have Y ξHn+1 (Y ξ) = Y 2 ξ 2 Hn (Y ξ) − Y ξHn (Y ξ), and by (12.5), (Y ξ) = (n + 1)Hn (Y ξ). Therefore Hn+1 (Y ξ) (πi)−1 δk Kn (z) = Y −n−2 e(ξ 2 z/2) Y ξHn+1 (Y ξ) − Hn+1 = Y −n−2 e(ξ 2 z/2)Hn+2(Y ξ) by (12.4). This proves (12.12), and (12.10a) as well. Recall the operator δrm deﬁned by δrm = δr+2m−2 · · · δr+2 δr in (6.13d). Let n = 2m + ν and r = ν + 1/2 with ν = 0 or 1 and 0 < m ∈ Z. Then from (12.10a) we obtain (πi)−m δrm θν (z, λ) = θn (z, λ).

(12.12a)

Applying (πi)−m δrm to (12.9c, d) and employing (6.14c), we obtain (12.10). This completes the proof. 12.3. This subsection concerns a formula for the Fourier transform of Kn . We do not need this result in our later discussion, however. We have K0 (ξ, z) = e(ξ 2 z/2) and K1 (ξ, z) = ξe(ξ 2 z/2), and so from (12.12) we obtain, for 0 ≤ m ∈ Z and ν = 0 or 1, m m (12.13) K2m+ν (ξ, z) = (πi)−m δν+1/2 Kν (ξ, z) = (πi)−m δν+1/2 ξ ν e(ξ 2 z/2).

Now we have an integral formula (12.14) Kν (ξ, z)e(−ξη)dξ = (−iz)−1/2 z −ν Kν η, ι(z) (η ∈ R),

R 0 −1 where ι = . Indeed, if ν = 0, this is merely (4.30) with n = 1. 1 0 m Applying ∂/∂η to it, we obtain the case ν = 1. Then applying (πi)−m δν+1/2 to (12.14), from (12.13) and (6.14c) we obtain K2m+ν (ξ, z)e(−ξη)dξ = (−iz)−1/2 z −m−ν K2m+ν η, ι(z) (12.15) R

(ν = 0 or 1, 0 ≤ m ∈ Z, η ∈ R).

12.4. Fixing a positive integer N divisible by 4, we put, for simplicity, (12.16) ΓN0 = Γ (2, N/2) = γ ∈ Γ (1) bγ ∈ 2Z, cγ ∈ 2−1 N Z . In addition, we will be considering Γ0 (N/2). We also take a half-integral weight k and a character ψ of (Z/N Z)× (which may be imprimitive) such that (12.17)

k = m + 1/2

and

ψ(−1) = (−1)m ,

0 < m ∈ Z.

We then consider an element f of S k (2, N/2; ψ) (see §8.6), that is, an element f of S k such that (12.18)

f k γ = ψ(dγ )f

for every

γ ∈ ΓN0 .

12. MAIN THEOREMS ON THE CORRESPONDENCE

105

Next, we deﬁne η ∈ L (V ) with V of §11.1 by

a b (12.19) η = ω(a)ω(2c/N )η0 (b), c −a where ω is the characteristic function of Z and ⎧ −1 ⎪ ψ(t)e(−bt/2) ⎨N (12.19a) η0 (b) = t∈Z/N Z ⎪ ⎩0

if N b ∈ 2Z, otherwise,

with ψ(t) = 0 for t not prime to N. Since η0 (b) depends only on b (mod 2Z), we see that η ∈ L (V ). Moreover, a simple calculation shows that η(βαβ −1 ) = ψ(d2β )η(α) for every β ∈ Γ0 (N/2).

(12.20)

Let us simply write Θ(z, w) for Θ(z, w; η) of (11.6) with this η. Then from (12.20) and (11.9) we obtain (12.21)

Θ(z, βw)jβ (w)−2m = ψ(d2β )Θ(z, w) for every β ∈ Γ0 (N/2).

We have several aims: one is to prove Theorem 11.3(ii); the other is to make preparations for the proof of our main theorem, Theorem 12.8below. We thus take f as above and deﬁne g by (11.10) with Γ = γ ∈ ΓN0 aγ − 1 ∈ N Z . Then from Theorem 11.3(i) and (12.21) we see that g ∈ M 2m (N/2, ψ 2 ). Put c(ξ)e(ξw). (12.22) g(w) =

ξ∈Z

We ﬁrst note that g(ir) = ξ∈Z c(ξ)e−2πξr for 0 < r ∈ R. (We make these choices of f and Γ for some deﬁnite reason, but actually our calculation is valid for an arbitrary f ∈ S k and a suitable Γ, with some obvious modiﬁcations, about which we will be more explicit in our later discussion.) In view of (8.2) we have ∞ g(ir)rm+s−1 dr = (2π)−m−s Γ (s + m) c(ξ)ξ −s−m , (12.23) 0

0 m + 1, because of the estimate of c(ξ) given in Lemma 6.2(ii). Also, if c(0) = 0, the integral of (12.23) is divergent for large Re(s), since |g(ir)| > |c(0)|/2 for suﬃciently large r. In the following subsection we will show that the integral is indeed convergent for suﬃciently large Re(s), and so c(0) = 0 and (12.23) holds for Re(s) > m + 1.

a b 12.5. For ξ = ∈ V and w = ir we have, by (11.3a) and (11.5), c −a 2 [ξ, w] = −cr2 − 2air − b, [ξ, w] = 4a2 r2 + b2 + c2 r4 + 2bcr2 , Rw (z)[ξ] = (−a2 − bc)z + (iy/2)(4a2 + b2 r−2 + 2bc + c2 r2 )

106

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

= −a2 z¯ − bcx + (iy/2)(c2 r2 + b2 r−2 ), and so

√ y (m−1)/2 ( π r)m Θ(z, ir) = (−1)m

ω(a)η0 (b)ω(2c/N )

(a,b,c)∈Q3

· (πy)m/2 (cr+br−1 +2ai)m e (a2 /2)z +(bc/2)x+(iy/4)(c2r2 +b2 r−2 ) . By (12.6) we have (πy)m/2 (cr + br−1 + 2ai)m m

m m−n √ = Hn πy(cr + br−1 ) Hm−n 4πy · a . i n n=0

Therefore, putting (12.24)

An (z, r) =

η0 (b)ω(2c/N )Hn

√ πy(cr + br−1 )

(b,c)∈Q2

· e (bc/2)x + (iy/4)(c2 r2 + b2 r−2 ) , H 4πy · a e(a2 z/2), τ (z) = y −/2

(12.25)

a∈Z

we obtain

√ y (m−1)/2 ( π r)m Θ(z, ir) m

m m−n (m−n)/2 m i y τm−n (z)An (z, r). = (−1) n

(12.26)

n=0

Notice that τ (z) is (4π)/2 times θ (z, ω) of (12.8), and it is identically equal to 0 if is odd, because of (12.3). We now need a formula i−n 21/2 π −n/2 (y/r2 )(n+1)/2 An (z, r) ¯ = ψ(d)(c¯ z + d)n e (ir2 /(4y))|cz + d|2 ,

(12.27)

(c,d)∈T

where T = (c, d) ∈ 2−1 N Z × Z dZ + N Z = Z . To prove this, we ﬁrst note exp − πp(u + q)2 e(−uv)du = p−1/2 e(qv) exp(−πv2 /p) (12.28) R

for 0 < p ∈ R, q ∈ R, and v ∈ R. This follows easily from (4.28). Given z = x + iy ∈ H, 0 < t ∈ R, and c ∈ R, take p = t2 /y and q = cx in (12.28) and multiply the result by exp(−πyc2 t2 ). Then we obtain (12.29) exp − πt2 |cz + u|2 /y e(−uv)du R √ = ( y/t)e cxv + (iy/2)(c2 t2 + v 2 t−2 ) . This is the special case n = 0 of √ exp(−πt2 y −1|cz + u|2 )(c¯ z + u)n e(−uv)du (12.30) ( 2π i)n R

12. MAIN THEOREMS ON THE CORRESPONDENCE

107

√ √ = ( y/t)n+1 Hn 2πy(ct + vt−1 ) e cxv + (iy/2)(c2 t2 + v 2 t−2 ) (0 ≤ n ∈ Z, z = x + iy ∈ H, c ∈ R, v ∈ R, 0 < t ∈ R). The case n > 0 of (12.30) can be proved by induction on n, by applying 2πic¯ z − ∂/∂v to (12.29) and employing (12.4). Before proceeding further, we consider a variation of the Poisson summation formula: ˆ ¯ η0 (b)h(b/2) ψ(d)h(d) = (12.31) d∈Z

b∈(2/N )Z

ˆ for a function h on R. Indeed, if f (x) = h(N x), then fˆ(x) = N −1 h(x/N ). By (4.27) with n = 1 and y/N in place of r we have m∈Z h(N m + y) = −1 −1 ˆ ˆ y + m) = m∈Z f (N n∈Z e(ny/N )f (n) = N n∈Z e(ny/N )h(n/N ). ¯ Multiply this by ψ(y), take the sum over 1 ≤ y ≤ N, and replace n by N b/2; then we obtain (12.31). n ˆ is given by (12.30) Now put h(u) = (c¯ z + u e (ir2 /4y)|cz + u|2 . Then h 2 2 with r /2 in place of t , and (12.31) combined with summation over c ∈ 2−1 N Z gives the desired (12.27). 12.6. Let Cn (z, r) denote the function of (12.27). Combining (11.10) with (12.26), we obtain m

m (12.32) g(ir) = im 2−1/2 π (n−m)/2 n n=0 · f (z)τm−n (z)Cn (z, r)rn−m+1 y k−n dz. Φ

Employing the right-hand side of (12.27), we have ∞ Cn (z, r)rs+n dr (12.33) 0 ∞ ψ(d)(cz + d)n exp − (πr2 /2y)|cz + d|2 rs+n dr. = 0

(c,d)∈T s+n

−1

(r2 )(s+n−1)/2 d(r2 ), the last sum equals 2−1 (2y/π)(s+n+1)/2 Γ (s + n + 1)/2 ψ(d)(cz + d)n |cz + d|−s−n−1

Since r

dr = 2

(c,d)∈T

=2

−1

(2/π)

(s+n+1)/2

N/2 Γ (s + n + 1)/2 E−n z, (s + n + 1)/2; ψ

with E of (8.15). (The deﬁnition of T shows that d is always nonzero. Our calculation becomes invalid if m = 0 and the term with c = d = 0 appears.) We observe that the integral of (12.33) is absolutely convergent for suﬃciently large Re(s) for every n. Indeed, we have ∞ Cn (z, r)rn+σ dr ≤ 2−1 (2/π)(σ+n+1)/2 y n/2 0 N/2 · Γ (σ + n + 1)/2 E0 z, (σ + 1)/2; ψ0

108

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

for suﬃciently large σ ∈ R, where ψ0 is the trivial character modulo N. Thus from (12.32) and (12.33) we obtain, at least formally, ∞ m

m m−1+s m g(ir)r dr = i 2(s+n)/2−1 π −(s+m+1)/2 (12.34) n 0 n=0 N/2 · Γ (s + n + 1)/2 f (z)τm−n (z)E−n z, (s + n + 1)/2; ψ y k−n dz. Φ

By (8.18) the last integral over Φ can be written ¯ (12.35) 2LN (s + 1, ψ) f (z)τm−n (z)E−n z, (s + n + 1)/2; Γ, ψ y k−n dz. Φ

By (12.12a) we have τ = (4π)/2 θ and θ = (πi)−t δrt θν , where = 2t+ν, r = ν + 1/2, ν = 0 or 1, and so θ is slowly increasing at every cusp by Lemma 6.10. By Theorem 8.12(ii) the same is true with E−n z, s; N, ψ for every s where the function is ﬁnite. Since f is a cusp form, the integral over Φ in (12.34) is convergent for every such s. We can say the same for the integral of (12.35) at least for suﬃciently large Re(s). Replacing every factor of the ∞ integrand by its absolute value, we ﬁnd that 0 |g(ir)|rσ+m−1 dr is convergent for suﬃciently large σ, and so we can justify our formal calculation, and at the same time we have proved that c(0) = 0. But this does not necessarily mean that g is a cusp form. 12.7. Let us now prove Theorem 11.3(ii). By (11.9), for α ∈ SL2 (Q) we have f (z)Θ(z, w; ηα )dz. (g2m α)(w) = Φ

We see that η α is a ﬁnite C-linear combination of functions of the form

a b η = ω1 (a)ω2 (b)ω3 (c) c −a with ωi ∈ L (Q). We now repeat the calculation of §12.5 with this η in place of η of (12.19) and an arbitrary f ∈ S k (Γ ). Then (12.26) is true with An for which η0 (b)ω(2c/N ) is replaced by ω2 (b)ω3 (c), and with τ replaced by θ (z, ω1 ). To carry out the calculation, we ﬁrst have to modify (12.31) as follows. Put ω (b) = ω2 (2b) and take positive rational numbers K and M so that ω is essentially a function on M Z/KZ. If f (x) = h(x/K), then ˆ fˆ(x) = K h(Kx), and so, by (4.27a), ˆ h(Kn + Kr) = fˆ(n + r) = K e(−mr)f (m) = e(−mr)h(m/K). n∈Z

n∈Z

m∈Z

%

m∈Z

We can ﬁnd a ﬁnite subset R of Q such that M Z = r∈R (KZ + Kr). Then ˆ ˆ ω2 (2b)h(b) = ω (Kn+Kr)h(Kn+Kr) b∈Q

r∈R n∈Z

12. MAIN THEOREMS ON THE CORRESPONDENCE

=

ω (Kr)

r∈R

109

ˆh(Kn+Kr).

n∈Z

Therefore, ˆ = ω2 (2b)h(b) ζ(m)h(m/K) with ζ(m) = K −1 ω (Kr)e(−mr). b∈Q

m∈Z

r∈R

Employing this instead of (12.31) we obtain the modiﬁcation of (12.27) whose right-hand side is ξ(c, d)(c¯ z + d)n e (ir2 /(4y))|cz + d|2 (c,d)∈Q2

with some ξ ∈ L (Q2 ). We eventually ﬁnd that m f (z)τj,m−n (z)Cj,n (z, r)rn−m+1 y k−n dz, (g2m α)(ir) = j∈J n=0

Φ

where J is a ﬁnite set of indices, τj, (z) = θ (z, λj, ) with λj, ∈ L (Q), and ξj,n (c, d)(c¯ z + d)n e (ir2 /y)|cz + d|2 Cj,n (z, r) = (c,d)∈Q2 ∞

with ξj,n ∈ L (Q ). If n > 0, we see that 0 Cj,n (z, r)rs+n dr is convergent for suﬃciently large Re(s), but if n = 0, we have to be careful, since Cj,0 (z, r) has the constant term ξj,0 (0, 0). Thus put B= ξj,0 (0, 0) f (z)τj,m (z)y k dz. 2

j∈J

Φ

Then our previous argument shows that ∞ (g2m α)(ir) − Br1−m rσ dr 0

is convergent for suﬃciently large σ. If m > 1, this implies that g2m α has zero constant term. If m = 1 and f, θ ∗ (z, η) = 0 for every η ∈ L (Q), then B = 0, since τj,1 is θ1 (z, ω1 ) with ω1 ∈ L (Q) and θ∗ = θ1 . Therefore we see again that g2m α has zero constant term. This proves Theorem 11.3(ii). We now state the ﬁrst main theorem on the correspondence S k → M 2m . ∞ Theorem 12.8. Let f (z) = ξ=1 λ(ξ)e(ξz/2) ∈ S k (2, N/2; ψ) with k = m + 1/2, 0 < m ∈ Z, 0 < N ∈ 4Z and a character ψ modulo N such that ψ(−1) = (−1)m . Given a square-free positive integer t, deﬁne a character χt modulo tN by

t (n ∈ Z). χt (n) = ψ(n) n Then the following assertions hold: ∞ 2 (i) There exists an element gt (w) = n=0 ct (n)e(nw) of M 2m (N, ψ ) such that ct (0) = 0 and ∞ ∞ ct (n)n−s = LN (s − m + 1, χt ) λ(tξ 2 )ξ −s . (12.36) n=1

ξ=1

110

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

(ii) The function gt can be obtained as a theta integral (11.10) with a suitable η ∈ L (V ) and f (tz) in place of f there. (iii) The function gt is a cusp form if m > 1 or if m = 1 and f, θ1 (z, μ) = 0 for every μ ∈ L (Q), where θ1 is as in (12.9b). Proof. We return to §12.6 with f as in our theorem. We took a suﬃciently small congruence subgroup Γ of ΓN0 and put Φ = Γ \H. We can replace Γ by a larger subgroup of ΓN0 provided the integral of (12.35) is meaningful, though the value of the integral is multiplied by an element of Q× that depends on the choice of the group. As for τ , we have θ = (πi)−t δrt θν as above, and so τ (γz) = hγ (z)jγ (z) τ (z) for every γ ∈ Γ (2, 2) by (4.20) and (4.47). Therefore, in view of (8.16a) we can take Γ = ΓN0 = Γ (2, N/2). We now calculate the integral over Φ of (12.35) with this Γ. We put f (z) = ∞ ξ=1 λ(ξ)e(ξz/2) and = m − n. Since τ is given by (12.25), we have f (z)τ (z) =

∞

λ(ξ)eπi(ξ−a

2

)x −π(ξ+a2 )y −/2

e

y

H

4πy · a ,

ξ=1 a∈Z

and so

2

f (z)τ (z)dx = 4 0

∞

2

λ(a2 )e−2πa y y −/2 H

4πy · a .

a=1

Let q = m − 1 + (s − n)/2. Then, employing (12.7) we obtain, for = m − n, ∞ 2 ∞ ∞ 2 (∗) f (z)τ (z)dx y q dy = 4λ(a2 ) e−2πa y y −/2 H 4πy · a y q dy 0

0

a=1

= 22−/2 (2π)−(s+m)/2

0

∞ (s + m − ν)Γ (s + n)/2 λ(a2 )a−s−m .

ν=1

a=1

Let Ξ = x + iy ∈ H 0 ≤ x < 2 . Then Ξ gives (P ∩ ΓN0 )\H, and as observed % in §9.3, γ∈R γΦ represents Ξ, where R = (P ∩ ΓN0 )\ΓN0 . Now (f τ¯ y q+2 ) ◦ γ = ψ(dγ )jγn |jγ |−s−n−1 f τ¯ y q+2 for every γ ∈ Γ, and so ∞ 2 q f τ dx y dy = f τ y q+2 dz = (f τ¯ y q+2 ) ◦ γ dz 0

0

Ξ

f τ¯ y q+2

=

Φ

γ∈R

Φ

ψ(dγ )jγn |jγ |−s−n−1 dz

γ∈R

f (z)τ (z)E−n (z, (s + n + 1)/2; Γ, ψ)y k−n dz,

= Φ

which is the integral of (12.35). If we replace ψ(dγ )jγn |jγ |−s−n−1 by its abso lute value, then E−n is replaced by E0 z, (σ +1)/2; Γ ) with σ = Re(s), which is ﬁnite and slowly increasing at every cusp for suﬃciently large σ. Since f is

12. MAIN THEOREMS ON THE CORRESPONDENCE

111

a cusp form, our calculation is justiﬁed for suﬃciently large Re(s). Combining this result with (12.23) and (12.34), we ﬁnd that ∞ c(ξ)ξ −s−m (2π)−m−s Γ (s + m)

= im

m

n=0

m n

ξ=1

2(s+n)/2−1 π −(s+m+1)/2 Γ (s + n + 1)/2 ∞ 2

· 2LN (s + 1, ψ) 0

f τ m−n dx y q dy,

0

where q = m − 1 + (s − n)/2. Notice that for = m − n we have (s + m − ν) = 21−s−n π 1/2 Γ (s + m). Γ (s + n)/2 Γ (s + n + 1)/2

Also,

m

m n=0

n ∞

ν=1 m

= 2 . Thus, employing (∗), we ﬁnally obtain

c(ξ)ξ −s−m = 2m+3 im LN (s + 1, ψ)

∞

λ(a2 )a−s−m ,

a=1

ξ=1 −s−m

since (2π) Γ (s + m) appearing on both sides can be cancelled. Thus i−m 2−m−3 g gives g1 of our theorem, proving the case t = 1. ∞ To prove the case with t > 1, we put ft (z) = f (tz) = ξ=1 μ(ξ)e(ξz/2). By Lemma 8.17(i), ft ∈ S k (2, tN/2, χt ) with χt as above. Applying our result in the case t = 1 to ft , we ﬁnd an element h(w) = ∞ n=1 C(n)e(nw) ∈ M 2m (2tN, ψ 2 ) such that ∞ ∞ ∞ C(n)n−s = χt (a)am−1−s μ(ξ 2 )ξ −s . (∗∗) n=1

n=1

ξ=1

∞ Since ft (z) = ξ=1 λ(ξ)e(tξz/2), we see that μ(ξ 2 ) = 0 only if t|ξ, in which ∞ ∞ case μ(ξ 2 ) = λ(tη 2 ) with η = ξ/t. Thus ξ=1 μ(ξ 2 )ξ −s = t−s η=1 λ(tη2 )η −s , and so from (∗∗) we see that C(n) = 0 only if t|n. Put gt (w) = h(w/t), ∞ Then gt (w) = n=1 ct (n)e(nw) with ct (n) = C(tn), and by Lemma 8.17(i), gt ∈ M 2m (t, 2N ; ψ2 ). Also, we have (12.36). It remains to prove that 2 gt ∈ M 2m (1, 2N ; ψ ). By Lemma 8.18, Γ0 (2N ) is generated by Γ (t, 2N ) 1 1 and , Since gt (w + 1) = gt (w), we obtain the desired fact. This 0 1 proves (i) and (ii), and (iii) as well, by virtue of Theorem 11.3(ii). The above theorem excludes the case k = 1/2. We can actually determine M 1/2 completely as follows. Theorem 12.9. The space M 1/2 is spanned by the series θ0 (az, λ) with 0 < a ∈ Q and λ ∈ L (Q), where θ0 is as in (12.9a), that is,

112

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

θ0 (az, λ) =

λ(ξ)e(aξ 2 z/2).

ξ∈Q

After some preliminary observations in §12.10 and two lemmas, the proof will be completed in §12.13. 12.10. Throughout this subsection we put k = 1/2. Thus m = 0. Deﬁne g by (11.10) with f ∈ S k (Γ ). By Lemma 10.7, Θ as a function of z is slowly increasing at every cusp, locally uniformly in w. Since f is a cusp form, (11.10) is convergent, and so g is meaningful. Besides, the estimate of Θ(z, w; ζ) in §11.6 is valid in the case m = 0, if we ignore the constant term, which is y1/2 . Therefore g is slowly increasing at every cusp. For α in V of (11.1), s ∈ C, and w ∈ H put (12.37)

κ[α, w, s] = Im(w)2s |[α, w]|−2s ,

where [α, w] is as in (11.3a). Let L0 be the operator of (6.13c) with k = 0. Then (12.38) L0 κ[α, w, s] = 2s(1 − 2s)κ[α, w, s] − 16s2 det(α)κ[α, w, s + 1]. To make our calculation easier, we note that κ[α, γw, s] = κ[γ −1 αγ, w, s] for every γ ∈ SL2 (R), which follows from (6.3) and (11.3c), and so L0 κ[γ −1 αγ, w, s] = (L0 κ)[α, γw, s] by (6.14d). Therefore it is suﬃcient to verify (12.38) when α = diag[−a, a], which can be done easily. Put f (z) = ξ∈Q λ(ξ)e(ξ/2) and deﬁne two inﬁnite series P and Q by η(α)λ − det(α) κ[α, w, s], (12.39a) P (w, s) = (12.39b)

Q(w, s) =

α∈V

η(α)λ − det(α) det(α)κ[α, w, s + 1],

α∈V

where w ∈ H, s ∈ C, and η ∈ L (Q). Since λ(0) = 0, the sums are over α such that det(α) < 0. These series are convergent for suﬃciently large Re(s), provided Im(w) > c with a constant c that depends on η. Indeed, by Lemma 6.2(iii), |λ − det(α) | = O(| det(α)|1/4 ), and so our task is to prove the convergence of (12.40) η(α)| det(α)|a |[α, w]|−2s α∈V, det(α) 0 with a lattice L in V. Thus we obtain the desired convergence. Consequently P and Q deﬁne holomorphic functions in s for Re(s) > b with some b ∈ R when Im(w) > c with a positive constant c. Lemma 12.11. The series P (w, s) and Q(w, s) can be continued as meromorphic functions in s to the whole s-plane with at most a simple pole at s = 1. The residues of P and Q at s = 1 are Ag(w) and (−A/8)g(w), respectively, where A is a nonzero constant and g is the function of (11.10) deﬁned with the present f, η, k = 1/2, and m = 0. Proof. We prove this lemma by ﬁnding integral expressions for these series. We take a suﬃciently large even positive integer N, and replace Γ by Γ (N ), or rather, put Γ = Γ (N ). We also put Γ∞ = Γ ∩ P, Ψ = Γ∞ \H, and Φ = Γ \H. Let Θ0 denote Θ(z, w; η) of (11.6) with m = 0. We have

λ(ξ)η(α)e 2−1 ξ + det(α) z + (iy/4)v −2|[α, w]|2 f (z)Θ0 (z) = y 1/2 ξ∈Q α∈V

in view of (11.5), where y = Im(z) and v = Im(w), and so N f (z)Θ0 (z)dx = N y 1/2 η(α)λ − det(α) e (iy/4)v −2 |[α, w]|2 . 0

α∈V

Since Ψ is represented by x + iy y > 0, 0 ≤ x < N , we have, using (8.2), ∞ N f Θ0 y s+1/2 dz = f Θ0 dx y s−3/2 dy Ψ 0 0 ∞ η(α)λ − det(α) exp − y(π/2)v −2 |[α, w]|2 y s−1 dy =N 0

α∈V

= N (2/π)s Γ (s)P (w, s) for Re(s) > b and Im(w) > c with some b and c. As observed in §9.13, Ψ % is represented by γ∈R γΦ with R = Γ∞ \Γ. By (11.8) we have (f Θ0 )◦ γ = |jγ (z)|f Θ0 , and so s+1/2 f Θ0 y dz = f Θ0 y s+1/2 ◦ γdz Ψ

γ∈R

=

f Θ0 Φ

Φ

|jγ (z)|−2s y s+1/2 dz =

f Θ0 E0 (z, s; Γ )y 1/2 dz, Φ

γ∈R

where E0 is the function of (9.12) with k = 0. Our calculation is justiﬁed for the same reason as in the proof of Theorem 12.8. Thus (12.41) N (2/π)s Γ (s)P (w, s) = f Θ0 E0 (z, s; Γ )y 1/2 dz. Φ

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IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

Now E0 (z, s; Γ ) can be continued to a meromorphic function on the whole s-plane in the sense of Theorem 9.9 with a simple pole at s = 1 with a positive number, say ρ, as the residue. Besides, Lemma 9.8 shows that if (s − s0 )b E0 is ﬁnite at s = s0 , then (s − s0 )b E0 is slowly increasing at every cusp locally uniformly in s. Since f is a cusp form, the last integral over Φ deﬁnes a meromorphic function in s on the whole C. In addition, it has at most a simple pole at s = 1 with residue ρ f (z)Θ0 (z, w; η)y 1/2 dz = ρg(w). Φ

Therefore from (12.41) we see that P (w, s) has at most a simple pole at s = 1 with residue (2N )−1 πρg(w). This proves our assertion on P with A = (2N )−1 πρ. Next, to deal with Q(w, s), we take (πi)−1 ∂f /∂z = ξλ(ξ)e(ξz/2) ξ∈Q

in place of f. By the same technique as before we easily ﬁnd that (∗) (πi)−1 (∂f /∂z)Θ0 y s+3/2 dz = −N (2/π)s+1 Γ (s + 1)Q(w, s). Ψ

We consider the operator δk of (6.13b) with k = 1/2. Then (πi)−1 ∂f /∂z = (πi)−1 δ1/2 f + (4πy)−1 f, and so the last integral over Ψ equals f Θ0 y s+1/2 dz. (∗∗) (πi)−1 (δ1/2 f )Θ0 y s+3/2 dz + (4π)−1 Ψ

Ψ

Since (Θ0 δ1/2 f )◦ γ = jγ2 |jγ |Θ0 δ1/2 f for every γ ∈ Γ, the previous technique used for P produces s+3/2 (δ1/2 f )Θ0 y dz = (δ1/2 f )Θ0 E−2 (z, s + 1; Γ )y 1/2 dz. Ψ

Φ

By Lemma 6.10, δ1/2 f is rapidly decreasing at every cusp. Thus, for the same reason as for P, we see that Q(w, s) can be continued to a meromorphic function on the whole s-plane. By Theorem 9.9, E−2 (z, s + 1; Γ ) is ﬁnite at s = 1. Therefore from (12.41), (∗), and (∗∗) we see that Q(w, s) has at most a simple pole at s = 1 with residue −(16N )−1πρg(w), and our proof of Lemma 12.9 is complete. Lemma 12.12. Deﬁne g by (11.10) with f ∈ S k , k = 1/2. Suppose that f, θ0 (z, λ) = 0 for every λ ∈ L (Q), where θ0 is as in (12.9a). Then g = 0. Proof. We have shown in §12.10 that g is slowly increasing at every cusp. Let the notation be as in §12.10 and Lemma 12.11. By (12.38) we have L0 P (w, s) = 2s(1 − 2s)P (w, s) − 16s2 Q(w, s). Taking the residues of P and Q at s = 1, from Lemma 12.9 we obtain AL0 g = −2Ag + (16A/8)g = 0, and so L0 g = 0. Thus g belongs to A0 (0), and has an expansion

12. MAIN THEOREMS ON THE CORRESPONDENCE

g(u + iv) = a + cv +

115

bh Wk (hv, 0)e(hu)

0=h∈rZ

with a, c, bh ∈ C; see (9.10) and (9.12a). By Lemma 9.2(ii) the last sum is O(e−Bv ) with B > 0 as v → ∞. Now our calculation of §12.7 is valid in the present case with m = 0 under our assumption that f, θ0 (z, λ) = 0. In ∞ particular, with m = n = 0 we see that 0 |g(ir)|rσ dr < ∞ for a suﬃciently large σ, which shows that a = c = 0. Since this is so for g ◦ α in place of g for every α ∈ SL2 (Q), we see that g is a cusp form. By Lemma 9.2(iv), S0 (0) = S 0 = {0}. Thus g = 0. 12.13. We now prove Theorem 12.9. In this proof we put k = 1/2. We know that θ0 (az, λ) belongs to M k . We have shown in (9.45a) that M k = S k ⊕ Ek , and also in (9.49) that Ek is spanned by some series of the type θ0 (az, λ). Therefore it is suﬃcient to show that every element f of S k orthogonal to all series of the type θ0 (az, λ) is 0. Take such an f. Then we can ﬁnd q ∈ Q, > 0, such that f (qz) belongs to S k (Γ ) with Γ = γ ∈ ΓN0 aγ − 1 ∈ N Z , where 0 < N ∈ 4Z and ΓN0 is as in (12.16). Put f0 (z) = f (qz). For each character χ of (Z/N Z)× such that 0 χ(−1) = 1 put fχ = k γ, where R = ΓN /{±1}Γ . Then γ∈R χ(aγ )f0 fχ ∈ S k (2, N/2; χ) and #{χ}f0 = χ∈{χ} fχ , where {χ} is the set of all such characters χ. Our aim is to show that fχ = 0 for every χ. For a square-free positive integer t put fχ,t (z)

= fχ (tz). By Lemma 8.17(i), t . Moreover, our assumption fχ,t ∈ S k (2, tN/2; ψt ) with ψt (a) = χ(a) a on f implies that fχ,t , θ0 (z, λ) = 0 for every λ ∈ L (Q). Therefore, by Lemma 12.12, the theta integral of fχ,t is 0. Our calculations in §§12.5 and 12.6 and the proof of Theorem 12.8 are valid in the present case with fχ,t in place of f, and so the vanishing of the theta integral of fχ,t means 2 −s = 0 if that (∗∗) in the proof of Theorem 12.8 is 0, and so ∞ ξ=1 μ(ξ )ξ ∞ fχ,t (z) = ξ=1 μ(ξ)e(ξz/2). The argument of the last part of the proof of ∞ ∞ Theorem 12.8 shows that ξ=1 λ(tξ 2 )ξ −s = 0 if fχ (z) = ξ=1 λ(ξ)e(ξz/2). Since this is so for every square-free positive integer t, we obtain fχ = 0 as expected. This completes the proof. 12.14. Theorem 12.8(i) was essentially given in [S73a, p. 458] in a somewhat diﬀerent form, and later in [S87] it was generalized to the case of forms with respect to congruence subgroups of SL2 (F ) with a totally real algebraic number ﬁeld F. The diﬀerence between Theorem 12.8(i) and the corresponding statement in [S73a] is caused by our choice of jαk in (5.1b) and of hγ in (4.40). Our choice is more natural than (hδ )2k employed in [S73a], where hδ is as in (5.6). Also, generalizations of Theorem 12.8(ii, iii) and Theorem 12.9 in the ∞ case of SL2 (F ) were given in [S87]. To show that gt(w) = m=1 ct (m)e(mw)

116

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

of Theorem 12.8(i) is a form of weight 2m, we employed in [S73a] the charac∞ terization of such a form by the functional equations of m=1 χ(t)ct (m)e(mw) for all Dirichlet characters χ. Such a characterization originated in Hecke [H36], and Weil, inspired by my idea on the modularity of Q-rational elliptic curves (as he implied in 1967 and 1986), proved the characterization of the forms of S ν Γ0 (N ) , 0 < ν ∈ Z. It is easy to extend it to the forms of S ν (N, ψ) with an arbitrary character ψ modulo N, and it was this characterization that I employed in [S73a]. The methods of [S87], which we followed in Sections 11 and 12, were completely diﬀerent. I calculate explicitly the theta integral (11.10), which I believe, gives a shorter proof and better results. In fact, similar integrals had been investigated by a few researchers, but their methods required that the weight be suﬃciently large. I found that this diﬃculty was avoidable by using the operators ε and δk−2 , and proving an equality of type (11.15). It seems that there is a conceptual explanation of such an equality. In any case, in the intervening years, no small number of authors published papers on the correspondence, as can be seen from the references of [S87]. However, their connection with our main theorems is not so clear-cut, and so we included in the references of the present book only those which may be called truly relevant. The reader who is interested in those works can check the papers listed at the end of [S87] and compare them with our theorems. I may be allowed to say that not every paper there is reliable, and some have serious gaps. The main theorem of [S73a] was formulated for eigenfunctions of Hecke operators of half-integral weight, but we stated Theorem 12.8 without such operators. We will discuss them in the next section. We note that a few examples of the correspondence f → g and also examples of the dimensions 0 of S k (ΓN ) and S 2m Γ0 (N/2) are given in [S73a, Section 4]. 13. Hecke operators 13.1. We ﬁrst introduce the notion of Hecke algebra in an abstract setting. We say that two subgroups D and D of a group are commensurable if D∩D is of ﬁnite index in D and in D . We now ﬁx a multiplicative group G and a subgroup D of G , and assume that αDα−1 is commensurable with D for every α ∈ G . It is an easy exercise to show that #(DαD/D) = [D : D ∩ αDα−1 ] and #(D\DαD) = [D : D ∩ α−1 Dα] for every α ∈ G . Also we have (13.0) If #(DαD/D) = #(D\DαD), then there exists a set {ζi }i∈I such that % % DαD = i∈I Dζi = i∈I ζi D. % % Indeed, let DαD = i∈I Dξi = i∈I ηi D. Since ξi ∈ Dηi D, we have ξi = δi ηi εi with δi , εi ∈ D. Then we obtain the desired result with ζi = δi−1 ξi .

13. HECKE OPERATORS

117

Let R denote the vector space over Q consisting of all formal ﬁnite sums cα DαD with cα ∈ Q and α ∈ G . We introduce a law of multiplication R × R → R which makes R an associative algebra as follows. Given u = Dα0 D and v = Dβ0 D with α0 , β0 ∈ G , take coset decompositions % % (13.1) u = Dα0 D = α∈A Dα, v = Dβ0 D = β∈B Dβ. We have Dα0 Dβ0 D = β∈B Dα0 Dβ = α∈A, β∈B Dαβ, so that % (13.1a) Dα0 Dβ0 D = ξ∈X DξD

with a ﬁnite set X. We then deﬁne the product u · v to be the element of R given by (13.2) u·v = μ(u · v, w)w, w

where the sum is extended over all the diﬀerent w = DξD ⊂ Dα0 Dβ0 D, and (13.2a) μ(u · v, w) = # (α, β) ∈ A × B Dαβ = Dξ . To make this deﬁnition meaningful, we have to show that the right-hand side is independent of the choice of A, B and ξ. Once this is done, we extend the map (u, v) → u · v to a Q-bilinear map of R × R into R. Though this was done in [S71], we present here a simpler proof. Thus our task is to show that the above law is well-deﬁned and associative. For this purpose, we ﬁrst consider the vector space M over Q consisting of all formal ﬁnite sums γ cγ Dγ with cγ ∈ Q and γ ∈ G . Let u = Dα0 D = % % α∈A Dα. Clearly Dα0 Dγ = α∈A Dαγ and this set depends only on u and Dγ. Therefore, if we let u act on M by the rule u· cγ Dγ = cγ Dαγ, γ

γ

α∈A

then this is well deﬁned independently of the choice of A and γ. We can also let G act on M on the right by putting

cγ Dγ ξ = cγ Dγξ (ξ ∈ G ). γ γ We can view R as a subspace of M by identifying Dα0 D with α∈A Dα. Then it is easy to see that R as a subspace of M consists of the elements x ∈ M such that xδ = x for every δ ∈ D. We now restrict the map R × M → M to R × R. Since (u · x)δ = u · (xδ), we see that u · x ∈ R if x ∈ R. Thus we obtain a Q-bilinear map R × R → R. From our deﬁnition we see that if u, v, A, B are as in (13.1), then Dαβ. (13.3) u·v = α∈A β∈B

The right-hand side, being an element of R, can be written ξ∈X mξ DξD with 0 ≤ mξ ∈ Z and X of (13.1a). Then clearly mξ = μ(u · v, w) for w = DξD. Thus (13.3) coincides with (13.2), and so (13.2) is well deﬁned.

118

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

Now, for x = Dγ we have Dβγ = Dαβγ = mξ DξDγ = (u · v) · x. u · (v · x) = u · α∈A β∈B

β∈B

ξ∈X

By linearity we obtain u · (v · y) = (u · v) · y for every y ∈ R, which proves the associativity of the algebra R. Taking α0 or β0 to be 1, we see that D = D1D is the identity element of R. We denote R by R(D, G ) and call it the Hecke algebra of (D, G ). We deﬁne a Q-linear map deg : R(D, G ) → Q by

(13.4) deg cα DαD = cα #(D\DαD). α

α

Let A be a subset of G containing D which is closed under multiplication. Then we easily see that the Q-linear span of DαD for all α ∈ A is a subalgebra of R(D, G ). We denote this subalgebra by R(D, A ) and call it the Hecke algebra of (D, A ). As shown in [S71, Propositions 3.3 and 3.8], we have (13.4a)

deg(xy) = deg(x) deg(y)

for every x, y ∈ R(D, G ),

(13.4b) If G has an anti-automorphism α → α∗ such that D ∗ = D and (DαD)∗ = DαD for every α ∈ A, then R(D, A ) is commutative. 13.2. The symbol R Γ, GL+ 2 (Q) is meaningful for every congruence subgroup Γ of Γ (1). We now take Γ of a special type and replace GL+ 2 (Q) by a smaller set as follows: Γ = γ ∈ Γ (1) aγ ∈ h, bγ ∈ tZ, cγ ∈ N Z . Here 0 < t ∈ Z, 0 < N ∈ Z, t|N, and h is a subgroup of (Z/tN Z)× ; we use the same letter h for the inverse image of h under the natural map Z → Z/tN Z. (In fact, we are interested only in the two special cases h = {1} and h = (Z/tN Z)× .) We then consider R(Γ, Ξ) with Ξ = α ∈ M2 (Z) det(α) > 0, aα ∈ h, bα ∈ tZ, cα ∈ N Z . For 0 < n ∈ Z we denote by T (n) the sum of all diﬀerent Γ αΓ with α ∈ Ξ such that det(α) = n. Also, for two positive integers a and d such that a|d and (a, N ) = 1 we denote by T (a, d) the element Γ ξΓ of R(Γ, Ξ) with ξ ∈ Ξ ∩ Γ (1)diag[a, d]Γ (1). Such a ξ exists and Γ ξΓ is uniquely determined independently of the choice of ξ; see [S71, Proposition 3.32]. Lemma 13.3. (i) The algebra R(Γ, Ξ) is a polynomial ring over Q of the elements of the following two types: (1) T (p) for all prime factors p of N ; (2) T (1, p) and T (p, p) for all prime numbers p not dividing N.

13. HECKE OPERATORS

119

(ii) Every Γ ξΓ with ξ ∈ Ξ can be expressed as a product T (m)T (a, d) with m|N ∞ , a|d, d prime to N. (iii) T (m)T (n) = T (mn) if m|N ∞ and n|N ∞ . (iv) T (m) = T ()T (m) if is prime to m. (v) R(Γ, Ξ) is generated over Q by the T (n) for all positive integers n. This is [S71, Theorem 3.34]. Here we write m|N ∞ when the prime factors of m divide N. In fact, these are formulated only when h is a subgroup of (Z/N Z)× , but all the statements are valid for Γ and Ξ given as above, as can be seen by verifying various statements of [S71], Proposition 3.32, in particular, for such Γ and Ξ, which, if tedious, is straightforward. For this, see the errata of the paperback edition of [S71] in 1994. We note that (13.5) If m|N ∞ , then T (m) = Γ σΓ with σ = diag[1, m]. This can be obtained by taking Γ σΓ as Γ ξΓ of (ii). We also note a basic formula (13.6a) T (m)T (n) = d · T (d, d)T (mn/d2 ), d

where d runs over all positive divisors of (m, n) prime to N. We also have an equality of formal Dirichlet series with coeﬃcients in R(Γ, Ξ) : ∞ (Γ αΓ ) det(α)−s = T (n)n−s (13.6b) α∈Γ \Ξ/Γ

=

1 − T (p)p

−s −1

p|N

n=1

1 − T (p)p−s + T (p, p)p1−2s

−1

.

pN

These are [S71, (3.3.6), (3.3.8)]. 13.4. We now ﬁx a half-integral weight k > 0 and consider R(Δ, Gk ) with the group Gk and its congruence subgroup Δ in the sense of §9.5. For γ ∈ Γ θ we deﬁne an element (γ) of Gk by (γ) = (γ, jγk ). Then is an injective homomorphism of Γ θ into Gk . We also ﬁx a congruence subgroup Γ of Γ (2) and put Δ = (Γ ). Taking a positive integer e, we consider ΔξΔ with ξ = (α, ek ), α = diag[e−1 , e], 0 < e ∈ Q. We have then (13.7)

(δ)ξ = ξ(γ)

if

δ = αγα−1 with γ ∈ α−1 Γ α ∩ Γ.

Indeed, from (4.40) we see that hδ (αz) = hγ (z), and so jδk (αz) = jγk (z), and we can easily verify (13.7). Lemma 13.5. (i) With Γ, Δ, ξ, and α as above, for {ξν } ⊂ ΔξΔ we % % have ΔξΔ = ν Δξν if and only if Γ αΓ = ν Γ pr(ξν ), and consequently #(Δ\ΔξΔ) = #(Γ \Γ αΓ ).

120

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

(ii) Let η = (β, f k ) with β = diag[f −1 , f ], 0 < f ∈ Q. Suppose Γ αΓ · Γ βΓ = Γ αβΓ. Then ΔξΔ · ΔηΔ = ΔξηΔ. Proof. We can take ξν = ξδν with δν = (γν ) with γν ∈ Γ. Suppose % ΔξΔ = ν Δξν . Then Γ αΓ = ν Γ pr(ξν ). Suppose Γ αγ1 = Γ αγ2 . Then γ2 γ1−1 ∈ α−1 Γ α ∩ Γ, and so (αγ2 γ1−1 α−1 )ξ = ξ(γ2 γ1−1 ) by (13.7). Therefore ξ2 ξ1−1 = ξδ2 δ1−1 ξ −1 = (αγ2 γ1−1 α−1 ) ∈ (Γ ) = Δ, and so Δξ2 = Δξ1 . % This shows that Γ αΓ = ν Γ pr(ξν ) and #(Δ\ΔξΔ) = #(Γ \Γ ξΓ ). Con% versely, suppose Γ αΓ = ν Γ αγν . Since Γ αγν = pr(Δξν ), we have Δξν = Δξμ if Γ αγν = Γ αγμ . Also, since #(Δ\ΔξΔ) = #(Γ \Γ ξΓ ), we obtain % % ΔξΔ = ν Δξν . This proves (i). To prove (ii), put Γ αΓ = i∈I Γ αi , Γ βΓ = % % % Γ βj , and Γ αβΓ = h∈H Γ εh . By (i) we have ΔξΔ = i∈I Δξi , ΔηΔ = %j∈J % j∈J Δηj , and ΔξηΔ = h∈H Δζh with ξi , ηj , and ζh such that pr(ξi ) = αi , pr(ηj ) = βj , and pr(ζh ) = εh . If Γ αΓ · Γ βΓ = Γ αβΓ, then there is only one (i, j) such that Γ αi βj = Γ αβ, and so there is only one (i, j) such that Δξi ηj = Δξη. Thus ΔξΔ · ΔηΔ = ΔξηΔ. This proves (ii). Lemma 13.6. The symbols Γ and Δ being as in §13.4, let ξm = (αm , mk ) with αm = diag[m−1 , m], 0 < m ∈ Z, and Tm = Δξm Δ. Then Tm Tn = Tmn if either m|N ∞ or m is prime to n. Proof. Put α = mαm and β = nαn . Our task is to show that Γ αΓ · Γ βΓ = Γ αβΓ in R Γ, GL+ 2 (Q) . Indeed, if that were so, then Γ αm Γ · Γ αn Γ = Γ αmn Γ, which combined with Lemma 13.5(ii) proves that Tm Tn = Tmn . Now Γ αΓ, Γ βΓ, and Γ αβΓ are terms of T (m2 ), T (n2 ), and T (m2 n2 ). Let ε ∈ Γ αΓ, δ ∈ Γ βΓ, and εδ ∈ Γ (1)diag[a, d]Γ (1) with positive integers a and d such that a|d. Suppose m is prime to n; take a prime factor p of a. If p|m, then β ∈ SL2 (Zp ), and so α ≺ pZ, a contradiction. Thus p m, and similarly p n. Therefore, a = 1, and consequently εδ ∈ Γ αβΓ, that is, Γ αΓ βΓ ⊂ Γ αβΓ. Therefore, Γ αΓ · Γ βΓ = cΓ αβΓ with 0 < c ∈ Z. Since T (m2 )T (n2 ) = T (m2 n2 ) by Lemma 13.3(iv), we see that c = 1, and so Γ αΓ · Γ βΓ = Γ αβΓ. Next suppose m|N ∞ ; then Γ αΓ = T (m2 ) by (13.5). From (13.5) and Lemma 13.3(ii) we see that Γ βΓ = Γ σΓ · Γ τ Γ, Γ σΓ = T (2 ), |N ∞ , τ = diag[a, d], a|d with d prime to N. Since β = diag[1, n2 ], we see that a = 1, and so τ = diag[1, h2 ] with h such that n = h. Taking Γ αβΓ in place of Γ βΓ, we have similarly by Lemma 13.3(ii) Γ αβΓ = T (m2 2 )Γ τ Γ. By Lemma 13.3(iii), T (m2 2 ) = T (m2 )T (2 ), and so Γ αβΓ = Γ αΓ · Γ βΓ. This completes the proof. 13.7. So far we have used the symbol f k ξ for ξ ∈ SL2 (R) or ξ ∈ Gk . + When k ∈ Z, we extend this to ξ ∈ GL+ 2 (R). Namely, for ξ ∈ GL2 (R) and a function f on H we put

13. HECKE OPERATORS

121

f k ξ = f k det(ξ)−1/2 ξ .

(13.8a)

This is consistent with what we deﬁned in [S71, §2.1]. Then (6.12) is valid for α ∈ GL+ 2 (Q). Let us now discuss the action of a Hecke algebra on modular forms of integral or half-integral weight. We ﬁrst note (13.8b) #(Γ \Γ αΓ ) = #(Γ αΓ/Γ ) for every congruence subgroup Γ and α ∈ GL+ 2 (Q). Indeed, we have Γ ∩ {±1} = Γ ∩ αΓ α−1 ∩ {±1} and μ(Γ \H)[Γ : Γ ∩ αΓ α−1 ] = μ (Γ ∩ αΓ α−1 )\H , which equals μ (α−1 Γ α ∩ Γ )\H , since the measure on H is invariant under the action of α−1 . Thus [Γ : Γ ∩ αΓ α−1 ] = [Γ : Γ ∩ α−1 Γ α], which gives (13.8b). Let us ﬁrst consider the case k ∈ Z. Let Γ be a congruence subgroup % of Γ (1) and let α ∈ GL+ We take a decomposition Γ αΓ = ν Γ αν . 2 (Q). Then we put f |[Γ αΓ ]k = ν f k αν for f ∈ M k (Γ ). We easily see that f |[Γ αΓ ]k ∈ M k (Γ ). We call [Γ αΓ ]k a Hecke operator. We have, for f ∈ M k (Γ ) and g ∈ S k (Γ ), f |[Γ αΓ ]k , g = f, g|[Γ α−1Γ ]k . % % Indeed, by (13.8b) and (13.0), we can put Γ αΓ = i∈I Γ αi = i∈I αi Γ with % some αi . Then Γ α−1 Γ = i∈I Γ α−1 i , and so by (6.12), −1 f k αi , g = f, gk α−1 Γ ]k , f |[Γ αΓ ]k , g = i = f, g|[Γ α (13.9)

i∈I

i∈I

which proves (13.9). There is a traditional deﬁnition of Hecke operators acting on M k (N, ψ). × To bespeciﬁc, take ) and t = 1 and h = (Z/N Z) in §13.2.Then Γ = Γ0 (N % Ξ = α ∈ M2 (Z) det(α) > 0, (aα , N ) = 1, cα ∈ N Z . Let Γ αΓ = ν Γ αν with α ∈ Ξ and det(α) = q. Then for f ∈ M k (N, ψ) we put ψ a(αν ) f k αν , f |[Γ αΓ ]k,ψ = q k/2−1 ν

and denote by T (n)k,ψ resp. T (a, d)k,ψ the sum of [Γ αΓ ]k,ψ for all Γ αΓ involved in T (n) resp. T (a, d). We have (13.9a) ψ det(α) f [Γ αΓ ]k,ψ , g = f, g|[Γ αΓ ]k,ψ if det(α) is prime to N and f, g ∈ S k (N, ψ), and consequently, r[Γ αΓ ]k,ψ with any r such that r¯2 = ψ det(α) is a self-adjoint operator. ι To prove ι this,

denote by ξ → ξ the main involution of M2 (Q), that is, a b d −b = . Then f k ξ −1 = f k ξ ι , since ξ −1 = det(ξ)−1 ξ ι . Now c d −c a

122

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

let α ∈ Ξ and det(α) = q with q prime to N. As shown above, we can put % % Γ αΓ = ν Γ αν = ν αν Γ with suitable αν . Clearly Γ ι = Γ and αι ∈ Ξ. Besides, Γ αΓ = Γ αι Γ, since Γ αΓ = Ξ ∩ Γ (1)αΓ (1), which follows from [S71, Proposition 3.32(i)]. (Γ, Ξ here correspond to Γ , Δ there.) Thus Γ αΓ = % Γ αι Γ = ν Γ αιν . Also, for ξ ∈ Ξ with det(ξ) = q we have a(ξ)d(ξ)−q ∈ N Z. Therefore $ $ # # ψ(q) f |[Γ αΓ ]k,ψ , g = q k/2−1 ν ψ a(αν ) f k αν , ψ(q)g # $ # $ ι k/2−1 ι ¯ = q k/2−1 f, f, ν ψ a(αν ) ψ(q)gk αν = q ν ψ d(αν ) gk αν # $ = f, g|[Γ αΓ ]k,ψ , since d(αν ) = a(αιν ). This proves (13.9a). If α = q12 with q prime to N, then T (q, q) = Γ αΓ, and so we have T (q, q)k, ψ = ψ(q)q k−2 if q is prime to N. Let 0 = f (z) = ∞ n=0 a(n)e(nz) ∈ M k (N, ψ). Suppose f |T (p)k, ψ = cp f with cp ∈ C for every prime number p; then f |T (n)k, ψ = cn f with cn ∈ C for every n ∈ Z, > 0, and ∞ ∞ (13.9c) a(n)n−s = a(1) cn n−s

(13.9b)

n=1

n=1

= a(1)

−1 1 − cp p−s + ψ(p)pk−1−2s ; p

see [S71, Theorem 3.43]. We call such an f a Hecke eigenform, and say that f is normalized if a(1) = 1, so that a(n) = cn . Somewhat more generally, we have f |T (p)k, ψ = cp f for every p r with a positive integer r if and only if the following equality holds: −1 a(n)n−s = a(1) . (13.9d) 1 − cp p−s + ψ(p)pk−1−2s (n,r)=1

pr

Taking f = g in (13.9a), we obtain (13.10) If 0 = f ∈ S k (N, ψ), f |T (n)k, ψ = cn f, and n is prime to N, then ψ(n)¯ cn = cn . 13.8. Next suppose k ∈ / Z. We put Δ = (Γ ) with a congruence subgroup % Γ of Γ (2). Let ΔξΔ = ν Δξν with ξ ∈ Gk . Given f ∈ M k (Δ), we put (13.11) f |[ΔξΔ]k = f k ξν , ν

where (f k ξ)(z) = q(z)−1 f (αz) if ξ = (α, q); see (9.19). We easily see that f |[ΔξΔ]k ∈ M k (Δ). Extending this Q-linearly to R(Δ, Gk ), we can let R(Δ, Gk ) act on M k (Δ). Clearly f |[ΔξΔ]k ∈ S k (Δ) if f ∈ S k (Δ). Let us now consider the case ξ = (α, ek ) with α = diag[e−1 , e], 0 < e ∈ Q. Then

13. HECKE OPERATORS

123

(13.12a)

#(Δ\ΔξΔ) = #(ΔξΔ/Δ),

(13.12b)

f |[ΔξΔ]k , g = f, g|[Δξ −1 Δ]k .

Indeed, #(Δ\ΔξΔ) = #(Γ \Γ αΓ ) by Lemma 13.5. Similarly, #(ΔξΔ/Δ) = #(Δ\Δξ −1 Δ) = #(Γ \Γ α−1 Γ ) = #(Γ αΓ/Γ ), and so we obtain (13.12a) from (13.8b). Therefore we can prove (13.12b) in the same manner as for (13.9). We now consider M k (2, N/2; ψ) of (8.11b) and (7.6) with a character ψ modulo N, and deﬁne an operator Tψ on that space as follows. Let Δ = (Γ ) m% with Γ = Γ (2, N/2) and let Δξm Δ = ν Δην with ξm as in Lemma 13.6, that is, ξm = (αm , mk ) with αm = diag[m−1 , m]. We see that if β ∈ Γ ·diag[1, n]Γ with n ∈ Z, then aβ is prime to N. Therefore the a-entry of m · pr(ην ) is prime to N. Thus for f ∈ M k (2, N/2; ψ) we put k−2 (13.13) f |Tψ ψ(aν )f k ην , m = m ν

where aν is the a-entry of m · pr(ην ). We can easily verify that f |Tψ m is well deﬁned and belongs to M k (2, N/2; ψ). Hereafter we make the convention that any product of numbers or symbols involving a factor ψ(x) with x|N ∞ means 0. Theorem 13.9. Let f (z) = ∞ m=0 λ(m)e(mz/2) ∈ M k (2, N/2; ψ) and ∞ let (f |Tψ )(z) = b(n)e(nz/2) with a prime number p. Then for 0 ≤ n ∈ p n=0 Z we have

n k−3/2 p (13.13a) b(n) = λ(p2 n) + ψ(p) λ(n) + ψ(p2 )p2k−2 λ(n/p2 ), p where we understand that λ(n/p2 ) = 0 if p2 n. Proof. We have ξp = (αp , pk ) with αp = diag[p−1 , p], and so Γ αΓ = T (1, p2 ) with α = pαp = diag[1, p2 ].

% 1 2ν , Suppose p|N ; then deg T (p2 ) = p2 and Γ αΓ = ν Γ βν with βν = 0 p2 0 ≤ ν < p2 ; see [S71, Proposition 3.33]; notice that t in that proposition is % p−1 2p−1ν 2. Thus Γ αp Γ = ν Γ γν with γν = . We have γν = αp εν 0 p

1 2ν with εν = . Let ην = (γν , pk ). Then (εν ) = (εν , 1) and ην = 0 1 % (αp , pk )(εν , 1) ∈ Δξp Δ. By Lemma 13.5, Δξp Δ = ν Δην . Thus −2 f (z + 2ν)/p2 f |Tψ p (z) = p

=p

−2

ν ∞ m=0

2

λ(m)e(mz/2p )

2 p −1

ν=0

e(mν/p2 ) =

∞

λ(p2 n)e(nz/2).

n=0

This gives the desired formula for b(n) when p|N. Next suppose p N. Then deg T (1, p2 ) = p2 + p, and Γ \Γ αp Γ can be given by the following elements:

124

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

βν =

γh =

δ=

1 2ν (0 ≤ ν < p2 ), 0 1 −1 0 p 2h 2h/p 1 0 p = 0 p −sN/2 q 1 psN/2 1 2 −1 2 p 0 −2t p 0 p d 2t = . p−1 N/2 d 0 p −N/2 1

p−1 0 1 0 p 0

0 p

(0 < h < p),

Here for each h we take integers s and q so that shN + qp = 1, noting that hN is prime to p. As for δ, we take d and t so that p2 d + tN = 1. To avoid ambiguity, we can choose positive q and d. Deﬁne elements βν∗ , γh∗ , and δ ∗ of Gk by

∗ k ∗ −1 −h , δ ∗ = (δ, p−k ). (13.14) βν = (βν , p ), γh = γh , εp p Then these belong to Δξ p Δ. This is clear for βν∗ . To treat γh∗ , put σ =

1 0 p 2h and τ = . Then (σ) = (σ, jσk ) and (τ ) = psN/2 1 −sN/2 q

−sN with the branch of jτ (z)k such that limz→0 jτk (z) > τ, jτ (z)k ε−1 q q

−sN −sN 0, by (4.40), (4.41a), and (5.1b). Since 4|N, we have = = q p

−h −h and εq = εp , and so (σ)ξp (τ ) = γh , ε−1 . As for δ, we note p p p

N that εd = 1 and = 1, and we obtain δ ∗ = (δ, p−k ) ∈ Δξp Δ in a similar d way. By Lemma 13.5, Δ\Δξp Δ can be given by the elements of (13.14). Thus p2 −1 ψ −2 f (z + 2ν)/p2 f |Tp = p ν=0

p−1

+ εp pk−2 ψ(p)

h=1

=p

−2

∞

p2 −1 2

λ(m)e(mz/2p )

m=0

+ εp p

k−2

2

−h f (z + 2h/p) + ψ(p2 )p2k−2 f (p2 z) p

+ ψ(p )p

e(mν/p2 )

ν=0

ψ(p) 2k−2

∞ m=0 ∞

p−1

λ(m)e(mz/2)

h=1 2

−h e(mh/p) p

λ(m)e(mp z/2).

−m times the Gauss sum of (2.4b), The last sum on the next to last line is p and so

∞ ∞ m 2 k−3/2 e(mz/2) = λ(np )e(nz/2) + p ψ(p) λ(m) f |Tψ p p n=0 m=0 m=0

13. HECKE OPERATORS

+ ψ(p2 )p2k−2

∞

125

λ(m)e(mp2 z/2).

m=0

Therefore we obtain the formula for b(n) as stated in our theorem. Theorem 13.10. (i) Let f be a form as in Theorem 13.9, t a positive t integer, and p a prime number. Put μ = k − 1/2 and χt (a) = ψ(a) for a ψ 2 a prime to N. Suppose that f |Tp = ωp f with ωp ∈ C and that p|N or p t. Then ∞ (13.15) λ(tn2 )n−s =

n=1

−1 λ(tn2 )n−s · 1 − χt (p)pμ−1−s 1 − ωp p−s + ψ(p)2 p2μ−1−2s .

pn

(ii) Suppose further that t has no nontrivial square factor prime to rN with a ﬁxed positive integer r and that f |Tψ p = ωp f with ωp ∈ C for every prime number p r. Then Lr (s − μ + 1, χt ) λ(tn2 )n−s 0 0, we obtain ωp XHn (X) = Hn (X) − λ(tn2 ) + χt (p)pμ−1 λ(tn2 )X + ψ(p)2 p2k−2 X 2 Hn (X), and so we have, for p n, Hn (X) 1 − ωp X + ψ(p)2 p2k−2 X 2 = λ(tn2 ) 1 − χt (p)pμ−1 X . ∞ Since n=1 λ(tn2 )n−s = pn Hn (p−s )n−s , we obtain (i). Then (ii) follows immediately from (i). Theorem 13.11. Let f (z) = ∞ m=1 λ(m)e(mz/2) ∈ S k (2, N/2; ψ) and let μ = k − 1/2. Suppose that f |Tψ p = ωp f with ωp ∈ C for every prime number p r with a ﬁxed positive integer r. Then there is an element g(z) = ∞ 2 n=1 c(n)e(nz) ∈ M 2μ (N, ψ ) that is an eigenform of T (p)μ,ψ 2 for every prime number p, such that c(p) = ωp for every p r, where T (p)μ,ψ2 is the Hecke operator deﬁned on M 2μ (N, ψ 2 ). Moreover we have

126

(13.16)

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

Lr (s − μ + 1, χt )

λ(tn2 )n−s

0 κ; then A is holomorphic at s = σ, and for real s > σ we have log A(s) ≥ 0, and so A(s) ≥ 1. Thus A(σ) ≥ 1, which means that log A is holomorphic at s = σ, but that contradicts the well-known fact that a Dirichlet series with nonnegative coeﬃcients is not holomorphic at the real point on the line of convergence. Therefore, σ ≤ κ. This implies that A(s) = exp log A(s) = 0 for Re(s) > κ, and so DK (s; f, g) = 0 for Re(s) > κ.

16. MAIN THEOREMS ON ARITHMETICITY

139

Suppose DK (κ + it; f, g) = 0 with t ∈ R; then DK (κ − it; fρ , gρ ) = 0. Since any pole of DK (s; ∗, ∗) is at most simple, we see that A is holomorphic at s = κ. In view of (16.5), this means that A is holomorphic at every real point, in particular at s = σ. We can now repeat the above argument. To be explicit, for real s > σ we have log A(s) ≥ 0, and so A(s) ≥ 1. Thus A(σ) ≥ 1, which means that log A is holomorphic at s = σ, and we obtain a contradiction. Thus DK (s; f, g) = 0 for Re(s) = κ. This completes the proof. Theorem 16.4. Suppose 2 ≤ k ∈ Z; let ξ ∈ Ξk and let K be a ﬁnite extension of F (ξ, ψ) that is totally real or a CM-ﬁeld (cf. §15.5 and Lemma 15.6). Also let f, h, and p be K-rational elements of S(ξ) ∩ S k (N, ψ). Then σ (16.6) f, h/p, p = f σ , hσ /pσ , pσ for every σ ∈ Aut(C) provided p = 0. The equality holds even for an arbitrary f ∈ S(ξ) ∩ S k (N, ψ) if we replace f σ on the right-hand side by f ρσρ . Proof. By Theorem 14.4 there exist a multiple M of N and a normalized ∞ Hecke eigenform g(z) = n=1 c(n)e(nz) ∈ S k (N, ψ) such that for every 2 p M we have ξp = |c(p)| − pk−1 − pk−2 and f |Rp = ξp f for every f ∈ S k (N, ψ) ∩ S(ξ). Take μ = 0 or 1 so that μ − k ∈ 2Z. By Lemma 2.14 there exists a character ζ such that ζ(−1) = 1, ζ 2 is nontrivial, and the conductor of ζ is prime to M. Let ϕ0 be the primitive character associated with ζ/ψ, r the conductor of ϕ0 , and ϕ the (possibly imprimitive) character modulo M r associated with ϕ0 . Then ϕ(−1) = (−1)μ . We ﬁx the symbols N, ψ, ξ, g, M, and ζ. Then ϕ and r are determined. We now take a positive integer t satisfying the following condition: (16.7) t has no nontrivial square factor prime to rM. Put then θt (z) = 2−1 n∈Z ϕ(n)nμ e(tn2 z/2). By Lemmas 5.5 8.17, θt ∈

and t . Given 0 = M (2, 2tr2 M 2 ; ϕt ), where = μ + 1/2 and ϕt (n) = ϕ(n) n ∞ f (z) = n=1 λ(n)e(nz) ∈ S k (N, ψ) ∩ S(ξ), put f0 (z) = f (z/2). Then f0 ∈ S k (2, N ; ψ) and ∞ ϕ(m)λ(tm2 )m−s . D 2−1 (s − k − 1/2); f0 , θt ) = (t/2)(−s−μ)/2 m=1

By Lemma 14.6 with rM as r there, we obtain ∞ (16.7a) L(s − k + 1, ψϕ) ϕ(m)λ(tm2 )m−s m=1 −1 = λ(t)D(s − k; g, gϕ ) , 1 + (ψϕ)(p)pk−1−s ∞

p|t

where gϕ (z) = n=1 ϕ(n)c(n)e(nz). By Lemma 7.13, gϕ ∈ S k (r2 M 2 , ψϕ2 ). Using the symbol DK of Lemma 16.3, we have, with K = M,

140

V. THE ARITHMETICITY OF CRITICAL VALUES

DM (s; g, gϕ ) = L(2s + 2 − 2k, ψ 2 ϕ2 )D(s − k; g, gϕ ), which is nonzero for Re(s) ≥ k. We evaluate our functions at s = k. Our choice of ϕ shows that ψ 2 ϕ2 is nontrivial, and so L(1, ψϕ) = 0 and L(2, ψ 2 ϕ2 ) = 0. Thus by Lemma 16.3, D(0; g, gϕ ) = 0, and we can conclude that D(−1/4; f0 , θt ) is λ(t) times a nonzero number, whose explicit form is −1 . (t/2)−(k+μ)/2 DM (k; g, gϕ )L(1, ψϕ)−1 L(2, ψ 2 ϕ2 )−1 1 + (ψϕ)(p)p−1 p|t

We now evaluate (8.27) at s = −1/4 with (f0 , θt ) in place of (f, g) there. Putting κ = (k + μ)/2, N0 = 2tr2 M 2 , and ω = ψϕt , we obtain N0 (4π)−κ Γ (κ)D(−1/4; f0 , θt ) = μ(Φ)θtρ E, f0 , where E(z) = Ek− z, (μ − k)/2 + 1; Γ, ω ¯ with Γ = Γ (N0 , N0 ). Put p = (k − μ)/2 − 1. Then 0 ≤ p ∈ Z and E(z) = E3/2+2p (−p; Γ, ω ¯ ). By (8.20) we have p E3/2 (0; Γ, ω ¯ ), (−4π)−p ε(0)E(z) = D3/2 (16.8)

p−1 ¯ 2 is nontrivial, E3/2 (0; Γ, ω ¯ ) ∈ M 3/2 (Qab ) where ε(0) = a=0 (3/2+a). Since ω −p by Theorem 8.15(iii), and so π E(z) ∈ N k− (Qab ) by Lemma 7.8(i). Put q(z) = π −p θtρ (2z)E(2z). Then q ∈ N k (Qab ), and θtρ E, f0 = 2k π p q, f by N,ξ (q), f . We have shown that θtρ E, f0 (6.12a). By Lemma 16.2, q, f = rk,ψ N,ξ (q), f . is λ(t) times a nonzero number, and so the same holds for rk,ψ Once N, ψ, ξ, M, g, ζ, ϕ, and t are ﬁxed, Γ does not depend on f. ThereN,ξ (q) is also independent of f. Emphasizing the dependence on t and fore rk,ψ N,ξ (q) = ht and λ(n) = λ(f, n). Then ht ∈ S k (Qab ) by (16.2d), and f, put rk,ψ

(16.9)

ht , f = λ(f, t)w(t, ψ, ϕ, g)

for every f ∈ S k (N, ψ) ∩ S(ξ) with a nonzero number w(t, ψ, ϕ, g) given by (16.9a) w(t, ψ, ϕ, g) =

2−k π −p μ(Φ)−1 N0 (4π)−κ Γ (κ)(t/2)−κ DM (k; g, gϕ ) . L(1, ψϕ)L(2, ψ 2 ϕ2 ) p|t 1 + (ψϕ)(p)p−1

This is independent of f. If f = 0, then λ(f, n) = 0 for some n. We can put n = tm2 with m prime to rM and an integer t satisfying (16.7). Then (16.7a) shows that λ(f, t) = 0. Thus for every nonvanishing f ∈ S k (N, ψ) ∩ S(ξ) we can ﬁnd t such that ht , f = 0, and so (16.10) The ht for all t satisfying (16.7) span S k (N, ψ) ∩ S(ξ). Now take another f ∈ S k (N, ψ) ∩ S(ξ) and another t satisfying (16.7). Then from (16.9) and (16.9a) we obtain (16.11)

ht , f λ(f , t ) w(t , ψ, ϕ, g) = · , ht , f λ(f, t) w(t, ψ, ϕ, g)

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(16.11a)

141

−1 w(t , ψ, ϕ, g) p|t 1 + (ψϕ)(p)p κ . = (t /t) · −1 w(t, ψ, ϕ, g) p|t 1 + (ψϕ)(p)p

Let σ ∈ Aut(C). By Theorem 7.5(iia) and (15.4a) we have S k (N, ψ)σ = S k (N, ψ σ ) and S(ξ)σ = S(ξ σ ); also, λ(f, n)σ = λ(f σ , n). Taking ψ σ , ϕσ , and f σ in place of ψ, ϕ, and f, from (16.2d), Theorem 8.15(iii), and Lemma 7.8(i) we see that (ht )σ takes the place of ht for f σ . Thus (ht )σ , f σ = λ(f σ , t)w(t, ψ σ , ϕσ , g σ ). From (16.11a) we see that σ w(t , ψ, ϕ, g)/w(t, ψ, ϕ, g) = w(t , ψ σ , ϕσ , g σ )/w(t, ψ σ , ϕσ , g σ ). Therefore

σ ht , f /ht , f = (ht )σ , (f )σ /(ht )σ , f σ .

Since ht is Qab -rational, (ht )σρ = (ht )ρσ . Let j ∈ S k (N, ψ) ∩ S(ξ). By (16.10), we can ﬁnd a ﬁnite set T of elements satisfying (16.7) such that j = τ ∈T aτ hτ with aτ ∈ C. Then j, f = τ ∈T aρτ hτ , f , and σ σ (hτ )σ , (f )σ j ρσρ , (f )σ j, f ρσ hτ , f = aτ = aρσ = . τ ht , f ht , f (ht )σ , f σ (ht )σ , f σ τ ∈T

τ ∈T

In particular, for f = ht we have σ (∗) j, f /ht , ht = j ρσρ , (f )σ /(ht )σ , (ht )σ . Take j and f to be the same K-rational nonzero element p of S k (N, ψ) ∩ S(ξ) with K as in our theorem. Then pρσρ = pσ , and so σ p, p/ht , ht = pσ , pσ /(ht )σ , (ht )σ . Dividing (∗) by this, we obtain σ j, f /p, p = j ρσρ , (f )σ /pσ , pσ , which proves (16.6), since j ρσρ = j σ if j is K-rational. This completes the proof of Theorem 16.4. 16.5. Let 0 < k ∈ 2−1 Z and Γ = Γ (N, N ) with a positive integer N and let ψ be a character modulo N. We put then if k ∈ Z, L(2s + k, ψ)Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) (16.12) Ck (z, s; Γ, ψ) = 2 /Z L(4s + 2k − 1, ψ )Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) if k ∈ with Ek (· · · ) of (8.12); we assume N ∈ 2Z if k ∈ / Z. We are going to state some results about Ck (z, λ; Γ, ψ) for certain λ ∈ 2−1 Z belonging to the set Λk deﬁned by

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(16.13a) (16.13b)

Λk = λ ∈ Z 1 − k ≤ λ ≤ 0 if k ∈ Z, Λk = λ ∈ Z 1 − k < 2λ ≤ 0 λ ∈ 2−1 Z λ − k ∈ Z, 1 − k ≤ λ < (1 − k)/2 if k ∈ / Z.

For λ ∈ Λk we put

(16.14)

Ck∗ (z, λ; Γ, ψ) = αk,ψ,λ Ck (z, λ; Γ, ψ) with ⎧ ⎪ if k ∈ Z, G(ψ)−1 ik π −k−λ ⎪ ⎨ 2 −1 −3λ−2[k] if k ∈ / Z and λ ∈ Z, αk,ψ,λ = G(ψ ) π ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ G(ψ)−1 21/2 i[k] π −k−λ if k ∈ / Z and λ ∈ / Z.

Theorem 16.6. Suppose that ψ2 is nontrivial if k ∈ / Z and k + 2λ = 3/2 or 1/2. Then for every λ ∈ Λk the function Ck∗ (z, λ; Γ, ψ) belongs to N k (Qab ) and Ck∗ (z, λ; Γ, ψ)σ = Ck∗ (z, λ; Γ, ψ σ ) for every σ ∈ Gal(Qab /Q). Proof. In this proof Γ is always the same; therefore, suppressing Γ, we write (z, s; ψ) for (z, s; Γ, ψ). Case I: k ∈ Z. Let λ ∈ Λk . First suppose −k/2 < λ ≤ 0; put p = −λ and κ = k − 2p. Then p ≥ 0 and κ > 0. By (8.20) we have L(κ, ψ)Dκp Eκ (z, 0; ψ) = (−4π)−p εκ (0)Ck (z, λ; ψ). Clearly εκ (0) ∈ Q× . Thus the desired result follows from Lemma 2.10, Theorem 8.15(i), and Lemma 7.8(i). Next suppose 1 − k ≤ λ ≤ −k/2. By (8.18), 2Ck (z, s; ψ) = EkN (z, s; ψ), and so the desired result for λ = 1 − k follows from Theorem 8.15(ii). If λ > 1 − k, put p = λ + k − 1 and κ = k − 2p. Then p > 0 and κ > 0. By (8.20) we have Dκp Cκ (z, 1 − κ; ψ) = (−4π)−p εκ (1 − κ)Ck (z, λ; ψ). and εκ (1 − κ) ∈ Q× , and so the desired result follows from the case λ = 1 − k and Lemma 7.8(i). Case II: k ∈ / Z. Suppose λ ∈ Z and 1 − k < 2λ ≤ 0; put p = −λ and κ = k − 2p. Then 0 ≤ p ∈ Z and 3/2 ≤ κ ∈ 2−1 Z. By (8.20) we have L(2[k] − 4p, ψ 2 )Dκp Eκ (z, 0; ψ) = (−4π)−p εκ (0)Ck (z, λ; ψ). We see that 0 < 2[k] − 4p ∈ 2Z and εκ (0) ∈ Q× . By our assumption, ψ 2 is nontrivial if κ = 3/2. Thus the desired result follows from Lemma 2.10, Theorem 8.15(iii), and Lemma 7.8(i). Next suppose λ − k ∈ Z and 1 − k ≤ λ < (1 − k)/2; put p = λ + k − 1 and κ = k − 2p. Then 0 ≤ p ∈ Z and 1 < κ ∈ 2−1Z. By (8.20) we have Dκp Ck (z, 1 − κ; ψ) = (−4π)−p εκ (1 − κ)Ck (z, λ; ψ).

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Therefore this case can be settled by the same argument as before in view of Theorem 8.15(iv). This completes the proof. Theorem 16.7. Let ξ ∈ Ξk with 0 < k ∈ Z as in §15.4. Given f ∈ S(ξ)∩S k (N, ψ) and g ∈ M (M, ϕ) with any positive weight < k, a divisor M of N ∞ , and a character ϕ modulo M, deﬁne DN (s; f, g) by (8.28). For κ ∈ 2−1 Z put λ = κ − 1 − (k − )/2. Assuming that λ ∈ Λk− with Λ of (16.13a, b), put A(κ; f, g) = βDN (κ; f, g) with β = π −k−λ Γ (λ + k − 1)¯ αk−,¯ω,λ , where ω = ψϕ and α∗∗∗ is as in (16.14). Let 0 = p ∈ S(ξ) ∩ S k (N, ψ) as in Theorem 16.4. Then σ A(κ; f, g)/p, p = A(κ; f σ , g ρσρ )/pσ , pσ for every σ ∈ Aut(C). Proof. From (8.27) we obtain N0 (4π)−μ Γ (μ)DN (κ; f, g) = μ(Φ)gρ C, f , where μ = λ+k−1, N0 is a positive multiple of N that divides M N, Φ = Γ \H, and C(z) = Ck− (z, λ; Γ, ω ¯ ) with Γ = Γ (N0 , N0 ). Since μ(Φ) ∈ πQ× by ∗ (6.6), putting C ∗ (z) = Ck− (z, λ; Γ, ω ¯ ), we have αk−,¯ω,λ DN (κ; f, g) = gρ C ∗ , f Rπ −μ−1 Γ (μ)¯ with a constant R ∈ Q× independent of f and g. Therefore, from (16.2c) N,ξ and β deﬁned as we see that βDN (κ; f, g) = r(gρ C ∗ ), f with r = rk−,ψ above. Thus we obtain the desired result from Theorem 16.4 and (16.2d). 16.8. Given the space S k (N, ψ) with k ∈ Z, let S k (N, ψ) denote its subspace spanned by the functions h(tz) with h ∈ S k (M, ψ) for all integers t and M such that tM divides N and the conductor of ψ divides M. Let S 0k (N, ψ) be the orthogonal complement of S k (N, ψ) in S k (N, ψ). We call a normalized Hecke eigenform f in S k (N, ψ) primitive if it belongs to S 0k (N, ψ), and call N the conductor of f. If f is primitive, then clearly f σ is primitive for every σ ∈ Aut(C). The basic facts on primitive forms (often called newforms) can be found in Atkin-Lehner [AL70] (for trivial ψ), Casselman [C73], and Miyake [Mi71]. Let g be a nonzero element of S k (N, ψ) such that g|T (p)k,ψ = cp g for almost all p. Then we can ﬁnd a primitive element f contained in S k (N, ψ) such that f |T (p)k,ψ = cp f for almost all p. We then say that f is associated to g. ∞ For an arbitrary f (z) = n=1 c(n)e(nz) ∈ S k Γ1 (N ) and a primitive character χ put ∞ χ(n)c(n)n−s , (16.15) D(s; f, χ) = n=1

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(16.16) A(m; f, χ) = (πi)−m G(χ)−1 D(m; f, χ) (0 < m < k, m ∈ Z). ∞ Since n=1 χ(n)c(n)e(nz) ∈ S k , from Theorem 8.2 we see that D(s; f, χ) is an entire function, and so its value at any m ∈ Z is meaningful. Theorem 16.9. Given a primitive f ∈ S k (N, ψ) and a primitive character χ, denote by Kf (resp. Kχ ) the ﬁeld generated over Q by the Fourier coeﬃcients of f (resp. the values of χ). Then for every σ ∈ Aut(C) we can deﬁne two nonzero complex numbers u+ (f σ ) and u− (f σ ) with the following properties: (i) u± (f σ )ρ = ±u± (f σρ ), where ρ is the complex conjugation. (ii) A(m; f, χ) ∈ u± (f )Kf Kχ if χ(−1) = ±(−1)m for every m ∈ Z, 0 < m < k. σ (iii) A(m; f, χ)/u± (f ) = A(m; f σ , χσ )/u± (f σ ) for every σ ∈ Aut(C) if m ∈ Z, 0 < m < k, and χ(−1) = ±(−1)m . (iv) Put E(f ) = i1−k πG(ψ)f, f . Then E(f ) ∈ u+ (f )u− (f )Kf and σ E(f )/ u+ (f )u− (f ) = E(f σ )/ u+ (f σ )u− (f σ ) for every σ ∈ Aut(C). This was given in [S77] as an application of [S76]. In fact, the results of [S76] can be derived from Theorem 16.4 by taking f there to be any normalized Hecke eigenform and h to be an Eisenstein series, without assuming f to be primitive. If k = 2, the constants u± (f σ ) are periods of the diﬀerential form f σ dz on Γ1 (N )\H. For details, we refer the reader to [S77, Theorem 3]. Lemma 16.10. (i) Let f be a normalized Hecke eigenform in S k (N, ψ). Then D(s; f, χ) = 0 for Re(s) ≥ (k + 1)/2 for every character χ. (ii) Let f be a nonzero element of S 2 Γ1 (N ) and let 0 < M ∈ Z. Then there exists a primitive character ϕ, whose conductor is prime to M, such that D(1; f, ϕ) = 0 and ϕ(−1) has a given signature. Assertion (i) can be proved by the same technique as in the proof of Lemma 16.3. For details, we refer the reader to [S76, Proposition 2] and [S78, Proposition 4.16]. As for (ii), the proof is given in [S77, Theorem 2] when f is primitive. The condition that f is primitive is unnecessary, as explained in the last four lines of page 213 and the ﬁrst four lines of page 214 in [S77]. This type of nonvanishing for the zeta functions associated to the forms on GL2 (F ) with an arbitrary number ﬁeld F was given by Rohrlich in [Ro89]. 16.11. Let 0 = f ∈ S(ξ)∩S k (2, N/2; ψ) with half-integral k. We assume the following condition: (16.17) k ≥ 3/2 : if k = 3/2, then f, θ1 (z, μ) = 0 for every μ ∈ L (Q), where θ1 is as in (12.9b).

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Then by Theorems 12.8 and 13.11 there exists a Hecke eigenform g(z) = ∞ 2 n=1 c(n)e(nz) ∈ S 2k−1 (N, ψ ) such that (15.5) holds with ωp = ψ(p)ξp for almost all p, as already explained in §15.4. Choosing g suitably, we may assume that g is primitive. Clearly g is uniquely determined by f. Theorem 16.12. Let f be as above and g the primitive form in S 2k−1 determined by f as above. For q ∈ N k put (16.18)

I(q, f ) = 21/2 i[k]−1 πG(ψ)q, f .

Let u± (f ) be as in Theorem 16.9. then σ (16.18a) I(q, f )/u− (g) = I(q ρσρ , f σ )/u− (g σ ) for every σ ∈ Aut(C). Proof. Our argument is similar to the proof of Theorem 16.4. We take a multiple M of N such that f |Rp = ξp f for every f ∈ S(ξ) ∩ S k (2, N/2; ψ) and every p M. We also take a primitive character ϕ of conductor r and a positive integer t such that (16.19) ϕ(−1) = 1 and every prime factor of M divides r; (16.20) t has no nontrivial square factor prime to r. Such a ϕ of course exists. Put θt (z) = 2−1 n∈Z ϕ(n)e(tn2 z/2). By Lemmas 5.5 and 8.17 we see that θt ∈ M (2, 2tr2 ; ϕt ), where = 1/2 and ϕt (n) =

∞ t ϕ(n) . Let 0 = f (z) = n=1 λ(n)e(nz) ∈ S(ξ) ∩ S k (2, N/2; ψ). By n Theorem 13.11 we have ∞ (∗) L(s − [k] + 1, χt ϕ) ϕ(m)λ(tm2 )m−s = λ(t)D(s; g, ϕ), m=1

t . Also, we have where χt is deﬁned by χt (n) = ψ(n) n ∞ (∗∗) D 2−1 (s − [k] − 1); f, θt = (t/2)−s/2 ϕ(m)λ(tm2 )m−s . m=1

Combining (∗) with (∗∗), we obtain (#) λ(t)(t/2)−s/2 D(s; g, ϕ) = L s − [k] + 1, χt ϕ D 2−1 (s − [k] − 1); f, θt . The left-hand side of (∗∗) at s = 2k − 2 is D(s0 ; f, θt ) with s0 = [k]/2 − 1. We now evaluate (8.27) with θt as g there at s = s0 . Then N0 (4π)−κ Γ (κ)D(s0 ; f, θt ) = μ(Φ)θtρ E, f , where N0 = tr2 N, κ = k − 1, Φ = Γ \H, and E(z) = E[k] z, 0; Γ, ω ¯ with Γ = Γ (N0 , N0 ) and ω = ψϕt . We ﬁrst assume that k > 3/2; the case k = 3/2 will be treated later. Then 2k − 2 ≥ k, and so D(2k − 2, g, ϕ) = 0 by Lemma 16.10(i), which (16.21)

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combined with (#) shows that D(s0 ; f, θt ) = 0 provided λ(t) = 0, since L s − [k] + 1, χt ϕ = 0 for s = 2k − 2. Now E ∈ N [k] (Qab ) by Theorem 8.15(i). We then proceed as in the proof of Theorem 16.4. To be explicit, N,ξ ρ N,ξ put ht = rk,ψ (θt E) with rk,ψ of Lemma 16.2 and λ(n) = λ(f, n). Then ht ∈ S k (Qab ) by (16.2d), and (16.22)

ht , f = λ(f, t)wt (ψ, ϕ, g)

for every f ∈ S k (2, N/2, ψ) ∩ S(ξ) with a nonzero number wt (ψ, ϕ, g) independent of f given by D(2k − 2; g, ϕ) , wt (ψ, ϕ, g) = R(2t)1/2 π −[k] · L([k], χt ϕ) where R is an element of Q× independent of f. If f = 0, then λ(f, n) = 0 for some n. We can put n = tm2 with m prime to r and an integer t satisfying (16.20). Then (∗) shows that λ(f, t) = 0. Thus for every nonvanishing f ∈ S k (2, N/2, ψ) ∩ S(ξ) we can ﬁnd t such that ht , f = 0, and so we obtain (16.23) The ht for all t satisfying (16.20) span S k (2, N/2, ψ) ∩ S(ξ). Let σ ∈ Aut(C); take f σ , g σ , and ϕσ in place of f, g, and ϕ, but with the same t. By Theorem 8.15(i), E σ takes the place of E, and by (16.2d), hσt takes the place of ht . Deﬁne PN (m, χ) by (2.19). Then L([k], χt ϕ) = G(χt ϕ)(πi)[k] Pr ([k], χt ϕ). Thus employing (16.16), we have G(ϕ)A(2k − 2; g, ϕ) . wt (ψ, ϕ, g) = R(2t)1/2 i[k]−1 π −1 · G(χt ϕ)Pr ([k], χt ϕ) By (2.4a) and Lemma 2.8 we have σ 1/2 t G(ψ)G(ϕ)/G(χt ϕ) = t1/2 G(ψ σ )G(ϕσ )/G(χσt ϕσ ). Put B(ψ) = 21/2 i[k]−1 πG(ψ). Since (−1)2k−2 = −1, from Theorem 16.9(ii) and Lemma 2.10 we obtain σ B(ψ)wt (ψ, ϕ, g)/u− (g) = B(ψ σ )wt (ψ σ , ϕσ , g σ )/u− (g σ ). Combining this with (16.22), we obtain σ B(ψ)ht , f /u− (g) = B(ψ σ )hσt , f σ /u− (g σ ).

Given h ∈ S(ξ) ∩ S k (2, N/2; ψ), we can put, by (16.23), h = t∈T at ht with a ﬁnite set T of elements t satisfying (16.20) and at ∈ C. Then h, f = ρ ρσρ σ σ , f σ = t∈T aρσ t ht , f . Therefore t∈T at ht , f and h σ B(ψ)h, f /u− (g) = B(ψσ )hρσρ , f σ /u− (g σ ).

This proves (16.18a) for h ∈ S(ξ) ∩ S k (2, N/2; ψ). Given an arbitrary q ∈ N,ξ N,ξ N k , we have q, f = h, f with h = rk,ψ (q), where rk,ψ is as in Lemma 16.2. In view of (16.2d) we obtain (16.18a).

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Next let us assume that k = 3/2. In this case 2k − 2 = 1 and D(1; g, ϕ) may be 0. If D(1; g, ϕ) = 0, then our argument in the case k > 3/2 can be repeated. Suppose D(1; g, ϕ) = 0 with ϕ satisfying (16.19). Put gϕ (z) = ∞ 2 2 2 n=1 ϕ(n)c(n)e(nz). Then, by Lemma 7.13, gϕ ∈ S k (r N, ψ ϕ ). By Lemma 16.10(ii) we can ﬁnd a character ϕ1 , whose conductor is prime to rM, such that D(1; gϕ , ϕ1 ) = 0 and ϕ1 (−1) = 1. Since D(1; gϕ , ϕ1 ) = D(1; g, ϕϕ1 ), taking ϕϕ1 in place of ϕ, we can employ our reasoning in the case k > 3/2 for k = 3/2. This completes the proof. Remark. Theorem 16.12 is essentially the same as [S81, Theorem 1]. However, the constant appearing in the deﬁnition of I(q, f ) in (16.18) is diﬀerent from that for the corresponding quantity in [S81]. The diﬀerence is caused by the diﬀerence of the deﬁnition of modular forms of half-integral weight, as explained in §5.2. There is another point that should be remembered: in the deﬁnition of D(s; f, g) in (8.23) the exponent is −s − (k + )/2 instead of the simpler −s chosen in [S81]. Theorem 16.13. Let k and be half-integral weights such that k > and k ≥ 5/2; let f ∈ S(ξ) ∩ S k (2, N/2; ψ) with ξ ∈ Ξk and h ∈ M (2, N/2; ϕ). Given an integer m such that m − k + ∈ 2Z and −k − ≤ m ≤ k − − 2 put B(m; f, h) = 21/2 i[]−1 G(ϕ)−1 π −m−[k]−1 DN (m/2; f, h). Let g be the primitive element of S 2k−1 (N, ψ 2 ) determined by f as in §16.11, and u− (g) the constant deﬁned in Theorem 16.9. Then σ B(m; f, h)/u− (g) = B(m; f σ , hσ )/u− (g σ ) for every σ ∈ Aut(C). Proof. Let λ = 1 + (m − k + )/2 and κ = (m + k + )/2. From (8.27) we obtain N (4π)−κ Γ (κ)DN (m/2; f, h) = μ(Φ)hρ C, f , ¯ ) with ω = ψϕ. Put β = N (4π)−κ Γ (κ)μ(Φ)−1 α ¯ where C(z) = Ck− (z, λ; Γ, ω with α = αk−,¯ω,λ given by (16.14). We see that λ ∈ Z and 1−k = ≤ λ ≤ 0, and so λ belongs to the set Λk− of (16.13a), and Theorem 16.6 is applica∗ ble. We have βDN (m/2; f, h) = hρ C ∗ , f with C ∗ (z) = Ck− (z, λ; Γ, ω ¯ ). −1

Since κ + k ∈ Z, we have Γ (κ) ∈ π 1/2 Q× . Also, G(¯ ω ) = ω(−1)G(ω)−1 . With I(q, f ) as in (16.18) we have γDN (m/2; f, h) = I(hρ C ∗ , f ) with γ = 21/2 i[k]−1 πG(ψ)β. Calculating γ explicitly and then applying Lemma 2.8 to G(ψ)G(ϕ)/G(ψϕ), we obtain the desired formula from Theorem 16.12. 16.14. We add here two remarks. 1. In addition to Theorems 16.7 and 16.13 there is one more case of the values of DN (s; f, h), that is, the case with f of half-integral weight k and h

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of integral weight ≤ k. In this case we can state the results similar to Theorem 16.13 and prove them in the same manner as an application of Theorems 16.6 and 16.12. We leave the details to the reader, as no new ideas are required. Indeed, they were given in [S81, Theorem 3], though the reader is warned of the diﬀerence in formulation noted in the remark before Theorem 16.13. In addition to this, we can also investigate D(m; f, χ) for D of (8.30). This is essentially a special case of Theorem 16.7 with a certain theta function in place of g, but there are some exceptional cases which require some nontrivial calculation. We refer the reader to [S91, pp. 604–605] and the paper of J. Sturm cited there. 2. Let K be an imaginary quadratic ﬁeld. Given λ ∈ L (K) and 0 < κ ∈ Z, put ¯ λ(ξ)ξ κ e(ξ ξz) (z ∈ H). f (z) = ξ∈K

Then we can show that f ∈ S κ+1 . In this case we can connect < f, f > and the special values D(m, f, χ) with h(τ ) with τ ∈ K ∩ H and h ∈ M ν (Qab ) for a suitable ν. For this we refer the reader to [S76, §5] and [S07, §13]. 17. Hilbert modular forms 17.1. The theory of modular forms can be developed with respect to congruence subgroups of SL2 (F ) with any totally real algebraic number ﬁeld F of ﬁnite degree. Such forms are traditionally called Hilbert modular forms. Practically all the results we presented in this book for modular forms on H, including those of half-integral weight, can be extended to the case of Hilbert modular forms. Let us now brieﬂy explain the basics of this topic, emphasizing its diﬀerence from the case over Q. With a ﬁxed F, we denote by g the maximal order of F and d the diﬀerent of F relative to Q. We denote by a the set of all archimedean primes of F. For each v ∈ a we denote by Fv the v-completion of F which is naturally identiﬁed with R. We put Fa = v∈a Fv . Similarly we put SL2 (F )a = v∈a SL2 (Fv ), and we let SL2 (F )a act on Ha in an obvious fashion. For each element α ∈ SL2 (F ) we can assign an element of SL2 (F )a whose components are all equal to α, which acts on Ha . In this way we can let SL2 (F ) act on Ha . For every integral ideal n in F we put (17.1) Γ (n) = α ∈ SL2 (g) α − 1 ≺ n . By a congruence subgroup of SL2 (F ) we mean a subgroup of SL2 (F ) that has Γ (n) as a subgroup of ﬁnite index for some n. To deﬁne modular forms, we need the notion of a weight. By an integral weight we mean an element of Za , and by a half-integral weight we mean an element (kv )v∈a

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of Qa such that kv − 1/2 ∈ Z for every v ∈ a. Thus, if [F : Q] = 3 for example, (−7/2, 1/2, 9/2) is a half-integral weight, but (3, 7/2, 4) is not. For . a half-integral k we put [k] = (kv − 1/2)v∈a For c = (cv )v∈a ∈ Ca we put ea (c) = e v∈a cv ) and also 2 (17.2) θ(z) = ea (a z/2) (z ∈ Ha ), a∈g

(17.3)

Γ0 = γ ∈ SL2 (F ) aγ ∈ g, bγ ∈ 2d−1 , cγ ∈ 2d, dγ ∈ g .

Then for every γ ∈ Γ0 there exists a function hγ (z) on Ha such that (17.4a) (17.4b)

θ(γz) = hγ (z)θ(z), hγ (z)4 = j(γv , zv )2 , v∈a

where j(β, w) = cβ w + dβ for β ∈ SL2 (R) and w ∈ H; see [S85a]. Then we k a deﬁne a factor of automorphy γ (z) for a weight k, γ ∈ Γ0 , and z ∈ H by ⎧ j ⎪ j(γv , zv )kv if k ∈ Za , ⎨ k v∈a (17.5) jγ (z) = ⎪ ⎩ h (z)j [k] (z) if k ∈ / Za . γ γ Given a congruence subgroup Γ of SL2 (F ) contained in Γ0 and a weight k, we denote by M k (Γ ) the set of all holomorphic functions f on Ha such that f (γz) = jγk (z)f (z) for every γ ∈ Γ, and we call such an f a Hilbert modular form of weight k with respect to Γ. Here we assume that F = Q. In fact, if F = Q, then we can show that every such f has an expansion (17.6) f (z) = c(ξ)e(ξz) ξ∈a

with a fractional ideal a in F and c(ξ) ∈ C such that c(ξ) = 0 if ξv < 0 for some v ∈ a. In other words, we need condition (3.4d) only when F = Q. Basically we can extend all deﬁnitions and results in the case F = Q to the case F = Q. The generalization of D(s, f ) of (8.3) is c(ξ) ξv−s−kv /2 , (17.7) [g× : t]−1 ξ∈F × /t

v∈a

where t is a subgroup of g× of ﬁnite index that makes the last sum meaningful; the existence of such a t can be shown. We encounter some phenomena which do not exist in the case F = Q. For example, given σ ∈ Aut(C), we can deﬁne a function f σ on Ha by (17.8) f σ (z) = c(ξ)σ e(ξz). ξ∈a

This is indeed a Hilbert modular form, but its weight is a transform of k by σ in a natural way, and so it is not necessarily k. Without going further, we merely mention some references. In the paper [Kl28] Kloostermann gave some basic results on Hilbert modular forms of

150

V. THE ARITHMETICITY OF CRITICAL VALUES

weight k in the case where the kv for all v ∈ a are equal, and treated holomorphic Eisenstein series. The case of more general integral weights was discussed in [S78], which includes the generalization of Theorem 16.9. This was originally published in the Duke Mathematical Journal, but the typesetter and copyeditor made an incredible number of mistakes. Though corrections were later published in the same journal, I advise the reader to read the revised version included in my Collected Papers, vol. III. The factor of automorphy hγ as in (17.4a, b) was established in [S85a], and Eisenstein series were discussed in [S85a] and [S85b]. The generalizations of Theorems 11.3 and 12.8 were given in [S87]. The contents of §§14, 15, and 16 of the present book can be viewed as special cases of [S91] which discusses the same problems in the Hilbert modular case.

APPENDIX

A1. Proof of various facts A1.1. Equality (3.7a) can be proved as follows. Since f (x + iy) is a C ∞ function of x invariant under x → x + m for every m ∈ M, it has a Fourier expansion (A1.1) f (x + iy) = ch (y)e tr(hx) h∈L

with C ∞ functions ch of y, by virtue of a general principle on the Fourier expansion of a function with C ∞ parameters; also termwise partial diﬀerentiation of (A1.1) can be justiﬁed. For the proof of these facts the reader is referred to any textbook on Fourier analysis in Rn ; they are also proved in [S07, Theorem A2.2]. Put bh (y) = ch (y)e − i · tr(hy) . Then f (z) = ¯μν = h∈L bh (y)e tr(hz) . Take the variable zμν = xμν +iyμν and apply ∂/∂ z 2−1 (∂/∂xμν + i∂/∂yμν ) to the last equality. Then 0= (i/2)(∂bh /∂yμν )e tr(hz) , h∈L

and so ∂bh /∂yμν = 0 for every (μ, ν), which means that bh is a constant. Thus we obtain (3.7a). A1.2. We 3.3. First we observe that f (x + iy) = next prove Lemma h∈L c(h)e i · tr(hy) e tr(hx) , and so f (x + iy)e − tr(hx) dx, (A1.2) e i · tr(hy) c(h) = A

Sa /M −1 −1 where Sa = Sn (R) and A = vol(S a /M ) . Taking y = (2π) 1n in (A1.2), we obtain |c(h)| ≤ B exp tr(h) with a constant B independent of h. Now from (3.6b) we obtain c(h) = c(t aha) for every a ∈ U, and so (∗) |c(h)| ≤ B exp tr(t aha) for every a ∈ U.

Now suppose n > 1; let h be an element of L that is not nonnegative. Our task is to show that c(h) = 0. We can ﬁnd x = (xi )ni=1 ∈ Qn such that t xhx < 0. Replacing x by x + u with a “small” vector u, we may assume

G. Shimura, Modular Forms: Basics and Beyond, Springer Monographs in Mathematics, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-2125-2, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

151

152

APPENDIX

that x1 x2 = 0. Multiplying x by a positive integer, we may also assume that x ∈ Zn . Let y = [−x2 x1 0 · · · 0] and b = xy; here y is a row vector and so b ∈ Znn . Then b2 = 0 since yx = 0, and (∗∗)

tr(t bhb) = tr(t y · t xhxy) = y · t y · t xhx = (x21 + x22 ) · t xhx < 0.

Put a = (1 + b)m with 0 < m ∈ Z. Since (1 + b)(1 − b) = 1, we have 1 + b ∈ GLn (Z), and so a ∈ U if m ∈ N Z with a suitably large integer N. For such an m we have tr(t aha) = tr t (1 + mb)h(1 + mb) = p + mq + m2 r with p, q, r ∈ R, which are independent of m; in particular, r = tr(t bhb) < 0, as shown in (∗∗). Now by (∗) we have |c(h)| ≤ B exp(p + mq + m2 r) for 0 < m ∈ N Z. Making m large, we ﬁnd that c(h) = 0 as expected. Lemma A1.3. (i) Γ (1) is generated by the elements of the forms of (4.31), and consequently Γ (1) is generated by ι and P ∩ Γ (1). (ii) Let Γ = γ ∈ Γ (1) bγ ≡ cγ ≡ 0 (mod 2Znn ) . Then Γ is generated by the elements of the forms

a 0 1 b 1 0 (A1.3) , , , b ≡ c ≡ 0 (mod 2Znn ). 0 d 0 1 c 1 (iii) Let Γ ∗ be the subgroup of Γ (1) generated by the elements of the forms

a 0 0 −1 1 b (A1.4) , , , b ≡ 0 (mod 2Znn ). 0 d 1 0 0 1 Then Γ ⊂ Γ ∗ . Proof. We ﬁrst prove (ii). For x ∈ Zn , let [x] denote the greatest common n j divisor of its components. We put [0] = 0. Also, for

a ∈Zn let a denote its a b ∈ Γ . Our idea is to jth column and aji its (i, j)-entry. Now let γ = c d reduce [a1 ] and [c1 ] by multiplying by elements of the forms listed in (A1.3). Clearly [c1 ] is even, and so [a1] is odd, since γ ∈ SL

2n (Z). First suppose u 0 a b a b [a1 ] < [c1 ]. Considering instead of with a suitable 0 v c d c d u = t v −1 ∈ GLn (Z), we may assume that a11 > 0, a12 = · · · = a1n = 0. Then a11 is odd and < [c1 ]. For each k we can ﬁnd an integer s1k such that 1 1 1 1 1 |c

k + 2ska 1 | ≤ a1. Take

any s ∈ Sn (Z) whose (1, k)-entry is such sk , and put 1 0 a b a b = . Then we ﬁnd [p1 ] ≤ [a1 ], and so [p1 ] < [a1 ], 2s 1 c d p q 1 since [p1 ] is even. Next assume that 0 < [c1 ] < [a ]. Then, ﬁrst considering vc 1 2s with a suitable v ∈ GLn (Z), and then γ with a suitable s, we can 0 1 1 1 reduce this to the case [a ] < [c ]. Repeating these procedures, we obtain an

A1. PROOF OF VARIOUS FACTS

153

a b , with c1 = 0. Then [a1 ] = 1. For the c d same reason as above, we may assume that a11 = 1, a12 = · · · = a1n = 0. Since t ad − t cb = 1, we see that d11 = 1. Then left multiplication by diag[u, v] with a suitable v ∈ GLn (Z) produces d1 = t ( 1 0 · · · 0) without changing 1 2s a1 and c1 . Furthermore, left multiplication by with a suitable s 0 1 produces b1 = 0. We obtain in this way an element of the form ⎤ ⎡ 1 r 0 s ⎢0 a 0 b ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 0 t 1 u 0 c 0 d with a , b , c , d of size n − 1. From the relations t bd = t db and t ac = t ca we obtain s = t = 0, and from t da − t bc = 1 we obtain r = u = 0. Thus our matrix in question is of the form ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0 0 ⎢0 a 0 b ⎥ (A1.5) ⎦ ⎣ 0 0 1 0 0 c 0 d

a b with ∈ Sp(n − 1, Z), b ≡ c ≡ 0 (mod 2Zn−1 n−1 ). The proof of (ii) is c d

a b is of a type belonging therefore completed by induction on n, since if c d to (A1.3), then so is the matrix of (A1.5). To prove (i) and (iii), we note

0 −1 1 −1 1 0 1 −1 (A1.6) = , 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 −1

0 −1 1 b 0 −1 1 0 = (A1.7) . 1 0 0 1 1 0 −b 1 In view of (A1.7) we obtain (iii) immediately from (ii). As for (i) we employ the same type of argument as in the proof of (ii). Since we have ι in (4.31), we can use it in addition to the matrices of (A1.3) without congruence conditions, again in view of (A1.7). Now left multiplication by ι changes (a, c) into (−c, a). We ﬁrst assume that 0 < [a1 ] ≤ [c1 ] and repeat the above argument with the following modiﬁcation: take s1k ∈ Z so that 0 ≤ c1k + s1k a11 < a11 , and use s instead of 2s. Then we can reduce the problem to the case [c1 ] ≤ [a1 ], a b and further to the case c1 = 0, and eventually to (A1.5). If = ιn−1 , c d then (A1.5) does not belong to the three types of (4.31), but applying (A1.6) to ιn−1 and employing (A1.7), we can justify our induction. element, written again as γ =

A1.4. As noted in §4.5, formulas (4.12) and (4.13) are equivalent to (4.17) and (4.18). Therefore our result of §4.9 shows that (4.15) holds for γ of

154

APPENDIX

(4.31). Thus, by Lemma A1.3(i) we have (A1.8) ϕ t μγ (z)−1 u, γz; r, s) = ζ · jγ (z)1/2 ϕ(u, z; r , s ) for every γ ∈ Γ (1) with some r , s , and ζ ∈ T, since it is easy to see that (A1.8) is “associative” with respect to successive applications of elements of Γ (1). Thus our task is to determine r and s . For this purpose we ﬁrst note that if w ∈ Hn , f (u) = ϕ(u, w; r, s), and = wp + q with p , q ∈ Zn , then (A1.9) f (u+) = f (u)e 2−1 · t p q − t sp + t rq + t (w−w)−1 (u+2−1) . This follows from (4.4). Observe that r and s are determined modulo Zn by this formula. For γ ∈ Γ (1), z ∈ Hn , and m = zp + q with p, q ∈ Zn put = t μγ (z)−1 m, w = γ(z), and g(u) = f t μγ (z)−1 u = ϕ t μγ (z)−1 u, w; r, s .

t a b d −t b If γ = , then γ −1 = by (1.2b), μγ (z)−1 = μ(γ −1 , w) by c d −t c t a (1.14), and z = t z = t (−t cw + t a)−1 · t (t dw − t b), and so (A1.9a)

= t (−t cw + t a)(zp + q) = t (t dw − t b)p + t (−t cw + t a)q.

Thus = wp + q with p = dp − cq and q = aq − bp. From (4.11) we obtain (w − w) ¯ −1 = μγ (z)(z − z¯)−1 · t μγ (z), and so from (A1.9) we obtain g(u + m) = g(u)e(X) with ¯ − z¯)−1 (u + 2−1 m). X = 2−1 · t p q − t sp + t rq + t m(z Since t da − t bc = 1 and t pσp − t {σ}p ∈ 2Z for every p ∈ Zn and σ ∈ Sn (Z), a straightforward calculation shows that 2−1 · t p q − t sp + t rq ≡ 2−1 · t pq − t s1 p + t r1 q (mod Z)

1 {t ac} r r1 t + with . = γ s s1 2 {t bd} Thus (A1.10)

¯ − z¯)−1 (u+2−1 m) . g(u+m) = g(u)e 2−1 · t pq− ts1 p+ tr1 q+ t m(z

If r and s are as in (A1.8), then they are determined modulo Zn by formula (A1.9) with f replaced by g, which is formula (A1.10). Therefore r ≡ r1 and s ≡ s1 (mod Zn ). This combined with (4.5) proves (i) of Theorem 4.4. Next assume that both {t ac} and {t bd} belong to 2Zn . Then we can put (A1.11) ϕ t μγ (z)−1 u, γz; 0, 0 = λγ jγ (z)1/2 ϕ(u, z; 0, 0) with a constant λγ ∈ T. For k = zr + s with r, s ∈ Rn , from (4.3) we obtain θ(u + k, z; 0, 0) = e − 2−1 · t rzr − t r(u + s) θ(u, z; r, s), which combined with (4.2) shows that

A1. PROOF OF VARIOUS FACTS

155

¯ − z¯)−1 (u + k/2) ϕ(u + k, z; 0, 0) = e(2−1 Y )ϕ(u, z; r, s) e − t k(z ¯ − z¯)−1 (u + k/2) + t (u + k)(z − z¯)−1 (u + k) with Y = −2 · t k(z − t rzr − 2 · t r(u + s) − t u(z − z¯)−1 u. We can easily verify that Y = −t rs, and so we obtain (A1.12) ϕ(u, z; r, s) = e 2−1 A(u, z; r, s) ϕ(u + k, z; 0, 0) with

A(u, z; r, s) = t rs − t (¯ z r+s)(z −z)−1 (2u+zr+s).

Put w = γ(z), v = μγ (z)−1 u, and k = μγ (z)−1 k. Taking k = zr + s in place of m = zp + q in (A1.9a), we ﬁnd that k = wr + s with r = dr − cs and s = as − br. Therefore, combining (A1.11) and (A1.12), we obtain ϕ γ(u, z); r , s = e 2−1 A(γ(u, z); r , s ) ϕ(v + k , w; 0, 0) = e 2−1 A(γ(u, z); r , s ) λγ jγ (z)1/2 ϕ(u + k, z; 0, 0) = e 2−1 B λγ jγ (z)1/2 ϕ(u, z; r, s) with

B = A(γ(u, z); r , s ) − A(u, z; r, s).

¯ − z¯)−1 (2u + k) + t k¯ (w − w) We have B = t r s − t rs − t k(z ¯ −1 (2v + k ). Using r again (4.11), we see that the last two terms cancel each other. Since = s

t −1 r γ , exchanging (r, s) for (r , s ) and writing hγ (z) for λγ jγ (z)1/2 , we s obtain (ii) of Theorem 4.4, or rather (4.18). Finally, to prove (iii) of Theorem 4.4, we observe that λ4γ = 1 for the ﬁrst two types of elements of (A1.3). As for the third type, making substitutions z → z − 2c and z → −z −1 in (4.34a), we ﬁnd that θ z(2cz + 1)−1) = ± det(2cz + 1)1/2 θ(z) if c ∈ Sn (Z) with θ of (4.19). Thus λγ = ±1 for the third type. (Theorem 4.7(2), which will be proven in §A1.6, gives a stronger result.) The proof of Theorem 4.4 is now complete. A1.5. Let us now prove (1) of Theorem 4.7. To simplify the notation, suppress the subscript γ, and put L = Zn , A = L/t dL, B = L/dL, and s[x] = t xsx for s ∈ Qnn and x ∈ Qn . Since c · t d = d · t c, we see that c · t dL ⊂ dL. Therefore x → cx sends A into B. Since γ ∈ SL2n (Z), we have cL + dL = L, and so the map is surjective. Comparing the orders of the groups, we ﬁnd that the map gives an isomorphism of A onto B. If y = cx, we have, by (1.2a), bd−1 [y] = t cbd−1 c[x] = (t ad − 1)d−1 c[x] = t ac[x] − d−1 c[x] ≡ −d−1 c[x] (mod 2),

156

APPENDIX

since the diagonal elements of t ac are even. This shows that the two sums of (4.25) are the same. From (4.22a) we see that hαγ = hγ for α = diag[a, d] ∈ Γ (1) and every γ ∈ Γ θ . Therefore, to prove (2) and the ﬁrst equality of (1), we may assume that det(d) > 0. Under this assumption, put w = t d−1 z(cz + d)−1 and p = bd−1 . Then, by (1.2a), (γz − p)(cz + d) = az + b − bd−1 (cz + d) = az − b · t c · t d−1 z = (a · t d − b · t c) · t d−1 z = t d−1 z, and so γ(z) = w + p. With θ of (4.19) we thus have (A1.13) hγ (z)θ(z) = θ(γz) = θ(w + p) = e (1/2)(w + p)[x] . x∈L

Putting x = v + dg with v ∈ B and g ∈ L, we ﬁnd e (p/2)[v + dg] + (w/2)[v + dg] (A1.14) θ(w + p) = v

g

= e (p/2)[v] θ 0, z(cz + d)−1 d; d−1 v, 0), v

since p[v + dg] ≡ p[v] (mod 2). Now (4.34) shows that det(−iz)1/2 θ(0, z; r, s) = e(t rs)θ(0, −z −1 ; −s, r). Put z = iτ 1n with 0 < τ ∈ R and observe that lim τ n/2 θ(0, iτ 1n ; r, s) = e(t rs)δ(s),

τ →0

where δ(s) = 1 or 0 according as s ∈ L or s ∈ / L. Taking the limit of τ n/2 times (A1.13) combined with (A1.14) as τ tends to 0, we obtain (4.25). A1.6. To prove (2) of Theorem 4.7, given γ ∈ Γ θ , assume that det(d) − 1 ∈ 2Z. In view of (4.21) and (4.22a), replacing γ by γ · diag[e, e] with e = diag[−1, 1n−1 ] if necessary, we may assume that det(d) > 0. Put f = det(d), g = f d−1 , and s = −f d−1c. Then g ≺ Z, s ∈ Sn (Z), f is odd, −f s = gd · t c · t g, and {d · t c} ∈ 2Zn by (4.6), and so by (4.7) the diagonal elements of s are even. Denote by λ the ﬁrst sum of (4.25) and put σ = hγ (z)2 /jγ (z). Then σ = λ2 / det(d). Now λ= e s[x]/(2f ) = [t dL : f L]−1 e s[x]/(2f ) . x∈A

x∈L/f L

By Lemma 2.3 we can ﬁnd u ∈ such that det(u) is a positive integer prime to f and t usu − diag[r1 , . . . , rn ] ≺ f Z with ri ∈ Z. We can take ri to be the (i, i)-entry of t usu. Then ri ∈ 2Z by (4.7), and Znn

λ = f 1−n

f n e rν x2 /(2f ) . ν=1 x=1

A2. WHITTAKER FUNCTIONS

157

Put rν /f = 2bν /aν with relatively prime integers aν and bν ; take aν > 0. Then

f aν bν e rν x2 /(2f ) = (f /aν ) e x2 bν /aν = f ε(aν )aν−1/2 a ν x=1 x=1 by Theorem 2.6, where ε(a) is εa of (0.6). Thus we obtain n

bν ε(aν )aν−1/2 . λ=f a ν ν=1 Since cL + dL = L, we have sL + f L = gL. For a prime number p put Lp = Znp . Then gLp = Lp if p f. If p|f, then t uLp = uLp = Lp , and hence t ugLp = t usuLp + f Lp . From this we easily see that the elementary divisors of g are { (f, rν ) }nν=1 . Since aν = |f /(f, rν )| and d = f g −1 , we thus know that the aν are exactly the elementary divisors of d and n

bν ε(aν ), λ = det(d)1/2 aν ν=1

−1 2 , which proves (2) of Theorem 4.7. so that σ = λ / det(d) = det(d) A2. Whittaker functions A2.1. We need some Whittaker (or conﬂuent hypergeometric) functions: ∞

(A2.1)

τ (y; α, β) =

e−yt (1 + t)α−1 tβ−1 dt,

0

(A2.2)

V (y; α, β) = e−y/2 Γ (β)−1 y β τ (y; α, β).

Here 0 < y ∈ R and (α, β) ∈ C2 . The integral of (A2.1) is convergent for Re(β) > 0, and so deﬁnes a holomorphic function of (α, β) under that condition; also it can be shown that V (y; α, β) can be continued to a holomorphic function of (α, β) on the whole C2 . We have also (A2.3) τ (y; α, β)/Γ (β) β=0 = 1. For these and the following two lemmas, the reader is referred to [S07, Section A3]. Lemma A2.2. (i) For every compact subset K of C2 there exist two positive constants A and B depending only on K such that |ey/2 V (y; α, β)| ≤ A 1 + y −B if (α, β) ∈ K. (ii) V (y; 1 − β, 1 − α) = V (y; α, β). Lemma A2.3. If Re(α + β) > 1 and z = x + iy ∈ H, then (z + m)−α (z + m)−β = iβ−α (2π)α+β e(nx + i|n|y)gn (y; α, β), m∈Z

n∈Z

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APPENDIX

where gn is given by (A2.4)

⎧ ⎪ nα+β−1 τ (4πny; α, β) ⎪ ⎨ Γ (α)Γ (β)gn (y; α, β) = |n|α+β−1 τ (4π|n|y; β, α) ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ Γ (α + β − 1)(4πy)1−α−β

if n > 0, if n < 0, if n = 0.

Here, for v ∈ C× and α ∈ C we deﬁne v α by v α = exp(α log(v)),

−π < Im[log(v)] ≤ π.

Then v α+β = v α v β , v mα = (v α )m for m ∈ Z, and (uv)α = uα v α provided arg(u), arg(v), and arg(u) + arg(v) are all contained in the interval (−π, π] for suitable choices of arg(u) and arg(v). From Lemma A2.2(ii) we obtain (A2.5)

τ (y; 1 − β, 1 − α)/Γ (1 − α) = y α+β−1 τ (y; α, β)/Γ (β).

This combined with (A2.3) gives τ (y; 1, β)/Γ (β) = y −β .

(A2.6)

Lemma A2.4. (i) Given (α, β) ∈ C2 and A ∈ R× , put σ = α − β and λ = β(1 − α). Deﬁne a function fA (y) for 0 < y ∈ R by V (2Ay; α, β) if A > 0, (A2.7) fA (y) = −σ |2Ay| V (|2A|y; β, α) if A < 0. Then fA satisﬁes the diﬀerential equation (A2.8)

y 2 f (y) + σyf (y) + (λ + Aσy − A2 y 2 )f (y) = 0.

Moreover, if f is a solution of (A2.8) and f (y) = O(y B ) with B ∈ R as y → ∞, then f is a constant multiple of fA . (ii) With the same notation as in (i), deﬁne a function ϕA on H by (A2.9)

ϕA (x + iy; σ, λ) = eiAx fA (y).

Let ε and δσ be as in (6.13a, b). Then λ(4Ai)−1 ϕA (z; σ − 2, λ + 2 − σ) (A2.10) εϕA (z; σ, λ) = (4Ai)−1 ϕA (z; σ − 2, λ + 2 − σ) iAϕA (z; σ + 2, λ + σ) (A2.11) δσ ϕA (z; σ, λ) = (λ + σ)iAϕA (z; σ + 2, λ + σ)

if A > 0, if A < 0, if A > 0, if A < 0.

Proof. Since (1 + t)α = (1 + t)α−1 + (1 + t)α−1 t, from (A2.1) we obtain (∗1)

τ (y; α + 1, β) = τ (y; α, β) + τ (y; α, β + 1).

Also, we easily see that (∗2)

(∂/∂y)τ (y; α, β) = −τ (y; α, β + 1),

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159

(∂/∂y)2 τ (y; α, β) = τ (y; α, β + 2). ∞ Since 0 (∂/∂t) e−yt (1 + t)α tβ dt = 0 for Re(β) > 0, we have

(∗3)

βτ (y; α + 1, β) = yτ (y; α + 1, β + 1) − ατ (y; α, β + 1)

(∗4)

for such β, and even for any β by meromorphic continuation. Now we have y(∂/∂y)2 τ (y; α, β) = yτ (y; α, β + 2) by (∗3) = yτ (y; α + 1, β + 1) − yτ (y; α, β + 1) by (∗1) = βτ (y; α + 1, β) + (α − y)τ (y; α, β + 1) by (∗4) = βτ (y; α, β) + (β + α − y)τ (y; α, β + 1) by (∗1). Thus we obtain y(∂/∂y)2 + (α + β − y)∂/∂y − β τ (y; α, β) = 0. From this we easily see that fA is a solution of (A2.8). Let f be a solution of (A2.8) such that f (y) = O(y B ) as y → ∞. Putting f = df /dy, we have (y σ f ) = y σ (f + σy −1 f ) = y σ (A2 − Aσy −1 − λy −2 )f = O(y C ) with C ∈ R as y → ∞. It follows that y σ f , as well as f , is O(y D ) with D ∈ R. Put h = fA f − fA f. Then h = fA f − fA f = −σy −1 h, and so h = ay −σ with a constant a. From Lemma A2.2(i) and (∗2) we see that both fA and fA are O(e−|A|y/2 ) as y → ∞. Therefore we have a = 0, which means that f /fA is a constant. This completes the proof of (i). Formulas (A2.10) and (A2.11) can be veriﬁed by employing (∗1), (∗2), and (∗4). Lemma A2.5. For every compact subset K of C2 we have lim ey/2 V (y; α, β) = 1

y→∞

uniformly for (α, β) ∈ K. Proof. From (∗4) we obtain V (y, α + 1, β) = V (y, α + 1, β + 1) − αy −1 V (y, α, β + 1). Since this is consistent with the desired formula, it is suﬃcient to prove it for α in a compact subset K1 of C and β in a compact subset K2 of β ∈ C Re(β) > 0 . If Re(β) > 0, we have ∞ e−x (1 + y −1x)α−1 xβ−1 dx, ey/2 V (y; α, β) = Γ (β)−1 and so ey/2 V (y; α, β) − 1 = Γ (β)−1

0 ∞

e−x (1 + y −1 x)α−1 − 1 xβ−1 dx.

0

We can ﬁnd two positive numbers A and B such that

160

APPENDIX

(1 + y −1 x)α−1 + 1 ≤ AxB for x ≥ 1, y ≥ 1, and α ∈ K1 . Indeed, take m > 1 so that Re(α) < m for every α ∈ K1 . Then for x ≥ 1, y ≥ 1, and α ∈ K1 we have |(1 + y −1 x)α−1 | ≤ (2x)m . Now, given ε > 0, we can ﬁnd C ≥ 1 such that ∞ e−x |xB+β−1 |dx ≤ ε for β ∈ K2 . A|Γ (β)−1 | C

For every η > 0, we can ﬁnd (a small) h > 0 such that |tα−1 − 1| < η for α ∈ K1 and |t − 1| ≤ h. Take η = ε/M with M = Maxβ∈K2 Γ Re(β) /Γ (β), and let D = C/h. Then we can ﬁnd D ≥ 1 such that (1 + y −1 x)α−1 − 1 ≤ ε/M for x ≤ C, y ≥ D, and α ∈ K1 . Then, for y ≥ D, α ∈ K1 , and β ∈ K2 we have ∞ β−1 −x −1 α−1 Γ (β)−1 e −1 x dx (1 + y x) 0 C ∞ −x β−1 −x B+β−1 −1 −1 −1 e x dx + A Γ (β) e |x |dx ≤ 2ε. ≤ εM Γ (β) 0 C This proves our lemma. A3. Eisenstein series of half-integral weight A3.0. In this section we denote by μ the Moebius function. This is deﬁned for m ∈ Z, > 0, and μ(m) = 0 if and only if m is square-free, in which case μ(m) = (−1)r , where r is the number of prime factors of m; in particular, μ(1) = 1. We have 1 if m = 1, μ(d) = (A3.0a) 0 if m > 1, d|m

∞

(A3.0b)

n=1

μ(n)θ(n)n−s =

1 − θ(p)p−s p

for every C-valued multiplicative function θ deﬁned for 0 < m ∈ Z, where p runs over all prime numbers. Lemma A3.1. Let χ0 be a primitive character modulo r, and χ a character modulo rs with 0 < s ∈ Z such that χ(n) = χ0 (n) for n prime to s. Then for any integer q we have rs χ(n)e(nq/rs) = G(χ0 ) cμ(s/c)χ0 (s/c)χ ¯0 (q/c), n=1

0 0. By

cN d 2cN (4.40), jγk (z)−1 = (cN z + d)−k εd , and so by Lemma 8.7 and (8.12a) d we have ∞ 2cN (A3.1) Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) = y s εd (cN z + d)−k |cN z + d|−2s . ψ(d) d c∈Z

d=1

Notice that the terms for even d are 0, which we keep in mind in our calculation. Fixing N and ψ, we put (A3.2) E (z, s) = (−iN z)−k Ek − (N z)−1 , s; Γ, ψ , since this is easier than the original Ek (z, s). From (A3.1) we easily obtain (A3.3)

E (z, s) = ik y s N −k−s E ∗ (z, s) with

∞ −2N b ∗ εd (dz + b)−k |dz + b|−2s . ψ(d) E (z, s) = d d=1 b∈Z

Putting b = dm + with m ∈ Z and 1 ≤ ≤ d, we obtain ∞ d

−k −2N −k−2s ∗ z + + m−2s . z + d + m E (z, s) = ψ(d)εd d d d d=1

=1

m∈Z

Applying Lemma A2.3 to the last sum with α = k + s and β = s, we ﬁnd that

162

APPENDIX

(A3.4)

E ∗ (z, s) = i−k (2π)2s+k

αn (s)e(nx + i|n|y)gn (y; k + s, s)

n∈Z

with αn (s) =

∞

d −2N εd d−k−2s ψ(d) e(n/d). d d d=1

=1

If n = 0, the last sum over is nonzero only if d = u2 with an odd u > 0, in which case εd = 1. Denoting Euler’s function by ϕ, we see that the last d sum =1 equals ϕ(u2 ) = u2 p|u (1 − p−1 ) = u2 v|u μ(v)v −1 by (A3.0b). Therefore, putting u = vw, we have ψ(v2 w2 )(vw)2−2k−4s μ(v)v −1 α0 (s) = v,w

=

ψ(w2 )w2−2k−4s

w

μ(v)ψ(v2 )v 1−2k−4s .

v

Thus in view of (A3.0b) we obtain (A3.5)

α0 (s) = LN (4s + 2k − 2, ψ 2 )/LN (4s + 2k − 1, ψ 2 ).

The formula for αn with n = 0 can be given as follows. Lemma A3.3. Let t be a positive or negative square-free integer. Put κ = 2k and λ = 1/2 − k, and deﬁne primitive characters ω1 and ω2 by

2tN ψ(a) for (a, tN ) = 1, ω1 (a) = a ω2 (a) = ψ(a)2

for (a, N ) = 1.

Then, for n = tm2 with 0 < m ∈ Z, we have LN (4s − 2λ, ω2 )αn (s) = LN (2s − λ, ω1 )βn (s) with βn (s) = μ(a)ω1 (a)ω2 (b)aλ−2s b2−κ−4s , where the last sum is extended over all ordered pairs of positive integers a, b prime to N such that ab divides m. Proof. Let r and u be odd positive integers. Assuming r to be square ru2

m e(mn/ru2 ). By Lemma A3.1 and (2.4a) we have free, put Gn,r,u = 2 ru m=1

2

u /c n/c cμ(u2 /c) Gn,r,u = εr r1/2 . r r 2 0 1, we have, by (8.10a),

|R(1 − s, χ)| ¯ = |R(s, χ)| ≤ (r/π)(σ+ν)/2 Γ (σ + ν)/2 ζ(σ).

Therefore it is suﬃcient to prove the desired estimate for −1 < σ < 2. For this we use (8.10d) (with χ in place of ψ), which can be written R(s, χ) = P (s, χ) + W (χ)P (1 − s, χ), ¯ ∞ g(y, χ)y (ν+s−2)/2 dy, P (s, χ) = 1 ∞ where g(y, χ) = n=1 χ(n)nν exp(−πn2 y/r). Observe that

164

APPENDIX

|g(y, χ)| ≤

∞

ne−πny/r = e−πy/r (1 − e−πy/r )−2 .

n=1

Substituting tr/π for y, we obtain P (s, χ) ≤ (r/π)(σ+ν)/2

∞

e−t (1 − e−t )−2 t(σ+ν−2)/2 dt.

π/r

To prove our estimate, we ﬁrst assume r > π. Decompose the last integral into two parts over the intervals (1, ∞) and (π/r, 1). The ﬁrst part is a continuous function in σ independent of r and χ. As for the second part, we have e−t (1 − e−t )−2 ≤ At−2 for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 with a constant A. Thus 1 1 −t −t −2 (σ+ν−2)/2 e (1 − e ) t dt ≤ A t(σ+ν)/2−3 dt ≤ B + Cr2−(σ+ν)/2 π/r

π/r

if −1 ≤ σ ≤ 2, with constants B and C independent of r and χ. Therefore |P (s, χ)| ≤ Dr2 for −1 ≤ σ ≤ 2 with a constant D independent of r and χ. Next, if r < π, then the estimate of the integral over (0, ∞) gives the desired result. Once P (s, χ) is majorized, then replacing (s, χ) by (1 − s, χ), we obtain the estimate of P (1 − s, χ). Adding these, we can complete the proof. Theorem A3.5. Let κ = 2k and λ = 1/2 − k. For z ∈ H and s ∈ C put (κ ≤ 1), Γ (s)Γ s + (1 − λ − λ0 )/2 F (z, s) = LN (4s−2λ, ω2 )E (z, s)· Γ (s + k)Γ s + (λ0 − λ)/2 (κ ≥ −1), where λ0 = 0 or 1 according as λ is even or odd. Then (2s − λ − 1)F (z, s) can be continued as a holomorphic function to the whole s-plane. Moreover, for any compact subset K of C there exist two positive constants u and v depending on K such that (2s − λ − 1)F (z, s) ≤ u(y v + y −v ) (A3.6) (y = Im(z)) for every s ∈ K and every z ∈ H. The factor 2s − λ − 1 is unnecessary either if (|κ| + 1)/2 is even or ψ 2 is nontrivial. Remark. If κ = ±1, the two expressions for the product of two gamma factors are identical. Proof. We ﬁrst consider the case κ ≥ 1. By (A2.4), (A3.3), (A3.4), (A3.5), and Lemma A3.3, we have (A3.7) (2π)−k−2s N k+s y −s F (z, s) = e(nx + |n|iy)|n|2s+k−1 An (y, s), n∈Z

where we understand that |0|

2s+k−1

(A3.7a)

= 1, and

An (y, s) = LN (2s − λ, ω1 )βn (s)Γ s + (λ0 − λ)/2 τ 4πny; s + k, s (n > 0), −1 · Γ (s) · τ 4π|n|y; s, s + k (n < 0),

A3. EISENSTEIN SERIES OF HALF-INTEGRAL WEIGHT

(A3.7b)

165

A0 (y, s) = LN (4s + κ − 2, ω2 )Γ s + (λ0 − λ)/2 · Γ (s)−1 Γ (2s + k − 1)(4πy)1−k−2s .

Clearly, An (y, s) for every n ∈ Z is meromorphic on the whole s-plane. Now we have c Γ s + (λ0 − λ)/2 (s + a − 1), (∗) = Γ (s) a=1 where c = (λ0 − λ)/2. We have also Γ (2s + k − 1)LN (4s + κ − 2, ω2 )

1 − ω2 (p)p2−κ−4s .

= Γ (2s + k − 1)L(4s + κ − 2, ω2 )

p|N

Therefore the only possible pole of A0 (y, s) may occur at s = λ/2 + 1/4 or (λ + 1)/2 when ω2 is trivial. The pole at s = λ/2 + 1/4 is cancelled by 1 − 22−κ−4s ; the pole at s = (λ + 1)/2 is cancelled by the factor s + c − 1 if λ is odd, and by the factor 2s − λ − 1 if λ is even. Thus (2s − λ − 1)A0 (y, s) is entire, and by Lemma A3.4, is bounded by g(y h + y −h ) with constants g and h depending only on K. The factor 2s − λ − 1 is unnecessary if λ is odd or ω2 is nontrivial. If λ is even and ω2 is trivial, then the residue of A0 (y, s) at s = (λ + 1)/2 is an element of y −1/2 Q× . To study An (y, s) for n = 0, ﬁrst note that βn (s) is entire, and |βn (s)| ≤ γ|n||δ|Re(s)+ε with constants γ, δ, ε independent of n. Let n = tm2 as in Lemma A3.3, and let ω1 (−1) = (−1)η with η = 0 or 1. Since ψ(−1) = (−1)[k] = (−1)λ , we see that λ − η is even if and only if n > 0. Suppose n > 0. Then η = λ0 and (∗+) An (y, s) = Γ s + (η − λ)/2 βn (s)L(2s − λ, ω1 ) [1 − ω1 (p)pλ−2s ] p|N

· Γ (s)−1 τ (4πny; s + k, s). By Lemma A2.2(i), the last product Γ (s)−1 τ (4πny; s + k, s), when s ∈ K, is bounded by C(4πny)−Re(s) Max 1, (4πny)B , where B and C are constants that depend on K but not on n. The ﬁrst line of factors of (∗+) is an entire function of s, except when ω1 is trivial and s = λ/2 or s = (λ+1)/2. (This can happen only if λ is even.) But either pole is cancelled by the factor 1−2λ−2s or 2s−λ−1. Therefore (2s−λ−1)An (y, s) is entire, and by Lemma A3.4, |(2s − λ − 1)An (y, s)| ≤ unv (y w + y −w ) for s ∈ K with constants u, v, w depending only on K. Next suppose n < 0. Then λ − η is odd, and so λ0 + η = 1. Thus 1 − ω1 (p)pλ−2s (∗−) An (y, s) = βn (s)Γ s + (η − λ)/2 L(2s − λ, ω1 ) p|N

· Γ (s + k)−1 τ (4π|n|y; s, s + k)

166

APPENDIX

Γ (s + k)Γ s + (λ0 − λ)/2) · . Γ s + (η − λ)/2 Γ (s) Notice that 0 ≤ k − (η − λ)/2 = (λ0 − λ)/2 ∈ Z. Therefore, by the same reasoning as in the case n > 0, we see that (2s − λ − 1)An (y, s) is entire. Actually the factor 2s−λ−1 is unnecessary. Indeed, the pole at s = (λ+1)/2 may occur only if ω1 istrivial, in which case λ is odd, and so 0 < λ0 −λ ∈ 2Z and Γ s + (λ0 − λ)/2 /Γ (s) = 0 at s = (λ + 1)/2. Thus An (y, s) is entire for n < 0 and (2s − λ − 1)An (y, s) ≤ u |n|v (y w + y −w ) for s ∈ K with constants u , v , w depending only on K. Taking the inﬁnite sum of (A3.7), we obtain the desired result for k > 0. The case k < 0 can be treated in a similar fashion. However, our real aim is to prove Theorem 8.14, which is our task in the next subsection. A3.6. Put k = −k and λ = 1/2 − k ; let λ0 be 0 or 1 according as λ is even or odd. Assuming that k > 0, denote by Fk∗ the function F ∗ deﬁned with k and χ0 ψ¯ in place of k and ψ, where χ0 is the primitive character modulo 4. Then we can easily verify that λ = 1 − λ, λ0 = 1 − λ0 , and from (8.13a) we obtain (A3.8)

Fk∗ (z, s) = y k F ∗ (z, s¯ − k).

This reduces the proof of Theorem 8.14 to the case k > 0. Thus we assume k > 0 in this subsection. Let

the symbols be as in that theorem. Given α ∈ 0 −1 SL2 (Q), put γ = α. From (A3.2) we see that jα (z)−k Ek (αz, s) = N 0 ik jγ (z)−k E (γz, s) with a suitable branch of jγ−k , and so (A3.9)

jα (z)−k F ∗ (αz, s) = ik (2s − λ − 1)jγ (z)−k F (γz, s).

Therefore the ﬁrst part of Theorem 8.14 concerning analytic continuation of F ∗ follows immediately from Theorem A3.5. Thus the remaining point is the estimate of |jα (z)−k F ∗ (αz, s)|. If cγ = 0, the desired fact follows from −1 (A3.6). Suppose cγ = 0. Then Im(γz) = y|cγ z + dγ |−2 ≤ c−2 , and so if y γ y is suﬃciently large, then Im(γz) < 1 and (A3.6) shows that (2s − λ − 1)jγ (z)−k F (γz, s) ≤ 2uy −v |cγ z + dγ |2v+k for s ∈ K. This proves that F ∗ (z, s) is slowly increasing at every cusp locally uniformly in s. It remains to prove that F ∗ (z, s) is nonvanishing at s = (λ + 1)/2 if (|κ| + 1)/2 is odd and ψ 2 is trivial. In view of (A3.8) we may assume that k > 0. Then λ is even. As noted in the proof of Theorem A3.5, A0 (y, s) has nonzero residue at s = (λ + 1)/2, which gives the desired result. This completes the proof of Theorem 8.14.

A3. EISENSTEIN SERIES OF HALF-INTEGRAL WEIGHT

167

A3.7. Let us now prove the last part of Theorem 8.10(ii), which states that F (z, s) is slowly increasing at every cusp, locally uniformly in s. Our technique is similar to and simpler than that in the proof of Theorem A3.5. We need to examine the Fourier expansion of jγ (z)−k F (γz, s) for every γ ∈ Γ (1). In view of (8.14a) we have only to check the expansion for a ﬁxed (p, q). Suppose k > 0 for simplicity; then we use the result in [S07, p. 134]. As noted in lines 7 and 8 from the bottom of that page, the expressions there are meaningful for every s ∈ C, and so we have c(s)y s e (tx + i|t|y)/N Dt (y, s) (#) F (z, s) = a(s)y s + b(s)y 1−k−s + Γ (s) 0=t∈Z

for z = x + iy, and τ (4πty/N ; s + k, s) if t > 0, Dt (y, s) ≤ 2 n2σ+k−1 · τ (4π|t|y/N ; s, s + k) if t < 0 0 0. The case k ≤ 0 can be handled in a similar way. There is an alternative proof. Indeed, EN k (z, s − k; p, q), up to some easy ∞ factors, can be obtained as the integral 0 Ψ (z, t)ts−1 dt, where λ(m, n)(m¯ z + n)k exp − πt|mz + n|2 /y Ψ (z, t) = 0=(m,n)∈Z2

with λ ∈ L (Q ); see [S07, pp. 64–65], [S73a, pp. 462–463]. We can make an estimate of Ψ in an elementary way, and we eventually obtain the desired property of F (z, s). This was done in [S73a, pp. 463–464]. 2

A3.8. We will now prove (iii) and (iv) of Theorem 8.15 which concern the case 3/2 ≤ k ∈ / Z. We assume that k > 3/2 or ψ 2 is nontrivial. Then Ek (z, s) is ﬁnite at s = 0. (Indeed, the factor 2s − λ − 1 in Theorem 8.14 is necessary only if ψ 2 is trivial, and it is 0 at s = 0 only if k = 3/2.) By (A3.3), E (z, 0) = ik N −k E ∗ (z, 0), and E ∗ (z, 0) can be obtained from (A3.4). By (A2.3) and (A2.4) the nth term of E ∗ (z, 0) for n > 0 is (−2πi)k αn (0)nk−1 Γ (k)−1 e(nz), but it is 0 for n < 0, since τ (y; α, k) is ﬁnite. The term for n = 0 is also 0, since Γ (2s + k − 1)Γ (s + k)−1 Γ (s)−1 = 0 for s = 0. Thus E ∗ (z, 0) has ∞ a Fourier expansion of the form n=1 cn e(nz). Since it is slowly increasing

168

APPENDIX

at every cusp, it belongs to M k by Lemma 6.4(i). By (8.13), Ek (z, 0) ∈ ¯ To prove a more precise result as stated in Theorem 8.15(iii), M k (M, N ; ψ). put ∞ E (z, 0) = ik N −k E ∗ (z, 0) = An (ψ)e(nz) n=1

with An (ψ), which, by (A2.3), (A2.4), Lemma A3.3, and (A3.4) can be given as An (ψ) = (2π/N )k nk−1 Γ (k)−1 βn (0)LN ([k], ω1 )/LN (2[k], ω2 ). Employing the symbol PN (m, χ) = G(χ)−1 (πi)−m LN (m. χ) of (2.19), we can put G(ω1 )PN ([k], ω1 ) . An (ψ) = n−1 (2πn/N )k Γ (k)−1 βn (0)(πi)−[k] · G(ω2 )PN (2[k], ω2 )

2tN Since Γ (k) ∈ π 1/2 Q× , we see that π k−[k] Γ (k)−1 ∈ Q× . Let χt (a) = a with t as in Lemma A3.3. Take a square-free positive integer t0 such that 1/2 2tN/t0 is a square. (We are considering only positive n.) Then G(χt ) = t0 , k × and so (2n/N ) ∈ G(χt )Q . Thus PN ([k], ψχt ) i[k] An (ψ) = R0 βn (0)G(χt )G(ψχt ) · G(ψ 2 )PN (2[k], ψ 2 ) with a rational number R0 independent of ψ. Multiplying by G(ψ), we obtain G(χt )G(ψχt ) G(ψ)G(ψ) PN ([k], ψχt ) · · . i[k] G(ψ)An (ψ) = R0 βn (0) · G(ψ) G(ψ 2 ) PN (2[k], ψ 2 ) Take σ ∈ Gal(Qab /Q) and apply σ to each factor. By Lemmas 2.8 and 2.10 we ﬁnd the images of the last three factors; βn (0)σ can easily be found from Lemma A3.3. We eventually ﬁnd that σ [k] i G(ψ)An (ψ) = i[k] G(ψ σ )An (ψσ ). Thus writing E (ψ) for E (z, 0), we obtain σ [k] i G(ψ)E (ψ) = i[k] G(ψ σ )E (ψ σ ). Returning to Ek (z, 0; Γ, ψ), we see from (A3.2) that E (ψ) = f X with f (z) = Ek (z, 0; Γ, ψ) and the operator X deﬁned in Lemma 7.6(ii). Deﬁne a

[k] −1 character ϕ by ϕ(d) = , and take an integer s prime to M N so that d e(1/M N )σ = e(s/M N ). Then (i[k] )σ = ϕ(s)i[k] , and so by (2.17), E (ψ)σ = ¯ as noted above, Lemma 7.6(ii) ϕ(s)ψ(s)σ E (ψ σ ). Since f ∈ M k (M, N ; ψ) shows that ϕ(s)ψ(s)σ (f σ )X = (f X )σ = E (ψ)σ , and so (f σ )X = E (ψσ ), which means that f σ = Ek (z, 0; Γ, ψ σ ), that is, σ (A3.10) Ek (z, 0; Γ, ψ) = Ek (z, 0; Γ, ψ σ ). This completes the proof of Theorem 8.15(iii).

A3. EISENSTEIN SERIES OF HALF-INTEGRAL WEIGHT

169

A proof of (A3.10) was given in [St80]. However, the methods of the paper are very involved, and the exposition is sketchy with many undeﬁned symbols, and therefore it is almost impossible to follow. Here we have given a simpler proof with diﬀerent ideas. The proof of [St80] uses the results on E (z, s) in [S75], which we reproduced here as Lemma A3.3, (A3.7), and (A3.7a, b). What we need in addition is Lemma 7.6(ii) and our discussion on the behavior of An (ψ) under σ, whereas [St80] requires at least eight pages of calculations. For these reasons, we merely let the reader know the existence of the paper, with no further comments. A3.9. To prove (iv) of Theorem 8.15, put sk = 1 − k. By (A3.2) we can reduce the problem to F whose Fourier expansion is given by (A3.7). Let us ﬁrst show that An (y, sk ) = 0 if n < 0. Since sk = (λ + 1)/2, the ﬁrst line of (∗−) is ﬁnite at s = sk , and the same is true for the second line. As for the third line, since λ ≤ −1, we have 0 ≥ 1 + (λ − λ0 )/2 = sk + (η − λ)/2, and so Γ s + (η − λ)/2 has a pole at s = sk . This shows that An (y, sk ) = 0 for n < 0. As to An for n > 0, we note that by (A2.6) the factor τ (4πny; s + k, s)/Γ (s) at s = sk equals (4πny)k−1 . Returning to E (z, s), put D(z, s; ψ) = L(4s + 2k − 1, ψ 2 )E (z, s). Then from (A3.7) we see that 2−k N π −1 D(z, sk ; ψ) =

∞

Bn (ψ)e(nz),

n=0

where B0 (ψ) = L(1 − 2[k], ψ 2 ) and Bn (ψ) = L(1 − [k], ω1 )βn (sk ) if n > 0. Notice that ω1 (−1) = ψ(−1) = (−1)[k] . The function is nonzero, since B0 (ψ) = 0. From Lemma 2.10 and the formula for βn in Lemma A3.3 we see that Bn (ψ) ∈ Qab and Bn (ψ)σ = Bn (ψ σ ) for every n ≥ 0 and σ every σ ∈ Gal(Qab /Q). Thus 2k π −1 D(z, sk ; ψ) = 2k π −1 D(z, sk ; ψ σ ). Now let Ck∗ (Γ, ψ) be as in Theorem 8.5(iv) and let the symbol X be as in Lemma 7.6(ii). By (A3.2) we have E (z, s) = Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ)X , and so Ck∗ (Γ, ψ)X = 2k i[k] G(ψ)−1 π −1 D(z, sk ; ψ). Given σ ∈ Gal(Qab /Q), take an integer t prime to N so that e(1/N )σ = e(t/N ). Let a character χ be de[k]

−1 ¯ ψ(d). Then Lemma 7.6(ii) shows that (f σ )X = ﬁned by χ(d) = d X σ ) for f = Ck∗ (Γ, ψ), since ψ¯ here is ψ there. Observe that χ(t)σ (f σ χ(t)σ i[k] G(ψ)−1 = i[k] G(ψ σ )−1 by (2.17). Therefore X ∗ σ Ck (Γ, ψ)σ = χ(t)σ 2k i[k] G(ψ)−1 π −1 D(z, sk ; ψ) = 2k i[k] G(ψ σ )−1 π −1 D(z, sk ; ψ σ ) = Ck∗ (Γ, ψσ )X , and so Ck∗ (Γ, ψ)σ = Ck∗ (Γ, ψ σ ). This completes the proof of Theorem 8.15(iv).

170

APPENDIX

A3.10. Let us now prove Theorem 8.16(i). We assume that k = 1/2 and ψ 2 is trivial, andso λ = 0 and (λ + 1)/2 = 1/2. Since ψ(−1) = (−1)[k] , we have ψ(a) = aq with a square-free positive integer q. The question is the value of F ∗ (z, s) at s = 1/2, but we ﬁrst look at F of (A3.7). In the proof of Theorem A3.5 we have seen that An (y, s) with n < 0 is ﬁnite at s = (λ + 1)/2. Let R = p|N (1 − p−1 ). From (A3.7b) we see that A0 (y, s) has residue Ry −1/2 /8 at s = 1/2. As for An with n > 0, we need to investigate the residue of (∗+) at s = 1/2, which is nonzero if and only if ω1 is trivial, which is the case if and only if 2tN q is a square, that is, 2N q = tν 2 with an integer ν. Thus t is determined by N and ψ. For n = tm2 as in Lemma A3.3 put m0 = m/(m, N ). Then (ab)−1 = c−1 μ(a) = 1 βn (1/2) = ab|m0

c|m0

a|c

by (A3.0a). Thus the ﬁrst line of (A3.7a) has residue Rπ1/2 /2 at s = 1/2. The second line of (∗+) gives (4πny)−1/2 by (A2.6). Thus, by (A3.7) the residue of F (z, s) at s = 1/2 is e(tm2 z)Ry −1/2 /8 = (8N )−1/2 π 3/2 R e(tm2 z). (2π)3/2 N −1/2 y 1/2

m∈Z

2 m∈Z e(tm z) = 1 + 2

∞

m∈Z

2 m=1 e(tm z).) Now F ∗ (z, s) = (2s − 1)(−iN z)−1/2F − (N z)−1 , s . Put A = (8N )−1/2 π 3/2 R, v = 2t/N, and f (z) = A m∈Z e(vm2 z/2). Then the residue of F − (N z)−1 , s at s = 1/2 is f (−z −1), and so F ∗ (z, 1/2) = 2(−iN z)−1/2 f (−z −1). Using the notation of Lemma 7.11, we have f (z) = Aθv (z, λ), where λ is the characteristic function of Z, viewed as an element of L (Q). Therefore, by that lemma, F ∗ (z, 1/2) = π 3/2 θv (z, ν) with a Qab valued element ν of L (Q). This proves Theorem 8.16(i). If F ∗ is deﬁned without the factor LN (4s − 2λ, ψ 2 ), then the value belongs to π −1 M 1/2 (Qab ).

(Notice that

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[AL70] A. O. L. Atkin and J. Lehner, Hecke operators on Γ0 (m), Math. Ann. 185 (1970), 134–160. [C73] W. Casselman, On some results of Atkin and Lehner, Math. Ann. 201 (1973), 301–314. [H27] E. Hecke, Theorie der Eisensteinschen Reihen h¨ ohere Stufe und ihre Anwendung auf Funktionentheorie und Arithmetik, Abh. Math. Sem. Hamburg 5 (1927), 199–224 (= Mathematische Werke, 461–486). ¨ [H36] E. Hecke, Uber die Bestimmung Dirichletscher Reihen durch ihre Funktionalgleichung, Math. Ann. 112 (1936), 664–699 (= Mathematische Werke, 591–626). ¨ [H37] E. Hecke, Uber Modulfunktionen und die Dirichletschen Reihen mit Eulerscher Produktentwicklung I, II, Math. Ann. 114 (1937), 1–28, 316–351 (= Mathematische Werke, 644–707). [Kl28] H. D. Kloostermann, Theorie der Eisensteinschen Reihen von mehreren Var¨ anderlichen, Abh. Math. Sem. Hamburg 6 (1928), 163–188. [KP92] A. Krazer and F. Prym, Neue Grundlagen einer Theorie der Allgemeinen Thetafunktionen, Teubner, Leipzig, 1892. ¨ [Ma49] H. Maass, Uber eine neue Art von nichtanalytischen automorphen Funktionen und die Bestimmung Dirichletscher Reihen durch Funktionalgleichungen, Math. Ann. 121 (1949), 141–183. [Ma53] H. Maass, Die Diﬀerentialgleichungen in der Theorie der elliptischen Modulfunktionen, Math. Ann. 125 (1953), 235–263. [Mi71] T. Miyake, On automorphic forms on GL2 and Hecke operators , Ann. of Math. 94 (1971), 174–189. [N77] S. Niwa, On Shimura’s trace formula, Nagoya Math. J. 66 (1977), 183–202. [P82, 84] T-y, Pei, Eisenstein series of weight 3/2: I, II, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 274 (1982), 573–606, 283 (1984), 589–603. [Ra39] R. A. Rankin, Contributions to the theory of Ramanujan’s function τ (n) and similar arithmetical functions I, II. Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc. 35 (1939), 351–372. [Ro89] D. Rohrlich, Nonvanishing of L-functions for GL(2), Inv. math. 97 (1989), 381-403. [S71] G. Shimura, Introduction to the Arithmetic Theory of Automorphic Functions, Publications of the Mathematical Society of Japan, No. 11, Iwanami Shoten and Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1971 (paperback edition with errata, 1994).

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[S73a] G. Shimura, On modular forms of half integral weight, Ann. of Math. 97 (1973), 440–481 (= Collected Papers, II, 532–573). [S73b] G. Shimura, Modular forms of half integral weight, in Proceedings of the International Summer School of Modular Functions of One Variable, Antwerp, 1972, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, vol. 320 (Springer, Heidelberg, 1973), 57–74. [S74] G. Shimura, On the trace formula for Hecke operators, Acta mathematica, 132 (1974), 245–281 (= Collected Papers, II, 596–632). [S75] G. Shimura, On the holomorphy of certain Dirichlet series, Proc. London Math. Soc. 3rd ser. 31 (1975), 79–98 (= Collected Papers, II, 633– 652). [S76] G. Shimura, The special values of the zeta functions associated with cusp forms, Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 29 (1976), 783–804 (= Collected Papers, II, 740–761). [S77] G. Shimura, On the periods of modular forms, Math. Ann. 229 (1977), 211–221 (= Collected Papers, II, 813–823). [S78] G. Shimura, The special values of the zeta functions associated with Hilbert modular forms, Duke Math. J. 45 (1978), 637–679, Corrections, Duke Math. J. 48 (1981), 697. A revised version is given in Collected Papers, III, 75–114. [S81] G. Shimura, The critical values of certain zeta functions associated with modular forms of half-integral weight, J. Math. Soc. Japan, 33 (1981), 649–672 (= Collected Papers, III, 217–240). [S85a] G. Shimura, On Eisenstein series of half-integral weight, Duke Math. J. 52 (1985), 281–314 (= Collected Papers, III, 610–643). [S85b] G. Shimura, On the Eisenstein series of Hilbert modular groups, Revista Matem´ atica Iberoamericana 1 (1985), 1–42 (= Collected Papers, III, 644–685). [S87] G. Shimura, On Hilbert modular forms of half-integral weight, Duke Math. J. 55 (1987), 765–838 (= Collected Papers, III, 774–847). [S90] G. Shimura, Invariant diﬀerential operators on hermitian symmetric spaces, Ann. of Math. 132 (1990), 237–272 (= Collected Papers, IV, 68–103). [S91] G. Shimura, The critical values of certain Dirichlet series attached to Hilbert modular forms, Duke Math. J. 63 (1991), 557–613 (= Collected Papers, IV, 134–190). [S93] G. Shimura, On the transformation formulas of theta series, Amer. J. Math, 115 (1993), 1011–1052. (= Collected Papers, IV, 191–232). [S94] G. Shimura, Diﬀerential operators, holomorphic projection, and singular forms, Duke Math. J. 76 (1994), 141–173 (= Collected Papers, IV, 351–383).

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[S95] G. Shimura, Zeta functions and Eisenstein series on metaplectic groups, Inv. math. 121 (1995), 21–60 (= Collected Papers, IV, 430–469). [S97] G. Shimura, Euler Products and Eisenstein Series, CBMS Regional Conference Series in Mathematics, No. 93, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 1997. [S98] G. Shimura, Abelian Varieties with Complex Multiplication and Modular Functions, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1998. [S00] G. Shimura, Arithmeticity in the Theory of Automorphic Forms, Mathematical Surveys and Monographs vol. 82, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 2000. [S02] G. Shimura, Collected papers, I–IV, Springer, New York, 2002. [S04] G. Shimura, Arithmetic and Analytic Theories of Quadratic Forms and Cliﬀord Groups, Mathematical Surveys and Monographs vol. 109, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 2004. [S07] G. Shimura, Elementary Dirichlet Series and Modular Forms, Springer Monographs in Mathematics, Springer, New York, 2007. [S10] G. Shimura, Arithmetic of Quadratic Forms, Springer Monographs in Mathematics, Springer, New York, 2010. [St80] J. Sturm, Special values of zeta functions and Eisenstein series of half integral weight, Amer. J. of Math. 102 (1980), 219–240. [St82] J. Sturm, Theta series of weight 3/2, J. of Number Theory 14 (1982), 353–361.

INDEX automorphic eigenform, 66 character, 6 CM-ﬁeld, 135 commensurable, 116 conductor, 10 conﬂuent hypergeometric function, 157 congruence subgroup, 13 congruence subgroup (of Gk ), 72 constant term, 68 critical (eigenvalue), 68 cusp, 31 cusp-class, 74 cusp form, 29, 68 Dirichlet character, 6 Dirichlet L-function, 11 divisor, 41 eigenform, 66 eigenvalue, 66 Eisenstein series, 54, 55, 73 equivalent (systems of eigenvalues), 134 Fourier coeﬃcient, 14 Fourier expansion (of a modular form), 14 Fourier expansion (of an eigenform), 68 Fourier transform, 19 fractional divisor, 41 Gauss sum, 7, 8 half-integral weight, 24 Hecke algebra, 118 Hecke eigenform, 122 Hecke operator, 121 Hilbert modular forms, 147 imprimitive character, 10 inner product, 34 integral weight, 24

Jacobi’s theta function, 22 Laplace-Beltrami operator, 35 Maass form, 66 Moebius function, 160 modular form (of half-integral weight), 25 modular form (of integral weight), 13 nearly holomorphic modular form, 40 normalized (eigenform), 122 Poisson summation formula, 19 primitive character, 9 primitive cusp form, 143 primitive matrix, 5 primitive vector, 4 principal character, 7 Rankin’s transformation, 63 rapidly decreasing, 32 regular (cusp-class), 74 R-eigenvalues, 134 Riemann’s theta function, 15 Siegel upper half space, 1 slowly increasing, 32 symplectic group, 1 theta series (of an indeﬁnite quadratic form), 91 theta integral, 98 trivial character, 7 weight (of a modular form), 24 Whittaker function, 157 Z-lattice, x

175

For further volumes: http://www.springer.com/series/3733

Goro Shimura

Modular Forms: Basics and Beyond

Goro Shimura Department of Mathematics Princeton University Princeton, NJ 08544-1000 USA [email protected]

ISSN 1439-7382 ISBN 978-1-4614-2124-5 e-ISBN 978-1-4614-2125-2 DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-2125-2 Springer New York Dordrecht Heidelberg London Library of Congress Control Number: 2011941793 Mathematics Subject Classification (2010): 11F11, 11F27, 11F37, 11F67, 11M36, 11M41, 14K25

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012 All rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher (Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed is forbidden. The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks, and similar terms, even if they are not identified as such, is not to be taken as an expression of opinion as to whether or not they are subject to proprietary rights.

Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com)

PREFACE

It was forty years ago that my “Introduction to the arithmetic theory of automorphic functions” appeared. At present the terminology “modular form” can be counted among those most frequently heard in the conversations of mathematicians, and indeed, there are many textbooks on this topic. However, almost all of them are at the elementary level, and not so interesting from the viewpoint of the reader who already knows the basics. So, my intention in the present book is to oﬀer something new that may satisfy the desire of such a reader. Therefore we naturally assume that the reader has at least rudimentary knowledge of modular forms of integral weight with respect to congruence subgroups of SL2 (Z), though we state every deﬁnition and some basic theorems on such forms. One of the principal new features of this book is the theory of modular forms of half-integral weight, another the discussion of theta functions and Eisenstein series of holomorphic and nonholomorphic types. Thus we have written the book so that the reader can learn such theories systematically. However, we present them with the following two themes as the ultimate aims: (I) The correspondence between the forms of half-integral weight and those of integral weight. (II) The arithmeticity of various Dirichlet series associated with modular forms of integral or half-integral weight. The correspondence of (I) associates a cusp form of weight k with a modular form of weight 2k − 1, where k is half an odd positive integer. I gave such a correspondence in my papers in 1973. In the present book I prove a stronger, perhaps the best possible, result with diﬀerent methods. As for (II), a typical example is a Dirichlet series D(s; f, g) = L(2s + 2, ω)

∞

an bn n−s−(k+)/2

n=1

v

vi

PREFACE

∞ obtained from a cusp form f (z) = n=1 an exp(2πinz) of weight k and an∞ other form g(z) = n=0 bn exp(2πinz) of weight , where L(s, ω) is the L-function of a Dirichlet character ω determined by f and g. In the crudest form, our main results show that there exists a constant A(f ) that depends on f, k, , ω, and an integer κ such that D(κ; f, g)/A(f ) is algebraic if an and bn are algebraic, for inﬁnitely many diﬀerent g. We can of course consider −s D(s; f, χ) = ∞ with a Dirichlet character χ and ask about n=1 χ(n)an n the nature of D(m; f, χ) for certain integers m. Though we eventually restrict our modular forms to functions of one complex variable, some of our earlier sections provide an easy introduction to the theory of Siegel modular forms, since that gives a good perspective and makes our proofs of various facts more transparent. Also, since our second theme concerns the arithmeticity, we naturally discuss the rationality of the Fourier coeﬃcients of a modular form, and how the form behaves under the action of an automorphism of the ﬁeld to which the coeﬃcients belong. This is a delicate problem, particularly when it is combined with the group action. Therefore, a considerable number of pages are spent on this problem. Another essential aspect of our theory is the involvement of the class of functions which we call nearly holomorphic modular forms, especially nonholomorphic Eisenstein series. As for D(m; f, χ), we only state the results without proof, and cite two of my papers published in 1976 and 1977. My original plan was to make the book self-contained even in this respect by including the proof, but an unexpected accident made me abandon the idea. Possibly I may be excused by saying that once the reader acquires some elementary results in earlier sections of the present book, those two papers will be easy to read, and so the exclusion of the proof is not a great loss. Also, I allowed myself to quote some standard facts discussed in my books of 1971 and 2007 without proof, since I thought it awkward to reproduce the proof of every quoted fact. It is my great pleasure to express my heartfelt thanks to my friends Koji Doi, Tomokazu Kashio, Kamal Khuri-Makdisi, Kaoru Okada, and Hiroyuki Yoshida, who read my manuscript and helped me eliminate many misprints and improve the exposition. Princeton September 2011

Goro Shimura

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface

v

Notation and Terminology

ix

Chapter I. Preliminaries 1. Symplectic groups and symmetric domains 2. Some algebraic and arithmetic preliminaries 3. Modular forms of integral weight

1 1 4 13

Chapter II. Theta Functions and Factors of Automorphy 4. Classical theta functions 5. Modular forms of half-integral weight 6. Holomorphic and nonholomorphic modular forms on H1

15 15 24 30

Chapter III. The Rationality and Eisenstein Series 7. The rationality of modular forms 8. Dirichlet series and Eisenstein series 9. Eisenstein series as automorphic eigenforms

39 39 51 66

Chapter IV. The Correspondence between Forms of Integral and Half-integral Weight 10. Theta series of indeﬁnite quadratic forms 11. Theta integrals 12. Main theorems on the correspondence 13. Hecke operators

89 89 96 102 116

Chapter V. The Arithmeticity of Critical Values of Dirichlet Series 14. The theory on SL2 (Q) for integral weight 15. The eigenspaces of Rp 16. Main theorems on arithmeticity

129 129 133 136

vii

viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

17. Hilbert modular forms

148

Appendix A1. Proof of various facts A2. Whittaker functions A3. Eisenstein series of half-integral weight

151 151 157 160

References

171

Index

175

NOTATION AND TERMINOLOGY

0.1. For a set X we denote by #X or #(X) the number of elements of X when it is ﬁnite, and put #X = #(X) = ∞ otherwise. We denote by Z, Q, R, and C the ring of rational integers and the ﬁelds of rational numbers, real numbers, and complex numbers, respectively. Also, Q and Qab mean the algebraic closure of Q in C and the maximal abelian extension of Q in Q, respectively. We put (0.1) T = z ∈ C |z| = 1 . We denote by Aut(C) the group of all ring-automorphisms of C. Given an associative ring A with identity element and an A-module X, we denote by A× the group of all invertible elements of A, and by Xnm the A-module of all m × n-matrices with entries in X; we put X m = X1m for 1 simplicity. For an element y of X1m or Xm we denote by yi the ith entry m of y. The zero element of An is denoted by 0m n or simply by 0. When we view Ann as a ring, we usually denote it by Mn (A). We denote the identity element of Mn (A) by 1n or simply by 1. The transpose, determinant, and trace of a matrix x are denoted by t x, det(x), and tr(x). For X ∈ Am n and an ideal B of A we write X ≺ B if all the entries of X belong to B. For square matrices x1 , . . . , xr we denote by diag[x1 , . . . , xr ] the square matrix with x1 , . . . , xr in the diagonal blocks and 0 in all other blocks. We put GLn (A) = Mn (A)× , SLn(A) = α ∈ GLn (A) det(α) = 1 if A is commutative, and (0.2) Sn (A) = T ∈ Mn (A) t T = T . For T ∈ Sn (A) and X ∈ Anm we put T [X] = t XT X; we also put T (x, y) = xT y for x, y ∈ An . For h = t h ∈ Mn (C) we write h > 0 if h is positive deﬁnite, and we write h > k if h − k > 0. Throughout the book we put

t

(c ∈ C). m 0.2. We deﬁne the Legendre-Jacobi symbol for 0 ≤ n − 1 ∈ 2Z and n m ∈ Z as follows. Let n = q1 · · · qs with odd prime numbers qj . Then we put s

m m , (0.4) = n qj j=1

m where is the quadratic residue symbol, and we understand that the qj (0.3)

e(c) = exp(2πic)

ix

x

NOTATION AND TERMINOLOGY

m = 0 if mZ+nZ = product means 1 if n = 1 (even when m = 0). Clearly n

mm m m Z and = . If n < 0 and n is prime to 2m, we put n n n m |m| m = , (0.5) n m |n| where we understand that |0|/0 = 1. We also put, for every odd integer d, 1 if d − 1 ∈ 4Z, (0.6) εd = i if d + 1 ∈ 4Z.

−1 Thus ε2d = for odd d. d 0.3. For a ﬁnite-dimensional vector space V over Q, by a Z-lattice in V we mean a ﬁnitely generated Z-submodule of V that spans V over Q. We also denote by L (V ) the set of all C-valued functions λ for which there exist two Z-lattices L and M in V such that λ(x) = 0 for x ∈ / L and λ(x) for x ∈ L depends only on the coset x + M. For example, take V = Qn and put L = Zn . Given r, s ∈ Qn , deﬁne a / L and λr,s (x) = e(t xs) for function λr,s on V by λr,s (x) = 0 if x − r ∈ x − r ∈ L. Then clearly λr,s ∈ L (V ). Let us now show that L (V ) is spanned over C by λr,s for all (r, s). Given λ ∈ L (V ), we can ﬁnd positive integers g and h such that λ(x) = 0 for x ∈ / g −1 L and λ(x) for x ∈ g −1 L depends only on x + hL. Let R and S be complete sets of representatives for g −1 L/L and h−1 L/L, respectively. For r ∈ R let μr = εr λ, where εr is the characteristic function of r + L. Then λ = r∈R μr , and μr (r + y) for y ∈ L depends only on y + hL. Now for each s ∈ S the map y → e(t ys) deﬁnes a function on L/hL, and the space of functions on L/hL is spanned by such functions e(t ys) for all s ∈ S, and so we can put μr (r + y) = s∈S cr,s e(t ys) for y ∈ L with cr,s ∈ C. Consequently λ = r∈R s∈S cr,s e(−t rs)λr,s , which proves the italicized statement above. 0.4. If σ is an isomorphism of a ﬁeld F onto K, then for x ∈ F we denote by xσ the image of x under σ. If τ is an isomorphism of K onto another ﬁeld, then στ denotes the composite of σ and τ deﬁned by xστ = (xσ )τ . We will deﬁne the action of σ on various objects X such as Dirichlet characters and modular forms, but the action will always be written X σ , and the rule X στ = (X σ )τ is universal.

CHAPTER I

PRELIMINARIES

1. Symplectic groups and symmetric domains 1.1. Though the principal aim of this book is to discuss various topics on modular forms of one complex variable, we ﬁrst introduce the so-called Siegel modular forms deﬁned on a certain space Hn , called the Siegel upper half space of degree n and deﬁned by (1.12) below, since these will make our exposition easier. Besides, what we need about them are some formal identities, which are not complicated, and we ﬁnd no reason for avoiding them. For 0 < n ∈ Z and a commutative ring A with identity element we put

t 0 −1n (1.1a) Sp(n, A) = α ∈ GL2n (A) αια = ι , ι = ιn = , 1n 0 t (1.1b) Gp(n, A) = α ∈ GL2n (A) αια = ν(α)ι with ν(α) ∈ A× . Clearly Sp(n, A) and Gp(n, A) are subgroups of GL2n (A). In particular, the group Sp(n, A) is called the symplectic group of degree n over A. Notice that t αια = ν(α)ι if and only if αι · t α = ν(α)ι, since ι−1 = −ι. We easily see that t

a · d − b · t c = t da − t bc = ν(γ), a b (1.2a) γ = ∈ Gp(n, A) =⇒ c d a · t b, c · t d, t ac, t bd ∈ Sn (A),

t a b d −t b −1 −1 (1.2b) γ= ∈ Gp(n, A) =⇒ γ = ν( γ) , c d −t c t a

a b (1.2c) ∈ Sp(n, A) ⇐⇒ t ac = t ca, t bd = t db, t da − t bc = 1, c d ⇐⇒ a · t b = b · t a, c · t d = d · t c, a · t d − b · t c = 1, (1.2d) (1.2e)

γ ∈ Gp(n, A) =⇒ t

t

γ ∈ Gp(n, A), ν(t γ) = ν(γ),

ι = ι−1 = −ι, ι2 = −12n , and ι ∈ Sp(n, A).

Given α ∈ Gp(n, A), put γ = diag[ν(α)1n , 1n ]. Then clearly γ ∈ Gp(n, A) and ν(γ) = ν(α), and so γ −1 α ∈ Sp(n, A). In this way we see that (1.3) Every element of Gp(n, A) is the product of an element of Sp(n, A) and an element of the form diag[e1n , 1n ] with e ∈ A× .

G. Shimura, Modular Forms: Basics and Beyond, Springer Monographs in Mathematics, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-2125-2_1, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

1

2

I. PRELIMINARIES

If n = 1, noting that ι−1 · t αια = det(α)12 for every α ∈ M2 (A), we see that (1.4a) (1.4b)

Sp(1, A) = SL2 (A),

Gp(1, A) = GL2 (A),

ν(α) = det(α) for α ∈ Gp(1, A).

1.2. We will eventually deﬁne the action of Sp(n, R) on Hn , but we ﬁrst deﬁne

moregenerally the action (in a weak sense) of Gp(n, C) on Sn (C). For a b α= ∈ M2n (C) with a of size n we hereafter put a = aα = a(α), b = c d bα = b(α), c = cα = c(α), and d = dα = d(α), whenever there is no fear of confusion. Then for z ∈ Sn (C) and α ∈ Gp(n, C) we put (1.5a) μα (z) = μ(α, z) = cα z + dα , jα (z) = j(α, z) = det μα (z)], (1.5b)

α(z) = αz = (aα z + bα )(cα z + dα )−1 ,

where α(z) is deﬁned only when μα (z) is invertible. We will often write αz for α(z). To see the nature of α(z), put p = aα z + bα and q = μα (z). Using the relations in (1.2a), we easily see that t pq = t qp, and so pq −1 ∈ Sn (C) if q is invertible. Therefore, if α(z) is deﬁned, then α(z) ∈ Sn (C), and

αz z μα (z). = (1.6) α 1 1

z w Given z ∈ Sn (C) and α ∈ Gp(n, C), suppose α = λ with w ∈ Cnn 1 1 and λ ∈ GLn (C); then we easily see that αz is deﬁned, αz = w, λ = μα (z), and (1.5b) holds. Next suppose α, β ∈ Gp(n, C) and both αz and β(αz) are meaningful; then applying β to (1.6), we obtain

β(αz) αz z μβ (αz)μα (z), μα (z) = =β βα 1 1 1 and so (βα)(z) is meaningful and (1.7) μβα (z) = μβ (αz)μα (z), jβα (z) = jβ (αz)jα (z), and (βα)(z) = β(αz). Moreover, if z ∈ Sn (C) and αz is deﬁned, then

z z αz αz μα (z ) 0 (1.8) α = . 1 1 1 1 0 μα (z) Calling this product W and forming t W ιW, we obtain (1.9)

ν(α)(z − z) = t μα (z )(αz − αz)μα (z).

If dz = (dzij ) denotes the diﬀerential of the variable matrix z = (zij ) on Sn (C), then from (1.9) we obtain (1.10) We now put

ν(α)dz = t μα (z)d(αz)μα (z).

1. SYMPLECTIC GROUPS AND SYMMETRIC DOMAINS

(1.11) (1.11a) (1.12)

3

Gp+ (n, R) = α ∈ Gp(n, R) ν(α) > 0 , Gp+ (n, Q) = GL2n (Q) ∩ Gp+ (n, R), Hn = z ∈ Sn (C) Im(z) > 0 .

Every element z of Hn can be written z = x + iy with x ∈ Sn (R) and 0 < y ∈ Sn (R), and vice versa. Hereafter, whenever we write z = x + iy for z ∈ Hn , we always take x and y in that sense. Lemma 1.3. Let X be the set of all X ∈ C2n n such that (1.13)

t

¯ > 0. XιX = 0 and i · t XιX

Then the following assertions

hold: z μ gives a bijection of Hn × GLn (C) onto X. (i) The map (z, μ) → 1n (ii) αXβ ⊂ X for every α ∈ Gp+ (n, R) and β ∈ GLn (C). Proof. That the image of the map of (i) is indeed in X can easily be seen. g Given X = with g, h ∈ Cnn , we have (1.13) if and only if h t ¯ > 0. hg = t gh and i(t h¯ g − t g h) (∗) Therefore, for 0 = x ∈ Cn1 we have ¯ x¯ = i t (hx)¯ ¯x , 0 < i · t x t h¯ g − tgh gx ¯ − t (gx)h¯ and so gx = 0 and hx = 0. Thus both g and h are invertible. Put z = gh−1 . ¯ h ¯ −1 > 0, and so Then (∗) shows that t z= z and i(¯ z − z) = i · t h−1 (t h¯ g − t g h) z h, we see that our map is surjective. The injectivity z ∈ Hn . Since X = 1 and (ii) are obvious.

z + ∈ X. 1.4. Let z ∈ Hn and α ∈ Gp (n, R). Then by Lemma 1.3(i), 1

z z By (ii) of the same lemma, α ∈ X, and so by (i) we can put α = 1 1

w μ with unique w ∈ Hn and μ ∈ GLn (C). Thus αz is meaningful and 1 w = αz; consequently (1.5b) and (1.6) hold. Since we have 1 = μ(αα−1 , z) = μα (α−1 z)μ(α−1 , z), we obtain (1.14)

μ(α−1 , z) = μα (α−1 z)−1 and j(α−1 , z) = jα (α−1 z)−1 .

Taking the complex conjugate of (1.6) in this case, we obtain

z¯ αz (1.15) α = μα (z), 1 1

4

I. PRELIMINARIES

since α is a real matrix. This means that we can let an element α of Gp+ (n, R) act on the set z¯ z ∈ Hn , and view αz as the image of z¯ z ) = cα z¯ + dα = μα (z), and jα (¯ z) = under α(¯ z ) = α¯ z = αz, μα (¯ α. Thus det μα (¯ z ) = jα (z). Taking z¯ as z in (1.9), we obtain (1.16)

−1

Im(αz) = t μα (z)

Im(z)μα (z)−1 if α ∈ Sp(n, R).

1.5. We note here how an element of Gp+ (n, R) belonging to several special types acts on z ∈ Hn :

r1n 0 (1.17a) : z → rz (0 < r ∈ R), 0 1n

a 0 (d = t a−1 ∈ GLn (R)), (1.17b) : z → az · t a 0 d

1n b (1.17c) : z → z + b (b ∈ Sn (R)), 0 1n

a b : z → az · t a + bd−1 (1.17d) (d = t a−1 ∈ GLn (R), t bd ∈ Sn (R)), 0 d

0 b (1.17e) : z → −bz −1 · t b (c = −tb−1 ∈ GLn (R)). c 0 We also note that Sp(n, R) acts transitively on Hn , that is, given z and w in Hn , there exists an element α of Sp(n, R) such that αz = w. Indeed, t given z = x + iy ∈ H n , take a ∈ GLn (R) so that a · a = y and put 1 x a 0 β= . Then β ∈ Sp(n, R) and β(i1n ) = z. Similarly we 0 1 0 t a−1 can ﬁnd γ ∈ Sp(n, R) such that γ(i1n ) = w. Then αz = w with α = γβ −1 . 2. Some algebraic and arithmetic preliminaries 2.1. We begin with some easy facts on Z1n and SLn (Z). We call an element v = (v1 , . . . , vn ) of Z1n primitive if the vi have no common divisors other than ±1. Given such a v, put M = Z1n /Zv. Then M has no torsion elements and is ﬁnitely generated over Z, and so it must be a free Z-module. Thus 1 M has a Z-basis {yi }m i=1 . Let ui be an element of Zn that represents yi . Then we can easily verify that {u1 , . . . , um , v} is a Z-basis of Z1n . Clearly m = n − 1. Let α be the square matrix whose rows are u1 , . . . , um , v. Then α ∈ GLn (Z), which proves the “only-if”-part of the ﬁrst of the following statements: (2.1) An element v of Z1n is primitive if and only if v is the last row of an element of GLn (Z). Moreover, if n > 1, this is true with SLn (Z) in place of GLn (Z). The “if”-part is obvious. If n > 1 and det(α) = −1, then by replacing u1 by −u1 , we obtain an element of SLn (Z).

2. SOME ALGEBRAIC AND ARITHMETIC PRELIMINARIES

5

m Generalizing the idea of (2.1), we call an element x of Zn with m < n y such that ∈ GLn (Z). Notice primitive if there is an element y of Zn−m n x m that if an element x of Zn is primitive, then αxβ is primitive for every α ∈ GLm (Z) and β ∈ GLn (Z).

Lemma 2.2. (i) Let Qn denote the subgroup of GLn (Q) consisting of all the upper triangular matrices. Then GLn (Q) = Qn SLn (Z). (ii) Let Wn be the set of all primitive elements of Zn2n such that wι · t w = 0. Then Wn = [0 1n ]Sp(n, Z). (iii) Let Pn , or simply P, denote the

subgroup of Sp(n, Q) consisting of a b all the elements of the form , where a, b, d are of size n. Then 0 d Sp(n, Q) = P · Sp(n, Z). (iv) Sp(n, Q) is generated by P and ι. Proof. We ﬁrst prove (i) by induction on n. It is trivial if n = 1. Given ξ ∈ GLn (Q), n > 1, let x be the last row of ξ. Then x = qy with 0 = q ∈ Q and a primitive element y of Z1n . By (2.1) we can ﬁnd an element α of SLn (Z) 1 −1 1 whose last row is y. Then y = [0n−1 1]α, so that xα = [0n−1 q]. Thus we r s n−1 can put ξα−1 = with r ∈ Qn−1 . By induction we ﬁnd n−1 and s ∈ Q1 0 q τ ∈ Qn−1 and σ ∈ SLn−1 (Z) such that r = τ σ. Then ξα−1 · diag[σ−1 , 1] ∈ Qn , which proves (i). As for (ii), clearly [0 1n ]Sp(n, Z) ⊂ Wn . Let x ∈ W

n. Since x is primitive, y with some y ∈ Zn2n . there exists an element α ∈ SL2n (Z) of the form α = x

u v with u, v ∈ Znn . Since αι · t α ∈ GL2n (Z), we see Then αι · t α = −t v 0

z −1n −1 t t that v ∈ GLn (Z). Put β = diag[−v , 1n ]. Then βαι · α · β = 1n 0 with z ∈ Znn . If [a b] is the upper half of βα, then z = −a · t b + b · t a. Put 1 −b · t a γ= n . Then γβαι · t α · t β · t γ = ι, and so γβα ∈ Sp(n, Z). Now 0 1n we see that [0 1n ]γβ = [0 1n ], and so [0 1n ]γβα = [0 1n ]α = x, which proves (ii). To prove (iii), let ξ ∈ Sp(n, Q). By (i) we have ξ = ηα with η ∈ Q2n and a b p q and ξ = with a, b, . . . , r, s of size α ∈ SL2n (Z). Put η = 0 d r s n. Then d−1 [r s] = [0 1n ]α, which is primitive. Since ξ ∈ Sp(n, Q), we easily see that d−1 [r s] ∈ Wn . By (ii) we can put [0 1n ]α = [0 1 n ]β with u v −1 β ∈ Sp(n, Z). Put γ = αβ . Then [0 1n ]γ = [0 1n ], and so γ = 0 1n

6

I. PRELIMINARIES

w z with w, z of size n. Now ξ = ηα = 0 d ηγβ, and so ηγ = ξβ −1 ∈ Sp(n, Q). Therefore, ηγ ∈ P, which proves (iii). Finally, as will be shown in Lemma A1.3(i) of the Appendix, Sp(n, Z) is generated by ι and P ∩ Sp(n, Z). This fact combined with (iii) proves (iv) and completes the proof.

with u, v of size n. Thus ηγ =

Lemma 2.3. Let f be an odd integer and s an element of Sn (Z). Then there exist an element u of Mn (Z) and a diagonal element d of Mn (Z) such that t usu − d ≺ f Z and det(u) is a positive integer prime to f. Proof. We can reduce the problem to the following statement, in which p is an odd prime number and Zp is the ring of p-adic integers: (2.2) Given s ∈ Sn (Zp ), there exists an element τ of GLn (Zp ) such that t τ sτ is diagonal. Indeed, given s and f as in our lemma, employing (2.2), for each prime factor p of f we take τp ∈ GLn (Zp ) such that t τp sτp is diagonal. We can ﬁnd u ∈ Mn (Z) and a diagonal matrix d such that u − τp ≺ f Zp and d − t τp sτp ≺ f Zp for every p|f. Replacing u by u + f v with a suitable v ∈ Mn (Z), we may assume that det(u) > 0. Then u has the required properties of our lemma. We now prove (2.2) by induction on n. The case n = 1 or s = 0 is trivial. Assuming that n > 1 and s = 0, put s = (sij ) and i,j sij Zp = σZp with 0 = σ ∈ Zp . Replacing s by σ−1 s, we may assume that σ = 1. Suppose

sii ∈ a b × with Zp for some i; we may assume that i = 1. Then we can put s = t b d

1 −a−1 b . Then γ ∈ GLn (Zp ) and t γsγ = diag[a, e] a = s11 . Put γ = 0 1n−1 with e = d−t ba−1 b. Clearly e ∈ Sn−1 (Zp ). Applying induction to e, we obtain / Z× the desired conclusion. Next suppose sii ∈ p for every i. Then changing s11 s12 the numbering, we may assume that s12 ∈ Z× . Put a = and p s21 s22

a b 12 −a−1 b , we see that s= t . Then a ∈ GL2 (Zp ). Putting γ = 0 1n−2 b d γ ∈ GLn (Zp ), and t γsγ = diag[a, d − t ba−1 b]. Thus again induction gives the desired fact. This completes the proof. 2.4. We need two types of Gauss sums. The ﬁrst type is deﬁned with respect to a Dirichlet character (or simply, a character) modulo a positive integer r, by which we mean a function χ : Z → T belonging to one of the following two types: (i) r = 1 and χ(a) = 1 for every a ∈ Z;

2. SOME ALGEBRAIC AND ARITHMETIC PRELIMINARIES

7

(ii) r > 1 and χ is a homomorphism of (Z/rZ)× into T, which we view as a function on Z by putting χ a (mod rZ) if a is prime to r, χ(a) = 0 if a is not prime to r. We call χ of type (i) the principal character. We say that χ is trivial if it is of type (i) or χ(a) = 1 for every a prime to r. We call χ primitive if it is of type (i), or it is a nontrivial character for which there is no character ξ modulo a proper divisor s of r such that χ(a) = ξ(a) for every a prime to r. We will say more about characters in §2.7, but we ﬁrst deﬁne Gauss sums. We put e(z) = exp(2πiz) for z ∈ C as we did in (0.3). Let χ be a primitive Dirichlet character modulo an integer r > 1. Then we put r χ(a)e(a/r) (2.3) G(χ) = a=1

and call it the Gauss sum of χ. Since χ(r) = 0, we can use r of a=1 . We note here three well-known facts: (2.3a)

r

r−1 a=1

in place

χ(a)e(sa/r) = χ(s)G(χ) for every s ∈ Z,

a=1

(2.3b) (2.3c)

rG(χ)−1 = G(χ) = χ(−1)G(χ), ¯ |G(χ)|2 = r.

The proof is easy; see [S71, Lemma 3.63] or [S10, (3.8a, c, d)], for example. There is a classical result about G(χ) when χ = χ. Namely, √ r if χ(−1) = 1, (2.4a) G(χ) = √ if χ(−1) = −1. i r

x In particular, if χ(x) = with an odd prime number p, then p √ p if p − 1 ∈ 4Z, (2.4b) G(χ) = √ i p if p − 3 ∈ 4Z. The simplest proof of (2.4a) follows from the functional equation of the Dirich∞ let series n=1 χ(n)n−s . This is explained in [S07, p. 40] when χ(−1) = −1, but the same method is applicable to the other case. In fact, by the same technique Hecke determined the Gauss sum of a Hecke character associated with a quadratic extension of an arbitrary algebraic number ﬁeld; see [S97, (A6.3.4)]. 2.5. The second type of Gauss sum, denoted by G(a, b), is deﬁned for relatively prime integers a and b and given by

8

I. PRELIMINARIES

(2.5) where

G(a, b) = |b| x=1

can be replaced by

|b|

e(ax2 /b),

x=1 x∈Z/bZ .

m as in (0.4). For two positive odd Deﬁne the Legendre-Jacobi symbol n integers m and n we have m n (2.6) = −1 ⇐⇒ m ≡ n ≡ 3 (mod 4), n m −1 (2.7) = −1 ⇐⇒ n ≡ 3 (mod 4). n To prove these, we ﬁrst note that

q p = −1 ⇐⇒ p ≡ q ≡ 3 (mod 4) (2.8) q p for two diﬀerent odd prime numbers p and q. This follows easily from the quadratic reciprocity law. To prove (2.6) in general, put m = p1 · · · pr and n = q1 · · · qs with odd prime numbers pi and qj . Then r s

m n pi qj = . n m qj pi i=1 j=1

By (2.8) we can eliminate from the right-hand side any pi or qj that is ≡ 1 (mod 4). Let ρ resp. σ be the number n of i’s resp. j’s such that pi − 3 ∈ 4Z m = (−1)ρσ , which is −1 if and only resp. qj − 3 ∈ 4Z. By (2.8), n m if both ρ and σ are odd, that is, if and only if m ≡ n ≡ 3 (mod 4). Thus

s

−1 −1 = (−1)σ , and so we = we obtain (2.6). Similarly we have n q j j=1 obtain (2.7). Theorem 2.6. If b is odd and positive, then a √ (2.9) G(a, b) = εb b, b where εb = 1 if b − 1 ∈ 4Z and εb = i if b − 3 ∈ 4Z. Proof. We ﬁrst prove G(a, cd) = G(ad, c)G(ac, d) if c, d ∈ Z and cZ + dZ = Z. Indeed, the map y (mod c), z (mod d) → dy +cz (mod cd) gives a bijection of (Z/cZ) × (Z/dZ) onto Z/cdZ, and so for b = cd we have G(a, b) = e a(dy + cz)2 /b (2.10)

y∈Z/cZ z∈Z/dZ

=

y∈Z/cZ

e(ady 2 /c)

z∈Z/dZ

e(acz 2 /d) = G(ad, c)G(ac, d),

2. SOME ALGEBRAIC AND ARITHMETIC PRELIMINARIES

9

which proves (2.10). Now suppose (2.9) is true for G(∗, c) and G(∗, d) (with positive c and d). Then

√ ac a √ ad ε η b G(a, b) = c εd cd = c d b

c d εc εd . If c ≡ d ≡ 3 (mod 4), then by (2.6), η = −i2 = 1, with η = c d and b−1 ∈ 4Z. If c−1 ∈ 4Z, then b−d ∈ 4Z and η = εd = εb ; similarly η = εb if d − 1 ∈ 4Z. Thus we obtain (2.9) for b = cd. This means that it is suﬃcient to prove (2.9) when b = pm withan odd prime number p and 0 < m ∈ Z. Suppose m > 1; since the map y (mod pm−1 ), z (mod p) → y + pm−1 z (mod pm ) gives a bijection of (Z/pm−1 Z) × (Z/pZ) onto Z/pm Z, we have pm−1 p G(a, pm ) = y=1 e(ay 2 /pm ) z=1 e(2ayz/p). The last sum over 1 ≤ z ≤ p equals p if y ∈ pZ. For y ∈ / pZ we have pz=1 e(2ayz/p) = pw=1 e(w/p) = 0. Therefore m−2 p m e(ap2 u2 /pm ) = pG(a, pm−2 ) G(a, p ) = p u=1

for m > 1. If m = 2 in particular, we see that G(a, p2 ) = p. Thus for 0 < n ∈ Z we obtain G(a, p2n ) = pn and G(a, p2n+1 ) = pn G(a, p). Therefore our problem can be reduced to the formula

a √ (2.11) G(a, p) = εp p. p

y . Dividing the set y ∈ Z 0 < y < p into the To show this, put χ(y) = p set of quadratic residues modulo p and that of nonresidues, we see that p p p G(a, p) = e(ax2 /p) = χ(y)e(ay/p) + e(ay/p) =

x=1 p

y=1

y=1

χ(u)e(au/p) = χ(a)G(χ),

u=1

and so (2.11) follows from (2.4b). This completes the proof. Remark. We can determine G(a, b) even for odd negative b as follows. We ﬁrst take c = −1 in (2.10) and obtain (2.12)

G(a, −d) = G(−a, d),

since G(x, −1) = 1 for every x ∈ Z. Therefore, if b is odd and negative, then G(a, b) = G(a, −|b|) = G(−a, |b|) by (2.12), and so by (2.9) we obtain

a −1 −a ε|b| |b| = ε|b| |b|. (2.13) G(a, b) = |b| |b| |b|

−1 Applying (2.7) to the factor , we can give another formula. Thus, for |b| 0 ≥ b + 1 ∈ 2Z we have

10

I. PRELIMINARIES

a ε (b) |b|, |b| where ε (b) = 1 if b − 3 ∈ 4Z and ε (b) = −i if b − 1 ∈ 4Z.

(2.14)

G(a, b) =

2.7. Let χ0 be the principal character as deﬁned in §2.4. We deﬁne its Gauss sum G(χ0 ) by (2.15)

G(χ0 ) = 1.

Let χ be a character modulo an integer r > 1 that is not primitive. We then call χ imprimitive. If χ is nontrivial, then we can ﬁnd a character χ modulo a proper divisor c of r, > 1, such that χ(a) = χ (a) for every a prime to r. Moreover, among such characters χ there is a unique one that is primitive. We then call χ the primitive character associated with χ, and call c the conductor of χ. If χ is trivial, we call the principal character χ0 the primitive character associated with χ, and deﬁne the conductor of χ to be 1. In both cases, given χ, we take the primitive character χ associated with χ, and deﬁne the Gauss sum G(χ) by G(χ) = G(χ ). For 1 ≤ i ≤ m let χi be a Dirichlet character modulo ri , and let r be the least common multiple of the ri . Then we denote by χ1 · · · χm the character modulo r deﬁned by (χ1 · · · χm )(a) = χ1 (a) · · · χm (a) for a prime to r. Let Aut(C) denote the group of all ring-automorphisms of the ﬁeld C. For σ ∈ Aut(C) we can deﬁne a character χσi modulo ri by χσi (a) = χi (a)σ for every a. Then we have: Lemma 2.8. Put q(χ1 , . . . , χm ) = G(χ1 ) · · · G(χm )/G(χ1 · · · χm ). Let K be the ﬁeld generated over Q by the values χi (a) for all i and all a. Then q(χ1 , . . . , χm ) belongs to K, and for every automorphism σ of Q we have (2.16)

q(χ1 , . . . , χm )σ = q(χσ1 , . . . , χσm ).

Proof. Let ζ = e(1/N ) with a multiple N of r1 · · · rm . We take N so that χi (a) ∈ Q(ζ) for every i and a. Given σ, we can ﬁnd an integer t prime to N such that e(a/N )σ = e(ta/N ). Then from (2.3) we obtain (2.17)

χ(t)σ G(χ)σ = G(χσ )

for every character χ modulo N. Formula (2.16) is an immediate consequence of this fact. Suppose σ is the identity map on K; then χσi = χi for every i, and so q(χ1 , . . . , χm )σ = q(χ1 , . . . , χm ). This shows that q(χ1 , . . . , χm ) ∈ K, and our proof is complete. To state an easy application of (2.17), for every primitive or imprimitive character modulo N and every q ∈ Z, put N (2.17a) [χ, q] = G(χ)−1 χ(n)e(nq/N ). n=1

2. SOME ALGEBRAIC AND ARITHMETIC PRELIMINARIES

11

Then from (2.17) we can easily derive (2.17b)

[χ, q] ∈ Qab and [χ, q]σ = [χσ , q] for every σ ∈ Gal(Qab /Q).

In fact, we will give an explicit form of [χ, q] in Lemma A3.1 of the Appendix, which implies (2.17b). 2.9. Given a primitive or an imprimitive Dirichlet character χ, we put ∞ (2.18a) L(s, χ) = χ(n)n−s , n=1 1 − χ(p)p−s = χ(n)n−s , (2.18b) LN (s, χ) = L(s, χ) p|N

(n, N )=1

where 0 < N ∈ Z. The function of (2.18a) is called the Dirichlet L-function of χ. We will state some of its analytic properties in §8.3. For the moment we just note that L(m, χ) and L(1 − m, χ) for a positive integer m such that χ(−1) = (−1)m is meaningful. Then we put (2.19)

PN (m, χ) = G(χ)−1 (πi)−m LN (m, χ).

Lemma 2.10. Let χ and m be as above. Then PN (m, χ) ∈ Qab and L(1 − m, χ) ∈ Qab . Moreover, for every σ ∈ Gal(Qab /Q) we have (2.20)

PN (m, χ)σ = PN (m, χσ ),

(2.21)

L(1 − m, χ)σ = L(1 − m, χσ ).

Proof. We can easily reduce the problem to the case where χ is primitive and N = 1. Then d −m 1−m L(1 − m, χ) = − χ(a)Bm (a/d), 2 · m!(2πi) G(χ)L(m, χ) = md a=1

where d is the conductor of χ and Bm the mth Bernoulli polynomial. If χ is principal, this means 2 · n!(2πi)−n ζ(n) = nζ(1 − n) = −Bn for 0 < n ∈ 2Z, where Bn is the nth Bernoulli number. This formula is ancient. The preceding one was ﬁrst noted by Hecke in 1940. For the proof and other formulas for L(m, χ) and L(1 − m, χ) we refer the reader to Section 4 of [S07]. Our lemma now follows from these formulas. Notice that the ¯ σ , and G(χ) ¯ = dχ(−1)G(χ)−1 by (2.3b). complex conjugate of χσ is (χ) Lemma 2.11. Let V be a ﬁnite-dimensional vector space over a ﬁeld F and let W = V ⊗F K with a ﬁnite or an inﬁnite extension K of F. Let End(V ) denote the algebra of all F -linear transformations of V. Given a subset A of End(V ), for each α ∈ A denoteby α ˜ the K-linear extension of α to W. Then Ker(˜ α ) = Ker(α) ⊗ F K. α∈A α∈A

12

I. PRELIMINARIES

Proof. Take a basis {yi }i∈I of V over F and also a basis B of K over α α F. For α ∈ A put αyi = j∈I pij yj with pij ∈ F. Let u = i∈I ci yi ∈ Ker(˜ α) with ci ∈ K. Then there is a ﬁnite subset E of B such that α∈A aie e with aie ∈ F for every i ∈ I. Then for α ∈ A we have ci = e∈E 0 = α ˜ u = e∈E e i,j∈I aie pα yj , and so e∈E e i∈I aie pα for every ij ij = 0 α a p = 0 for every j and every e ∈ E. Now u = j. Thus i∈I ie ij e∈E eve α with ve = i∈I aie yi . We have ve ∈ V and αve = i,j∈I aie pij yj = 0, and so ve ∈ α∈A Ker(α), which proves our lemma. Lemma 2.12. Let V, F, and End(V ) be as in Lemma 2.11. Suppose that V = {0} and F is algebraically closed. Let R be a subspace of End(V ), = {0}, whose elements are mutually commutative. Then V has a nonzero element u that is an eigenvector of every element of R. Proof. We prove this by induction on the dimension of R. Let 0 = α ∈ R. We can take an eigenvector v of α and put c ∈ F. (This settles αv = cv with the case where dim(R) = 1.) Let W = x ∈ V αx = cx . Then W = {0}, since v ∈ W. Assuming that dim(R) > 1, take a subspace S of R so that R = F α ⊕ S. Since the elements of S commute with α, we easily see that W is stable under S. By the induction assumption we can ﬁnd an element u of W that is an eigenvector of every element of S. Since αu = cu, this proves our lemma. Lemma 2.13. Let K be a ﬁnite Galois extension of a ﬁeld F and W a vector space over K of ﬁnite dimension; let G = Gal(K/F ). Suppose there is an action of G on W, written (x, σ) → xσ for x ∈ W and σ ∈ G, suchthat σ σ σ (ax) σ = a x for a ∈ K and x ∈ W. Then W = V ⊗F K with V = y ∈ W y = y for every σ ∈ G . Proof. Let B be a basis of K over F, and Y a ﬁnite set of elements of V that are linearly independent over F. Suppose b∈B, y∈Y aby by = 0 with aby ∈ F. Then b∈B, y∈Y aby bσ y = 0 for every σ ∈ G. Since det[bσ ]b,σ = 0, we obtain y∈Y aby y = 0 for every b ∈ B, and so aby = 0 for every b and y. If W has dimension n over K, then W is a vector space of dimension n · #B over F, and so #Y ≤ n. Given any x ∈ W, put zb = σ∈G bσ xσ for b ∈ B. Then zb ∈ V. Since det[bσ ]b,σ = 0, x is a K-linear combination of the zb . This shows that V has dimension n over F, and we can ﬁnd Y such that #Y = n. This proves our lemma. Lemma 2.14. Given a positive integer M and κ = 0 or 1, there exists a primitive character χ such that M is prime to the conductor of χ, χ(−1) = (−1)κ , and χ2 is nontrivial. Proof. Since there exist inﬁnitely many prime numbers p such that p − 1 ∈ 8Z, we can ﬁnd such a p prime to M. Let ψ be a character modulo p

3. MODULAR FORMS OF INTEGRAL WEIGHT

13

of order p − 1. Take χ = ψ if κ = 1 and χ = ψ 2 if κ = 0. Then χ has the desired properties. 3. Modular forms of integral weight 3.1. In this book we assume that the reader has some notion of modular forms of integral weight with respect to a congruence subgroup of SL2 (Z), though we try to make our exposition as self-contained as possible. As to their well-known properties, sometimes we will only state them, dispensing with the proof. To deﬁne modular forms on Hn , we ﬁrst put e(c) = exp(2πic) for c ∈ C, as we did in (0.3). Next, for k ∈ Z, α ∈ Gp+ (n, R), and a function f : Hn → C we deﬁne f k α : Hn → C by (3.1)

(f k α)(z) = jα (z)−k f (αz)

(z ∈ Hn ).

From this deﬁnition and (1.7) we obtain (3.2a) (3.2b)

f k (c12n ) = c−nk f

(c ∈ R× ),

(f k αβ) = (f k α)k β if α, β ∈ Gp+ (n, R).

For a positive integer N put (3.3) Γ (N ) = γ ∈ Sp(n, Z) γ − 12n ≺ N Z . (For the symbol ≺ see §0.1.) By a congruence subgroup of Sp(n, Q), or simply, a congruence subgroup, we mean a subgroup Γ of Sp(n, Q) that contains Γ (N ) as a subgroup of ﬁnite index for some N. If Γ and Γ are congruence subgroups and Γ ⊂ Γ , we call Γ a congruence subgroup of Γ . Given a congruence subgroup Γ and k ∈ Z, we denote by Mk (Γ ) the set of all functions f : Hn → C satisfying the following conditions: (3.4a) f is holomorphic; (3.4b) f k γ = f for every γ ∈ Γ ; (3.4c) f is holomorphic at every cusp. An element of Mk (Γ ) is called a (holomorphic) modular form of weight k with respect to Γ. Condition (3.4c) is necessary only when n = 1, in which case it means the following condition: ∞ cα (m)e(mz/rα ) (3.4d) For every α ∈ SL2 (Q) we have jα (z)−k f α(z) = with 0 < rα ∈ Z and cα (m) ∈ C.

m=0

In fact, if this is satisﬁed for every α ∈ SL2 (Z), then it holds for every α ∈ SL2 (Q). Indeed, by Lemma 2.2(iii) every element α of SL2(Q) can be r s written α = βγ with β ∈ SL2 (Z) and γ of the form γ = . Therefore 0 t (3.4d) for α = βγ can easily be derived from the case with β in place of α.

14

I. PRELIMINARIES

For β ∈ Gp(n, Q) we easily see that β −1 Γ β is a congruence subgroup, and M k (Γ )k β = M k (β −1 Γ β) provided ν(β) > 0. We put ∞ Mk Γ (N ) . (3.5) Mk = N =1

3.2. Let us now explain why (3.4c) is unnecessary if n > 1. Let Γ be a congruence subgroup of Γ (1). Then Γ (N ) ⊂ Γ for some N ∈ Z, > 0, and so there is a Z-lattice M in Sn (Z) and also a subgroup U of SLn (Z) of ﬁnite index such that 1n b a 0 b ∈ M ⊂ Γ, a ∈ U ⊂ Γ. 0 1n 0 t a−1 Therefore if f ∈ Mk (Γ ), then by (1.17b) and (1.17c) we have (3.6a)

f (z + b) = f (z) for every b ∈ M,

f (az · t a) = f (z) for every a ∈ U. Let S = Sn (Q) and L = h ∈ S tr(hM ) ⊂ Z . Then L is a Z-lattice in S and (3.6a) guarantees an expansion of the form (3.7a) f (z) = c(h)e tr(hz) (3.6b)

h∈L

with c(h) ∈ C. This will be proven in §A1.1 of the Appendix. We often put (3.7b) f (z) = c(h)e tr(hz) h∈S

by deﬁning c(h) to be 0 for h ∈ S, ∈ / L. Usually we call the right-hand side of (3.7a) or (3.7b) the Fourier expansion of f, and call the c(h) the Fourier coeﬃcients of f. Lemma 3.3. Suppose n > 1; let f be a holomorphic function on Hn of the form (3.7a) satisfying (3.6b) with a subgroup U of SLn(Z) of ﬁnite index. Then we have (3.7a) with c(h) = 0 only if h is nonnegative. The proof will be given in §A1.2 of the Appendix. Similar results can be proved for the Fourier expansion of an automorphic form of a more general type; see [S97, Propositions A4.2 and A4.5] and [S00, Proposition 5.7]. In fact, we do not need Lemma 3.3 in this book, since the modular forms in our later treatment in the case n > 1 will always be given explicitly, and so they have expansions of type (3.7a) with c(h) = 0 only for nonnegative h.

CHAPTER II

THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

4. Classical theta functions 4.1. We deﬁne the classical theta function θ and its modiﬁcation ϕ by e 2−1 · t gzg + t g(u + s) , (4.1) θ(u, z; r, s) = g−r∈Zn

ϕ(u, z; r, s) = e 2−1 · t u(z − z)−1 u θ(u, z; r, s).

(4.2)

Here u ∈ Cn , z ∈ Hn , and r, s ∈ Rn . To prove the convergence of the inﬁnite series of (4.1), put g = h + r with h ∈ Zn and y = Im(z); take compact subsets U of Cn and Z of Hn . Then for ﬁxed r, s ∈ Rn , u ∈ U, and z ∈ Z we easily see that Re πi · t gzg + 2πi · t g(u + s) = −π · t hyh + t hv + w with v ∈ Rn and w ∈ R in some compact sets depending on r, s, U, and Z. Let λ be the smallest eigenvalue of πy. Then π · t hyh ≥ λ · t hh, and so the sum of (4.1) is majorized by n exp(−λ · t hh + t hv + w) = ew exp(−λk 2 + kvj ), h∈Zn

j=1 k∈Z

where vj is the jth component of v. Therefore we see that the right-hand side of (4.1) is locally uniformly convergent on Cn × Hn , and so deﬁnes a holomorphic function in (u, z). The function θ(u, z; r, s) is called Riemann’s theta function. By purely formal calculations we can easily verify (4.3) (4.4) (4.5)

θ(u + za + b, z; r, s) = e − 2−1 · t aza − t a(u + b + s) θ(u, z; r + a, s + b)

(a, b ∈ Rn ),

θ(u + za + b, z; r, s) = e −2−1 · t aza− t au+ t rb− t sa θ(u, z; r, s)

(a, b ∈ Zn ),

θ(u, z; r + a, s + b) = e(t rb)θ(u, z; r, s) = θ(u+b, z; r, s)

(a, b ∈ Zn ).

G. Shimura, Modular Forms: Basics and Beyond, Springer Monographs in Mathematics, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-2125-2_2, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

15

16

II. THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

The function θ(u, z; r, s) was introduced by Riemann for the purpose of studying abelian integrals on an algebraic curve. In fact, these theta functions are essential in the geometric investigation of abelian varieties. In the present book, however, we merely employ them as a technical tool for studying automorphic forms of several types. The reader who is interested in their geometric and other aspects may be referred to [S98] and earlier articles by various authors cited there. 4.2. Let us now put (4.6) Γnθ = Γ θ = γ ∈ Γ (1) {aγ · t bγ } ≡ {cγ · t dγ } ≡ 0 (mod 2Zn ) , where {s} is the column vector consisting of the diagonal elements of s. Notice that aγ · t bγ and cγ · t dγ belong to Sn (Z) by (1.2a). We note an easy fact: (4.7) For s ∈ Sn (Z) we have t

xsx ∈ 2Z for every x ∈ Zn ⇐⇒ {s} ∈ 2Zn =⇒ {t ysy} ∈ 2Zn for every y ∈ Znn .

Clearly Γ (2) ⊂ Γ θ . Put F (x, y) = x · t y for x, y ∈ Z1n . By (1.2c) we have F (x, y)γ − F (x, y) = xaγ · t bγ · t x + ycγ · t dγ · t y + 2xbγ · t cγ · t y for γ ∈ Γ (1), and so we see that (4.8a) Γ θ = γ ∈ Γ (1) F (x, y)γ − F (x, y) ∈ 2Z for every x, y ∈ Z1n . This shows that Γ θ is a subgroup of Γ (1). Taking γ −1 in place of γ, from (1.2b) we see that (4.8b) Γ θ = γ ∈ Γ (1) {t aγ cγ } ≡ {t bγ dγ } ≡ 0 (mod 2Zn ) . We can let Sp(n, R) act on Cn × Hn by the rule (4.9) γ(u, z) = t μγ (z)−1 u, γz for γ ∈ Sp(n, R), u ∈ Cn , and z ∈ Hn . From (1.7) we obtain (βγ)(u, z) = β γ(u, z) for β, γ ∈ Sp(n, R); also 12n gives the identity map on Cn × Hn . Lemma 4.3. (i) μγ (z)−1 cγ ∈ Sn (C) for every γ ∈ Sp(n, R) and z ∈ Hn . (ii) Let κ(u, z) = t u(z − z¯)−1 u for u ∈ Cn and z ∈ Hn . Then (4.10) κ γ(u, z) − κ(u, z) = −t uμγ (z)−1 cγ u for every γ ∈ Sp(n, R). Proof. Put pz (u, v) = t u(z − z¯)−1 v for u, v ∈ Cn . Then pz (u, v) = pz (v, u) and κ(u, z) = pz (u, u). From (1.16) we obtain (4.11)

z) (γz − γ z¯)−1 = μγ (z)(z − z¯)−1 · t μγ (¯

for every γ ∈ Sp(n, R). Therefore

4. CLASSICAL THETA FUNCTIONS

17

pγz t μγ (z)−1 u, t μγ (z)−1 v) = t uμγ (z)−1 (γz − γ z¯)−1 · t μγ (z)−1 v z ) · t μγ (z)−1 v. = t u(z − z¯)−1 · t μγ (¯ z ) = μγ (z) − cγ (z − z¯), we have t μγ (¯ z ) · t μγ (z)−1 = 1n − (z − z¯) · Since μγ (¯ t −1 cγ · μγ (z) . Thus pγz t μγ (z)−1 u, t μγ (z)−1 v) − pz (u, v) = −t u · t cγ · t μγ (z)−1 v.

t

Since the left-hand side is symmetric in (u, v), we see that t cγ · t μγ (z)−1 ∈ Sn (C), which proves (i). Putting u = v, we obtain (ii). Here we add a more direct proof of (i). We have cγ · t μγ (z) = cγ z · t cγ + cγ · t dγ ∈ Sn (C), as can be seen from (1.2a). Thus μγ (z)−1 cγ = μγ (z)−1 cγ · t μγ (z) · t μγ (z)−1 ∈ Sn (C) as expected. Theorem 4.4. (i) For every γ ∈ Γ (1) we have (4.12) θ γ(u, z); r, s) = ζ · jγ (z)1/2 e 2−1 · t uμγ (z)−1 cγ u θ(u, z; r , s ) with a constant ζ ∈ T depending on r, s, γ, and a suitable choice of a branch of jγ (z)1/2 , and

1 {t ac} r r t γ + , = s s 2 {t bd} where the symbol {∗} is deﬁned in §4.2. (ii) For every γ ∈ Γ θ there is a holomorphic function hγ (z) in z ∈ Hn , written also h(γ, z), such that hγ (z)2 = ζ · jγ (z) with a constant ζ ∈ T and (4.13) θ γ(u, z); r, s) = e 2−1 (t rs − t r s ) hγ (z)e 2−1 · t uμγ (z)−1 cγ u θ(u, z; r , s )

r r t = γ with . s s (iii) hγ (z)4 = jγ (z)2 if γ ∈ Γ (2). These formulas are classical (see [KP92], for example). We will give a shorter proof by proving (4.12) for some special γ in §4.9, and the remaining statements in Section A1 of the Appendix. Putting u = 0, from (4.12) and (4.13) we obtain (4.14) (4.15)

θ(0, γz; r, s) = ζ · jγ (z)1/2 θ(0, z; r , s ) if γ ∈ Γ (1), θ(0, γz; r, s) = e 2−1 (t rs − t r s hγ (z)θ(0, z; r , s ) if γ ∈ Γ θ ,

where (r , s ) is as in (4.12) and (r , s ) is as in (4.13). 4.5. Put q(u, z) = e 2−1 · t u(z − z¯)−1 u . Then from (4.10) we obtain (4.16) q γ(u, z) = q(u, z)e − 2−1 · t uμγ (z)−1 cγ u . We now consider ϕ of (4.2). Since ϕ(u, z; r, s) = q(u, z)θ(u, z; r, s), we easily see that (4.12) and (4.13) are equivalent to

18

II. THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

(4.17) (4.18)

ϕ γ(u, z); r, s = ζ · jγ (z)1/2 ϕ(u, z; r , s ), ϕ γ(u, z); r, s = e 2−1 (t rs − t r s ) hγ (z)ϕ(u, z; r , s ).

Thus the transformation formulas for ϕ under (u, z) → γ(u, z) are simpler than those for θ. It is mainly for this reason that we consider ϕ in addition to θ. 4.6. Let us now put (4.19)

θ(z) =

e 2−1 · t gzg

(z ∈ Hn ).

g∈Zn

Then θ(z) = θ(0, z; 0, 0) = ϕ(0, z; 0, 0), and so from (4.13) we obtain (4.20)

θ(γz) = hγ (z)θ(z)

(γ ∈ Γ θ ),

and consequently h(βγ, z) = hβ (γz)hγ (z)

(4.21)

(β, γ ∈ Γ θ ).

Clearly θ(az · t a) = θ(z + b) = θ(z) for a ∈ GLn (Z) and b ∈ 2Sn (Z), and so hα = 1 for α = diag[a, t a−1 ], a ∈ GLn (Z),

1 b , b ∈ 2Sn (Z), hβ = 1 for β = 0 1

(4.22a) (4.22b)

h−γ = hγ for every γ ∈ Γ θ .

(4.22c)

In the following theorem we will see that h2γ coincides with jγ if γ ∈ Γ (4). For every congruence subgroup Γ of Γ θ we denote by M 1/2 (Γ ) the set of all holomorphic functions f on Hn such that f 2 ∈ M 1 and f (γz) = hγ (z)f (z) for every γ ∈ Γ.

(4.23)

In fact, the condition f 2 ∈ M 1 follows from (4.23) if n > 1. Indeed, if (4.23) is satisﬁed, then f (γz)2 = jγ (z)f (z)2 for every γ ∈ Γ ∩ Γ (4), which implies that f 2 ∈ M 1 . If f ∈ M 1/2 (Γ ), then f has expansion (3.7a) with c(h) = 0 only for nonnegative h. Indeed, from (4.22a, b) we see that f satisﬁes (3.6a, b) for suitable M and U, and so we have at least an expansion of type (3.7a). If n > 1, Lemma 3.3 gives the desired result. If n = 1, the condition f 2 ∈ M 1 implies condition (3.4d), as will be explained in §5.1. In fact, we will introduce in §5.1 modular forms of weight k for an arbitrary k ∈ 2−1 Z and will discuss (3.4d) in that context. We put ∞ (4.24) M 1/2 = M 1/2 Γ (2N ) . N =1

Theorem 4.7. (1) If γ ∈ Γ θ and det(dγ ) = 0, then t e − t xd−1 e xbγ d−1 (4.25) lim hγ (z) = γ cγ x/2 = γ x/2 , z→0

x∈A

x∈B

4. CLASSICAL THETA FUNCTIONS

where A = Zn /t dγ Zn and B = Zn /dγ Zn . (2) If γ ∈ Γ

θ

19

2

and det(dγ ) is odd, then hγ (z) =

−1 jγ (z). In det(dγ )

particular, hγ (z)2 = jγ (z) for every γ ∈ Γ (4). (3) hι (z) = det(−iz)1/2 with the branch of the square root such that hι (z) > 0 for Re(z) = 0. (4) Let α ∈ Gp+ (n, Q) and r(z) = jα (z)1/2 with any choice of a branch. Then there is a congruence subgroup Δ of Γ θ such that h(αγα−1 , αz) = r(γz)h(γ, z)r(z)−1 for every γ ∈ Δ. We will prove the ﬁrst two assertions in Section A1 of the Appendix; (3) will be proven in §4.9 and (4) in §5.3. Clearly (2) implies Theorem 4.4(iii). Once (2) of the above theorem is established, we see from (4.14) and (4.15) that θ(0, z; r, s) as a function of z belongs to M 1/2 if r, s ∈ Qn . If n = 1, condition (3.4d) for θ(0, z; r, s)2 follows from (4.14). We will often consider det(−iz)±1/2 in our later treatment. We use the convention that it always means the function as in (3) above and its inverse. 4.8. Let us now recall some elementary facts on Fourier analysis. For f ∈ L1 (Rn ) we deﬁne its Fourier transform fˆ by f (y)e(−t xy)dy (x ∈ Rn ), (4.26) fˆ(x) = Rn

where we consider x and y column vectors, so that t xy = nν=1 xν yν , and dy is the standard volume element of Rn . Then fˆ is a continuous function. If f is continuous, then we have (4.27) f (r + g) = (r ∈ Rn ), fˆ(h)e(t hr) g∈Zn

h∈Zn

provided both sides converge absolutely and uniformly. This is called the Poisson summation formula (see [S07, Theorem 2.3], for example). If we exchange f for fˆ, then we obtain f (h)e(−t hr) (r ∈ Rn ). (4.27a) fˆ(r + g) = g∈Zn

h∈Zn

It is well known that the function exp(−πx2 ) is its own Fourier transform, that is, (4.28) exp(−πx2 )e(−xt)dx = exp(−πt2 ). R

For a short proof, see [S07, pp. 14–15]. An n-dimensional version of (4.28) can be given as follows: (4.29) exp − πh[x] e(−t vx)dx = det(h)−1/2 exp − πh−1 [v] Rn

(v ∈ Rn , 0 < h ∈ Sn (R)),

20

II. THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

where h[x] = t xhx. This can be proved by taking a real matrix α such that t αhα = 1n and replacing x by α−1 x, which reduces the problem to (4.28). From this we obtain (4.30) e 2−1 z[x] e(−tvx)dx = det(−iz)−1/2 e − 2−1z −1 [v] Rn

(v ∈ Rn , z ∈ Hn ).

Indeed, if z = ih with 0 < h ∈ Sn (R), this is exactly (4.29). Now the lefthand side of (4.30) is convergent and deﬁnes a holomorphic function in z; the right-hand side is clearly holomorphic in z. Since they coincide on “the imaginary axis” of Hn , we obtain (4.30) on the whole Hn . 4.9. We now prove formula (4.12) for the elements γ of Γ (1) of the forms

0 −1 1 b a 0 . , , (4.31) 1 0 0 1 0 d If γ = diag[a, d] ∈ Γ (1), then d = t a−1 ∈ GLn (Z) and γ(z) = az · t a, and so we easily see that θ(au, az · t a; r, s) = θ(u, z; t ar, a−1 s). 1 b Next, if γ = ∈ Γ (1), then t b = b and γ(z) = z + b. Observing that 0 1 t xbx/2 ≡ t x{b}/2 (mod Z) if x ∈ Zn (with {∗} deﬁned as in §4.2), we obtain (4.33) θ(u, z + b; r, s) = e − 2−1(t rbr + t r{b}) θ u, z; r, s + br + 2−1 {b} ,

0 −1 , then γ(z) = which is (4.12) for the present γ. Finally, if γ = 1 0 −z −1 . To discuss this case, we ﬁrst put v = y − u − s in (4.30) with real vectors the Fourier transform fˆ of the function f (x) = −1 y, u,t s, and consider e 2 z[x] + x(u + s) . Then (4.30) shows that fˆ(y) = det(−iz)−1/2 e − 2−1 z −1 [y − u − s] . (4.32)

Applying the Poisson summation formula (4.27) to the present case we obtain (4.34) det(−iz)1/2e 2−1 z −1 [u] θ(u, z; r, s) = e(t rs)θ(z −1 u, −z −1 ; −s, r) for real u, and so for all u ∈ Cn , since both sides are holomorphic in u. Consequently, we know that (4.12) holds for γ of the forms of (4.31). Taking u = r = s = 0 in (4.34), we obtain (4.34a)

det(−iz)1/2 θ(z) = θ(−z −1 ),

which gives Theorem 4.7(3). 4.10. Let us now look more closely at the special case n = 1. In this case our function takes the form

4. CLASSICAL THETA FUNCTIONS

(4.35)

θ(u, z; r, s) =

21

e 2−1 (m + r)2 z + (m + r)(u + s) , m∈Z

where u ∈ C, z ∈ H1 , and r, s ∈ R; in particular, (4.36) θ(z) = θ(0, z; 0, 0) = e(m2 z/2). m∈Z

The function of (4.35) satisﬁes the diﬀerential equation (4.37)

∂θ(u, z; r, s) ∂ 2 θ(u, z; r, s) = 4πi · . ∂u2 ∂z

Also, we have (4.38)

Γ = Γ (2) ∪ Γ (2)ι, θ

0 ι= 1

−1 . 0

a b Indeed, that Γ (2)∪Γ (2)ι ⊂ Γ can easily be seen. Suppose γ = ∈ Γθ c d and a ∈ / 2Z. Then c ∈ 2Z and ad − 1 ∈ 2Z. Thus d ∈ / 2Z and b ∈ 2Z, and so θ / Γ (2). Then a ∈ 2Z, and so b ∈ / 2Z. Since γ ∈ Γ (2). Suppose γ ∈ Γ and γ ∈ b = aγι , we see that γι ∈ Γ (2). This proves (4.38). From Theorem 4.7(3) we obtain θ

(4.39)

hι (z) = (−iz)1/2 ,

where the branch of (−iz)1/2 is chosen so that it is a positive real number if z = iy with 0 < y ∈ R. We use this convention throughout the present book. Let us now show that

2c a b 1/2 (cz + d) (4.40) hγ (z) = ε−1 if γ = ∈ Γ (2). d c d d Here the branch of (cz + d)1/2 is taken so that −π/2 < arg(cz + d)1/2 ≤ π/2, which means that ⎧√ ⎪ d if d > 0, ⎪ ⎨ (4.41a) lim (cz + d)1/2 = i |d| if d < 0 and c ≥ 0, z→0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ − i |d| if d < 0 and c < 0;

2c is the symbol deﬁned in (0.4) and (0.5), and εd is deﬁned by (as already d done in (0.6)) 1 if d − 1 ∈ 4Z, (4.41b) εd = i if d + 1 ∈ 4Z. To prove (4.40), let us assume c = 0, since the case c = 0 is easy. Take the branch of (cz + d)1/2 as speciﬁed, and let q = limz→0 (cz + d)1/2 . By Theorem 4.7(2), hγ (z)2 = ±jγ (z), and so we can put hγ (z) = η(cz + d)1/2 with η such that η 2 = ±1. By (4.25) we obtain

22

II. THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

ηq =

|d|

e − cx /(2d) = e − 2cy 2 /d = G(−2c, d)

2

y=1

x∈Z/dZ

−2c εd d1/2 , d

= with G(∗. ∗) of (2.5). Suppose d > 0; then by (2.9), ηd

2c , which proves (4.40) when d > 0. If d < 0, employing and so η = ε−1 d d

2c (2.13), we obtain qη = ε−d |d|. Comparing this with (4.41a), we −d obtain the desired result. We can also use the fact hγ = h−γ . However, for all practical purposes we need the formula only when d > 0; in fact, it is not advisable to use it when d < 0. By (4.5), θ(u, z; r, s) up to a factor of T depends only on r, s modulo Z. In particular, there are four functions determined by r, s ∈ {0, 1/2}. We can replace 1/2 by −1/2 by multiplying the function by a root of unity. Now the explicit forms of these four functions are given as follows: e(m2 z/2)e(mu), (4.42a) θ(u, z; 0, 0) = 1/2

m∈Z

(4.42b) θ(u, z; 0, 1/2) =

(−1)m e(m2 z/2)e(mu),

m∈Z

(4.42c) θ(u, z; 1/2, 0) =

e (2m + 1)2 z/8 e (2m + 1)u/2 ,

m∈Z

(4.42d) θ(u, z; 1/2, −1/2) = −i

(−1)m e (2m + 1)2 z/8)e (2m + 1)u/2 .

m∈Z

These were introduced by Jacobi, and so it is natural to call them Jacobi’s theta functions. They are traditionally denoted by ϑν (u, z) with 0 ≤ ν ≤ 3, but the numbering depends on the author. Formulas (4.3), (4.4), (4.5), and (4.13) are of course valid for these, and the explicit transformation formulas for ϑν are given in any textbook on elliptic functions. We do not need these ϑν in this book, but we note them here for the purpose of giving a perspective that the functions ϑν and their transformation formulas are merely special cases obtained by taking n to be 1 and substituting 0 or ±1/2 for r or s, and this point is worthy of emphasis. We add here a few facts about ∂θ/∂u. Namely, put (4.43)

θ∗ (z; r, s) = (2πi)−1 (∂θ/∂u)(0, z; r, s).

Then (4.44)

θ∗ (z; r, s) =

(m + r)e 2−1 (m + r)2 z + (m + r)s ,

m∈Z

and from (4.13) we immediately obtain (4.45) θ∗ (γz; r, s) = e (rs − r s )/2 jγ (z)hγ (z)θ∗ (z; r , s )

if

γ ∈ Γ θ,

4. CLASSICAL THETA FUNCTIONS

23

where [r s ] = [r s]γ. In particular, put θ∗ (z) = θ∗ (z; 0, 0); then me(m2 z/2), (4.46) θ ∗ (z) = m∈Z ∗

θ (γz) = jγ (z)hγ (z)θ∗ (z)

(4.47)

if

γ ∈ Γ θ.

4.11. Returning to the case with n ≥ 1, we consider the functions of the forms (4.48a) ϕ(u, z; λ) = e 2−1 · t u(z − z¯)−1 u θ(u, z; λ), λ(ξ)e 2−1 · t ξzξ + t ξu . (4.48b) θ(u, z; λ) = ξ∈Qn

Here u ∈ C and z ∈ Hn as before; λ is an element of the set L (Qn ) deﬁned in §0.3. By our explanation in §0.3, θ(u, z; λ) is a ﬁnite C-linear combination of θ(u, z; r, s) with r, s ∈ Qn , and such a θ(u, z; r, s) is a special case of (4.48b). We now reformulate Theorems 4.4 and 4.7 as follows. n

Theorem 4.12. Let P be the group deﬁned in Lemma 2.2(iii). For α ∈ P Γ θ and λ ∈ L (Qn ) we can deﬁne a holomorphic function hα (z) on Hn and an element λα of L (Qn ) with the following properties: (4.49a) ϕ α(u, z); λ) = hα (z)ϕ(u, z; λα ). (4.49b)

hα (z)2 = ζjα (z) with ζ ∈ T.

(4.49c)

hα (z) = | det(dα )|1/2 if α ∈ P.

hρατ (z) = hρ (z)hα (τ z)hτ (z) if ρ ∈ P and τ ∈ Γ θ . τ (4.49e) λρατ = (λρ )α if ρ ∈ P and τ ∈ Γ θ . (4.49f) For each λ the set {α ∈ Γ θ λα = λ} is a congruence subgroup.

(4.49d)

(4.49g) Let α ∈ Sp(n, Q) and r(z) = jα (z)1/2 with any choice of a branch. n n Then for every λ ∈ L (Q ) there exists an element μ of L (Q ) such that ϕ α(u, z); λ) = r(z)ϕ(u, z; μ). Proof. We already have hγ (z) for γ ∈ Γ θ . Formula (4.18) (or rather γ its C-linear

combination) means that λ can be determined by (4.49a). For a b β= ∈ P we have β(u, z) = (t d−1 u, az · t a + bd−1 ) and q β(u, z) = 0 d q(u, z) by (4.16), and so ϕ β(u, z), λ = ϕ(u, z; λ ) with λ (ξ) = e(2−1 · t ξ · t dbξ)λ(dξ). Thus putting hβ (z) = | det(d)|1/2 and λβ = | det(d)|−1/2 e(2−1 · t t ξ · dbξ)λ(dξ), we have (4.49a) with β in place of α. We can easily verify that hβ β (z) = hβ (βz)hβ (z) and λβ β = (λβ )β for β , β ∈ P. If γ ∈ Γ θ ∩ P, then hγ = 1 by (4.22a, b), and so it coincides with hγ deﬁned for γ as an element of P. The same is true for λγ , as it is determined by (4.49a). Now given α = βγ with β ∈ P and γ ∈ Γ θ , we deﬁne hα and λα by hα (z) = hβ (γz)hγ (z) and λα = (λβ )γ . These are well deﬁned, since we have shown the consistency on

24

II. THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

Γ θ ∩ P. Then formulas (4.49a, b, c, d, e) can be veriﬁed in a straightforward n way. To prove (4.49f), it is suﬃcient to show that given r, s ∈ Q , there is a congruence subgroup Γ such that ϕ γ(u, z); r, s = hγ (z)ϕ(u, z; r, s) for every γ ∈ Γ. For that purpose take a positive integer m so that mr, ms ∈ Zn . Then for γ ∈ Γ (2m2 ) we have t rs − t r s ∈ 2Z in (4.13), and so (4.18) gives the desired result. As for (4.49g), since Sp(n, Q) is generated by P and ι as noted in Lemma 2.2(iv), successive applications of (4.49a) with elements of P and ι as α establish (4.49g). This completes the proof. Putting u = 0 in (4.48a, b) and (4.49a), we obtain λ(ξ)e(2−1 · t ξzξ), (4.50a) ϕ(0, z; λ) = θ(0, z; λ) = ξ∈Qn

(4.50b)

θ(0, αz; λ) = hα (z)θ(0, z; λα ) for every α ∈ P Γ θ .

The factors of automorphy μγ (z) and jγ (z) are deﬁned for every γ ∈ Sp(n, Q) and the “associativity” of the type (1.7) holds on the whole group Sp(n, Q), but in the case of hα (z) it is deﬁned only for α ∈ P Γ θ and the associativity holds only to the extent given by (4.49d, e). However, these are suﬃcient for practical purposes, though we always have to be careful about our calculation involving hα (z). 4.13 As generalizations of (4.43) and (4.47) when n = 1, we put λ(ξ)ξe(ξ 2 z/2) z ∈ H1 , λ ∈ L (Q) . (4.51) θ∗ (z, λ) = ξ∈Q

Since θ ∗ (z, λ) = (2πi)−1 (∂ϕ/∂u)(0, z; λ), from (4.49a) we obtain (4.52)

θ∗ (αz, λ) = hα (z)jα (z)θ∗ (z, λα )

for every α ∈ P Γ θ .

5. Modular forms of half-integral weight 5.1. By a weight (of a modular form) we mean an element of 2−1 Z; we call it an integral weight if it belongs to Z and a half-integral weight otherwise. To make our formulas short, for a weight k and α ∈ Sp(n, Q) we hereafter put k if k ∈ Z, (5.1a) [k] = k − 1/2 if k ∈ / Z, k jα (z) if k ∈ Z, (5.1b) jαk (z) = hα (z)jα (z)[k] if k ∈ / Z. / Z. We also put Here we assume that α ∈ P Γ θ when k ∈ + (5.2) Gp (n, Q) = α ∈ Gp(n, Q) ν(α) > 0 . For k, α as in (5.1b) and a function f on Hn we deﬁne a function f k α on Hn by

5. MODULAR FORMS OF HALF-INTEGRAL WEIGHT

(5.3a)

25

(f k α)(z) = jαk (z)−1 f α(z) .

This is the same as (3.1) if k ∈ Z and α ∈ Sp(n, Q). Notice that (5.3b)

f k (−1) = (−1)n[k] f.

Also, from Theorem 4.7(2) we see that

−1 −k / Z, γ ∈ Γ θ and det(dγ ) ∈ / 2Z. j k (z)−1 if k ∈ (5.3c) jγ (z) = det(dγ ) γ As for the analogue of formula (3.2b), from (1.7) and (4.21) we obtain (5.4)

f k (γδ) = (f k γ)k δ if γ, δ ∈ Γ θ and k ∈ / Z.

In fact, the last formula can be extended to the cases covered by (4.49d, e). Suppose k ∈ / Z. The symbols jαk (z) and f k α are deﬁned with no ambiguity if α ∈ P Γ θ . However, we will have to consider an arbitrary α ∈ Gp+ (n, Q). For that purpose we make the following convention: Whenever we write jα (z)−k f (αz) for α ∈ Gp+ (n, Q), the symbol jα (z)−k means any branch of the function. There is no danger in doing so, since the statement in each case is valid with any choice of a branch. Let Γ be a congruence subgroup of Sp(n, Q). For an integral weight k we deﬁned M k (Γ ) in §3.1. Suppose now k is half-integral and Γ ⊂ Γ θ . We then deﬁne M k (Γ ) to be the set of all holomorphic functions f ∈ Hn such that f k γ = f for every γ ∈ Γ and f 2 ∈ M 2k . The last condition is automatically satisﬁed if n > 1. Indeed, by Theorem 4.7(2), f 2 2k γ = f 2 for every γ ∈ Γ ∩ Γ (4), and so f 2 ∈ M 2k , since condition (3.4c) is unnecessary if n > 1. We call an element of M k (Γ ) a modular form of weight k with respect to Γ. Suppose n = 1 and k is half-integral. Let f be a holomorphic function on H1 such that f k γ = f for every γ ∈ Γ. Then f 2 ∈ M 2k if and only if (3.4d) is satisﬁed with any choice of a branch of (cz + d)−k . Indeed, for such an f satisfying (3.4d) we have f 2 2k γ = f 2 for every γ ∈ Γ ∩ Γ (4), 2 since hγ (z)jγ (z)k−1/2 = jγ (z)2k for γ ∈ Γ (4), and (3.4d) is satisﬁed with (f 2 , 2k) in place of (f, k), and so f 2 ∈ M 2k . Conversely, suppose f 2 ∈ M 2k and f k γ = f for every γ ∈ Γ. Let 1 m with α ∈ SL2 (Q) and let r(z) be a branch of jα (z)k . Let γ = 0 1 0 < m ∈ 4Z. We can ﬁnd m such that γ ∈ Γ ∩ α−1 Γ α ∩ α−1 Γ (4)α. Put δ = αγα−1 and κ = 2k. Then κ ∈ Z, δα = αγ, and jδ (αz)κ jα (z)κ = jδα (z)κ = jαγ (z)κ = jα (γz)κ jγ (z)κ , which means that hδ (αz)κ r(z) = ±r(γz)hγ (z)κ . Put g(z) = r(z)−1 f (αz). Since δ ∈ Γ ∩ Γ (4) and hγ = 1, we have g(γz) = r(γz)−1 f αγ(z) = r(γz)−1 f δα(z) = r(γz)−1 hδ (αz)κ f (αz) = ±r(z)−1 ·f (αz) = ±g(z). Thus g(z + m) = ±g(z), and so g(z + 2m) = g(z). Con ν sequently we can put g(z) = ν∈Z c(ν)q(z) with c(ν) ∈ C and q(z) =

26

II. THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

e(z/(2m)). If f 2 ∈ M κ , then (3.4d) applied to f 2 implies that g 2 as a function of q(z) has no singularity at q(z) = 0. Then the same must be true for g(z), and so c(ν) = 0 for ν < 0. Thus f satisﬁes (3.4d). We now put ∞ Mk Γ (2N ) . (5.5) Mk = N =1

Let k and be weights. Then for f ∈ M k and g ∈ M , we easily see that f g ∈ M k+ . Also, θ(0, z; λ) ∈ M 1/2 for every λ ∈ L (Qn ). This follows from (4.49a) and (4.49f) if n > 1. Now suppose n = 1. Putting u = 0 in (4.49g), we ﬁnd that (3.4d) is satisﬁed with k = 1/2 and f (z) = θ(0, z; λ) as expected. If n = 1, θ∗ (z, λ) belongs to M 3/2 for every λ ∈ L (Qn ). To show this, 3/2 we ﬁrst note that θ∗ (γz, λ) = jγ (z)θ∗ (z, λ) for γ in a suitable congruence subgroup, which follows from (4.52) and (4.49f). Since θ∗ (z, λ) = (2πi)−1 ·(∂ϕ/∂u)(0, z; λ), from (4.49g) we obtain θ∗ (αz, λ) = jα (z)3/2 θ∗ (z, μ), and so θ∗ (z, λ) satisﬁes (3.4d) with k = 3/2. Thus θ∗ (z, λ) ∈ M 3/2 . Let f ∈ M k with half-integral k and n > 1. From (4.22a, b) we see that (3.6a) and (3.6b) hold for f with suitable M and U . Therefore we have an expansion of f of the form (3.7a) or (3.7b). Thus we can speak of the Fourier expansion of f in the case of half-integral k. If n = 1, we have shown that f satisﬁes (3.4d). 5.2. For k ∈ Z our deﬁnitions of f k α and M k (Γ ) in Section 3 are standard, but the case of half-integral k is not so clear-cut. Indeed, for half-integral k we could have deﬁned f k α by (f k α)(z) = hα (z)−2k f (αz) instead of (5.3a). The reason for adopting (5.3a) is that its natural generalization to the Hilbert modular case is the best deﬁnition. This of course requires a clariﬁcation, but without going into details here we refer the reader to Section 17 of the present book and [S87]. The factor of automorphy hγ of (4.40) is diﬀerent from what we introduced in [S73a], which has been employed by many researchers and which is given by

−1 c (5.6) hδ (z) = εd (cz + d)1/2 d

a b a 2b for δ = ∈ Γ (1) with c ∈ 4Z. For such a δ put γ = . Then c d c/2 d γ ∈ Γ (2) and hγ (2z) = hδ (z). In the present book for various reasons, we develop the theory by using hγ of (4.40). The formulation in terms of hδ of (5.6) can easily be obtained by means of the equality hγ (2z) = hδ (z). 5.3. Let us now prove Theorem 4.7(4). Let α and r(z) in that be as statement. We ﬁrst assume that α ∈ Sp(n, Q). Put Δλ = γ ∈ Γ θ λγ = λ

5. MODULAR FORMS OF HALF-INTEGRAL WEIGHT

27

for λ ∈ L (Qn ). By (4.49f), Δλ is a congruence subgroup of Sp(n, Q). Now take λ to be the characteristic function of Zn and take also μ as in (4.49g). Let γ ∈ Δμ ∩ α−1 Δλ α and δ = αγα−1 . Then δα = αγ, λδ = λ, μγ = μ, and ϕ δα(u, z); λ = hδ (αz)ϕ α(u, z); λ = hδ (αz)r(z)ϕ(u, z; μ). This equals ϕ αγ(u, z); λ = r(γz)ϕ γ(u, z); μ = r(γz)hγ (z)ϕ(u, z; μ). Since ϕ(u, z; μ) is a nonzero function, we obtain hδ (αz)r(z) = r(γz)hγ (z). This proves Theorem 4.7(4) for α ∈ Sp(n, Q). By (1.3) every element of Gp+ (n, Q) is the product of an element of Sp(n, Q) and an element β of the form β = diag[e1n , 1n ] with 0 < e ∈ Q. Therefore we easily see that it is suﬃcient to prove Theorem 4.7(4) when α is such a β; we may even assume that e ∈ Z. Thus our task is to show that h(βγβ −1 , βz) subgroup. Suppose n =

= hγ(z) for γ in a suitable congruence a eb a b ∈ Γ (2), and from ∈ Γ (2e); then βγβ −1 = 1 and γ = e−1 c d c d (4.40) we see that h(βγβ −1 , βz) = de hγ (z), and so h(βγβ −1 , βz) = hγ (z) if d − 1 ∈ 4eZ, which gives the desired result. If n > 1, the proof is more involved and requires some facts on the Gauss sum of a quadratic form as in (4.25). We refer the reader to [S00, Theorems 6.8 and 6.9], whose proof is given in [S00, §A2.9]. Howeve,r we need Theorem 4.7(4) only for the proof of the following lemma, which we employ only when n = 1 in the present book. Lemma 5.4. Let k be an integral or a half-integral weight. Given α ∈ Gp+ (n, Q) and f ∈ M k , put g(z) = jα (z)−k f (αz). Then g ∈ M k . For integral k this was already noted in §3.1. If k is half-integral, this is an immediate consequence of Theorem 4.7(4), and so the proof may be left to the reader. Lemma 5.5. Let ψ be a primitive or an imprimitive character modulo r, and let ψ(−1) = (−1)μ with μ = 0 or 1. Put k = (2μ + 1)/2 and ψ(m)mμ e(m2 z/2). (5.7) θψ (z) = 2−1 Then θψ ∈ M k and

m∈Z

θψ k γ = ψ(dγ )θψ for every γ ∈ Γ (2) such that cγ ∈ 2r2 Z,

0 −r−1 = ψ(−1)r−1/2 G(ψ)θψ¯ if ψ is primitive. (5.9) θψ k r 0 ∞ Proof. Notice that 2−1 m∈Z of (5.7) can be replaced by m=1 if ψ is not the principal character. If r = 1, then ψ is the principal character and θψ = 2−1 θ with θ of (4.36), and so (5.8) and (5.9) in that case follow from (4.20). Here we prove (5.8) when ψ is primitive; the general case will be settled after the proof of Lemma 7.13. Assuming that r > 1 and μ = 0, for (5.8)

28

II. THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

2 s ∈ Z put

fs (z) = m∈Z e(ms/r)e(m z/2). Then fs (z) = θ(0, z; 0, s/r). a b Let γ = ∈ Γ (2) with c ∈ 2r2 Z. By (4.15) we have c d (5.10) fs 1/2 γ = e − cds2 /(2r2 ) θ(0, z; cs/r, ds/r) = θ(0, z; 0, ds/r) = fds . Now by (2.3a) we have r ¯ ¯ ψ (z). ¯ ψ(m)e(m2 z/2) = 2G(ψ)θ ψ(s)f s (z) = G(ψ) s=1

m∈Z

This combined with (5.10) shows that r r ¯ ψ 1/2 γ = ¯ ¯ ¯ 2G(ψ)θ γ = ψ(s)f ψ(s)f s 1/2 ds = 2G(ψ)ψ(d)θψ . s=1

s=1

¯ = 0 as can be seen from (2.3c). This proves (5.8) when μ = 0, since G(ψ) ∗ Next, suppose μ = 1; let gs (z) = θ (z; 0, s/r) with θ∗ of (4.44). Then k = r ¯ ¯ 3/2 and s=1 ψ(s)g s = 2G(ψ)θψ . Also, we see from (4.45) that gs k γ = gds . Therefore we obtain (5.8) when μ = 1 in the same manner as in the case μ = 0. As for (5.9) when μ = 1, from (4.45) we obtain gs (ιz) = jιk (z)θ∗ (z; s/r, 0), and so r ∗ 2 ¯ ¯ ψ (−1/r2 z) = j k (r2 z) (r z; s/r, 0) ψ(s)θ 2G(ψ)θ ι

= r−1 jιk (r2 z)

r

s=1

¯ ψ(s)(rm + s)e (rm + s)2 z/2 = 2r2k−1 jιk (z)θψ¯ (z).

s=1 m∈Z

0 −r−1 ¯ −1 θ ¯ For α = we have jαk (z) = rk jιk (z) and so θψ k α = r1/2 G(ψ) ψ r 0 −1/2 = ψ(−1)r G(ψ)θψ¯ by (2.3b, c), which gives (5.9) for μ = 1. The case μ = 0 can be proved by employing (4.15) instead of (4.45).

3 and 5.6. We note here an interesting special case. Take ϕ(m) = m put ∞

3 (5.11) η(z) = θϕ (z/12) = e(m2 z/24). m m=1 √ In this case r = 12 and G(ϕ) = 2 3 by (2.4a), and so from (5.9) we obtain η1/2 ι = η. Also, m2 − 1 ∈ 24Z for every integer m prime to 6, and so η(z + 1) = e(1/24)η(z). Employing these relations we can easily prove ∞ (5.12) η(z) = Δ(z)1/24 = e(z/24) 1 − e(nz) , n=1

24 ∞ where Δ(z) = e(z) n=1 1 − e(nz) . We leave the proof to the reader. In fact, it was explained in [S07, p. 19]. We also note an easy fact:

5. MODULAR FORMS OF HALF-INTEGRAL WEIGHT

(5.12a)

29

η1/2 γ = η for every γ ∈ Γ (1) such that bγ , cγ ∈ 24Z.

Lemma 5.7. For every congruence subgroup Γ of Γ θ and k ∈ 2−1 Z we have M k (Γ ) = {0} if k < 0 and M 0 (Γ ) = C. Proof. Since f 2 ∈ M 2k for f ∈ M k , it is suﬃcient to treat the case k ∈ Z. If n = 1, our assertions are well known, and so we assume that n > 1. We do not need this lemma for our later treatment, but we prove here that aα 1 n b α 1n M k (Γ ) = {0} if k < 0. For α ∈ SL2 (Q) put σα = ; put also cα 1n dα 1n p(z) =z1n for z ∈ H1 . Then σα ∈ Sp(n, Q), p(z) ∈ Hn , σα p(z) = p α(z) , subgroup and j σα , p(z) = jα (z)n . Let f ∈ M k (Γ ) with a congruence Γ of Sp(n, Q) and 0 > k ∈ Z. Put Γ σ = α ∈ SL (Z) ∈ Γ and 1 2 α g(z) = f p(z) for z ∈ H1 .Then Γ1 is a congruence subgroup of SL2 (Q) and (gnk α) p(z) = (f k σα ) p(z) , and so gnk δ = g for δ ∈ Γ1 . Moreover, since f k σα ∈ M k , we see that g satisﬁes (3.4d). Therefore g ∈ M k (Γ1 ), and so g = 0. This means that f p(z) = 0 for every z ∈ H1 . Given w ∈ Hn , as of Section 1, we can ﬁnd an element of the form β =

shown at the end 1 s a 0 with a ∈ GLn (R) and s ∈ Sn (R) such that β(i1n ) = w. 0 1 0 t a−1 Since GLn (Q) and Sn (Q) are dense in GLn (R) and Sn (R), respectively, we can ﬁnd an element δ of P that is in any small neighborhood of β. In other words, the set δ(i1 n ) δ ∈ P is dense in Hn . Put f1 = f k δ. Then f1 ∈ M k , and so f1 p(z) = 0, which means that f δ(i1n ) = 0. Since this is so for every δ ∈ P, we obtain f = 0 as expected. 5.8. Let f ∈ M k with 0 ≤ k ∈ 2−1 Z. Given α ∈ Sp(n, Q), by Lemmas 5.4 and 3.3 we have cα (h)e tr(hz) , S = Sn (Q), jα (z)−k f (αz) = 0≤h∈S

with cα (h) ∈ C. We call f a cusp form if cα (h) = 0 only when h > 0 for every α, and we denote by S k (Γ ) the set of all cusp forms contained in M k (Γ ). We put ∞ (5.13) Sk = S k Γ (2N ) . N =1

From our deﬁnition and Lemma 5.4 we easily see that if f ∈ S k , then jα (z)−k f (αz) ∈ S k for every α ∈ Gp+ (n, Q). Clearly S 0 = {0}. We note that θ∗ (z, λ) ∈ S 3/2 for every λ ∈ L (Q). Indeed, since Γ (1) is generated by ι and Γ (1) ∩ P1 , from (4.52) we see that jα (z)−3/2 θ∗ (αz, λ) = θ∗ (z, μ) with some μ ∈ L (Q) for every α ∈ SL2 (Q). Clearly θ∗ (z, μ) has 0 as its constant term, and so θ∗ (z, λ) ∈ S 3/2 . Lemma 5.9. Let f (z) = h∈S c(h)e tr(hz) ∈ M k (Γ ) with k ∈ 2−1 Z and a congruence subgroup Γ, where S = Sn (Q). Put

30

II. THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

(5.14)

fρ (z) =

c(h)e tr(hz) .

h∈S

Then fρ (z) = f (−¯ z ) and fρ ∈ M k (εΓ ε−1) with ε = diag[−1n , 1n ]. Moreover, (5.15)

jαk (z) = jαk (−¯ z ),

(5.16)

fρ k α = (f k α )ρ

for α ∈ Sp(n, Q), whenever jαk (z) is deﬁned, where α = εαε−1 . z ) and α ∈ Sp(n, Q); also, α ∈ P Γ θ if Proof. Clearly, fρ (z) = f (−¯ z ), jα (z) = jα (−¯ z ), and α ∈ P Γ θ . Moreover, −α(z) = α (−¯ (5.17) fρ (αz) = f − αz = f α (−¯ z) . Take θ as f. Then θρ = θ and (5.17) shows that if α ∈ Γ θ , then hα (z)θ(z) = hα (−¯ z )θ(z), and so hα (z) = hα (−¯ z ), which is also true for α ∈ P because of (4.49c). Thus hα (z) = hα (−¯ z ) for every α ∈ P Γ θ by (4.49d), and we obtain (5.15). Then (5.16) follows immediately from (5.15). Take α in εΓ ε−1 in (5.17). Then α ∈ Γ and we obtain fρ (αz) = jαk (−¯ z )f (−¯ z ) = jαk (z)fρ (z), −1 and so fρ ∈ M k (εΓ ε ) as expected. This completes the proof. 6. Holomorphic and nonholomorphic modular forms on H1 6.1. Hereafter we will mainly be concerned with functions on H1 , and so we write simply H for H1 . We also put (6.1a) GL+ 2 (R) = α ∈ GL2 (R) det(α) > 0 , (6.1b) (6.1c)

+ GL+ 2 (Q) = GL2 (R) ∩ GL2 (Q), P = α ∈ SL2 (Q) cα = 0 .

Hereafter we work with GL2 (R) and H1 ; the group P is Pn (with n = 1) of Lemma 2.2(iii). Formulas (1.10) and (1.16) in the case n = 1 take the forms: (6.2)

d(αz) = jα (z)−2 dz for every α ∈ SL2 (R),

(6.3)

Im(αz) = |jα (z)|−2 Im(z) for every α ∈ SL2 (R).

Writing simply y = Im(z), from (6.2) and (6.3) we see that y −2 dz ∧ d¯ z is z = −2idx ∧ dy, we obtain invariant under SL2 (R). Since dz ∧ d¯ (6.4)

(y −2 dx ∧ dy) ◦ α = y −2 dx ∧ dy for every α ∈ SL2 (R).

Thus the form y −2 dx∧dy gives a measure on H invariant under SL2 (R). To make our formulas short, we put (6.5)

dz = y −2 dxdy,

6. HOLOMORPHIC AND NONHOLOMORPHIC MODULAR FORMS ON H1 31

and deﬁne a measure μ on H by (6.5a)

μ(A) =

dz for A ⊂ H. It is well known that μ(Γ (1)\H = π/3, and so (6.6) μ(Γ \H) = Γ (1) : {±1}Γ π/3 if Γ ⊂ Γ (1). ∞ Lemma 6.2. Let f ∈ Mk and let f (z) = m=0 cm e(mz/N ) with cm ∈ C and 0 < N ∈ Z. Then the following assertions hold: (i) There exists a positive number A such that |f (z)| ≤ A(1 + y −k ) on the whole H, where y = Im(z). Moreover, if f is a cusp form, then A can be chosen so that |f (z)| ≤ Ay −k/2 on the whole H. (ii) cm = O(mk ). (iii) cm = O(mk/2 ) if f is a cusp form. A

Proof. For the proof of these facts when k ∈ Z the reader is referred to [S07, Lemmas 1.7 and 1.8]. To prove (i) when k ∈ / Z, take (f 2 , 2k) as (f, k) in (i). Then we obtain the desired fact for (f, k). To prove (ii) and (iii), we ﬁrst note, for 0 ≤ m ∈ Z, N f (z)e(−mx/N )dx. N cm exp(−2πmy/N ) = 0

Take y = 1/m. Then (ii) and (iii) follow from (i). Results of the same type as the above lemma hold in the case n > 1. The case of cusp form is easy, but there are some nontrivial technical problems in the case of non-cusp forms; see [S00, Proposition A6.4 and formula (A6.7)] and the proof given there. 6.3. The notion of a cusp can be deﬁned for a certain class of discrete subgroups of SL2 (R) that includes congruence subgroups of SL2 (Q). Since we deal only with such congruence subgroups in this book, a cusp is a point of Q ∪ {∞}, and vice versa. Then the map α → α(∞) with α ∈ SL2 (Q) is a bijection of SL2 (Q)/P onto Q ∪ {∞}, and so Γ \(Q ∪ {∞}) is the set of Γ -equivalence classes of cusps, which is in one-to-one correspondence with Γ \SL2 (Q)/P. We often use P \SL2 (Q)/Γ instead, by considering the inverse map. For a congruence subgroup Γ of SL2 (Z) and a weight k we denote by Ck (Γ ) the set of all C ∞ functions f (z) on H such that (6.7)

f k γ = f for every γ ∈ Γ ;

/ Z. Then from (6.3) we see that we assume that Γ ⊂ Γ θ if k ∈ (6.8)

|y k/2 f (z)| is a Γ -invariant function on H.

32

II. THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

Therefore we consider more generally a C ∞ function f (z) satisfying (6.8) for some Γ and k. We say that such an f is slowly increasing or rapidly decreasing at every cusp according as the following condition (6.9a) or (6.9b) is satisﬁed: (6.9a) For every α ∈ SL2 (Q) there exist positive constants A, B, and c depending on f and α such that |Im(αz)k/2 f (αz)| < Ay c if y = Im(z) > B. (6.9b) For every α ∈ SL2 (Q) and c ∈ R, > 0, there exist positive constants A and B depending on f, α, and c such that |Im(αz)k/2 f (αz)| < Ay −c if y = Im(z) > B. Notice that these are conditions on |f |, rather than on f. Since SL2 (Q) = Γ (1)P by Lemma 2.2(iii), we can ﬁnd a ﬁnite set X such that (6.10) SL2 (Q) = Γ ξP, X ⊂ Γ (1). ξ∈X

Then we easily see that condition (6.9a) or (6.9b) is satisﬁed for every α ∈ SL2 (Q) if it is satisﬁed for every α ∈ X. Also, if f satisﬁes (6.9a) or (6.9b), so does jβ (z)−k f (βz) for every β ∈ GL+ 2 (Q). k/2 Since |Im(αz) f (αz)| is invariant under z → z+m with a positive integer m and the set {x + iy 0 ≤ x ≤ m, B ≤ y ≤ B} is compact for every B < B, we easily see that changing A in (6.9a, b) suitably, we can replace B in (6.9a, b) by an arbitrary positive number. We will be considering a function f (z, s) of (z, s) ∈ H × D, also written fs (z), with a domain D in C such that fs (z) for each ﬁxed s as a function of z satisﬁes (6.8) with the same Γ and k. If for every compact subset K of D, fs satisﬁes condition (6.9a) for s ∈ K with A, B, and c depending only on K and α, then we say that f is slowly increasing at every cusp locally uniformly on D (or locally uniformly in s). Lemma 6.4. (i) Let f be a holomorphic function on H belonging to Ck (Γ ). Then f ∈ M k if and only if f is slowly increasing at every cusp. (ii) For f as in (i), f ∈ S k if and only if f is rapidly decreasing at every cusp. (iii) An element of M k (Γ ) is a cusp form if the constant term of the Fourier expansion of jξ (z)−k f (ξz) is 0 for every ξ in the set X of (6.10). (iv) Let f be an element of Ck (Γ ) that is slowly increasing at every cusp. Then there exist two positive constants A and c such that |y k/2 f (x + iy)| ≤ A(y c + y −c )

for every x + iy ∈ H.

6. HOLOMORPHIC AND NONHOLOMORPHIC MODULAR FORMS ON H1 33

(v) If an element f of Ck (Γ ) is rapidly decreasing at every cusp, then |Im(z)k/2 f (z)| is bounded on the whole H. Proof. Given a holomorphic f satisfying (6.7), for α ∈ SL2 (Q) put g(z) = jα (z)−k f (αz). Then g ◦ γ = ±g for every γ ∈ α−1 Γ α ∩ P. Now (α−1 Γ α ∩ P ){±1}/{±1} is a cyclic group generated by an element of the 1 tα form with 0 < tα ∈ Q. Therefore g(z + 2tα ) = g(z), and so g(z) = 0 1 m∈Z cα (m)e(mz/rα ) with rα = 2tα and cα (m) ∈ C. Suppose f is slowly increasing at every cusp. Then |g(z)| ≤ Ay c for y > B as in (6.9a). Put q = e(z/rα ) and h(q) = m∈Z cα (m)q m . Since |q| = exp(−2πy/rα ), we see that limq→0 qh(q) = 0, which means that cα (m) = 0 for m ≤ 0. Thus f satisﬁes (3.4d), and so f ∈ Mk . Suppose f is rapidly decreasing at every cusp. Then limq→0 h(q) = 0, and so cα (0) = 0. Thus f ∈ S k . Conversely, given f ∈ Mk , let jα (z)−k f (αz) = ∞ α ) as in m=0 cα (m)e(mz/r ∞ (3.4d). Put q = e(z/rα ). Then jα−k f (αz) = h(q) with h(q) = m=0 cα (m)q m . Since h is a holomorphic function for |q| < 1, there is a constant A such that |h(q)| ≤ A for |q| < 1/2. Thus f is slowly increasing at every cusp. Next suppose f ∈ S k ; then cα (0) = 0, and so |h(q)| ≤ A |q| for |q| < 1/2 with a positive constant A . Consequently, |Im(αz)k/2 f (αz)| < Ay k/2 exp(−2πy/rα ) if y > B with a suitable B, and so f satisﬁes (6.9b). Assertion (iii) is clear. To prove (iv), put (6.10a) T = x + iy ∈ C |x| ≤ 1/2, y > 1/2 . Since T contains a fundamental domain for Γ (1)\H, we can ﬁnd a ﬁnite subset E of Γ (1) such that Γ εT. (6.10b) H= ε∈E

Then |Im(εz) f (εz)| ≤ A · Im(z) for every ε ∈ E and z ∈ T with some A and c. Given z ∈ H, we can put z = γεw with some γ ∈ Γ, ε ∈ E, and k/2 f (γεw)| = |Im(εw)k/2 f (εw)| ≤ w ∈ T. Then |Im(z)k/2 f (z)| = |Im(γεw) ∗ ∗ A · Im(w)c . Let (γε)−1 = . If r = 0, then Im(w) = Im(z) since r s −1 −2 −1 (γε) ∈ Γ (1) ∩ P. If r = 0, then Im(w) = Im(z)|rz + s| ≤ Im(z) . Thus k/2 c −c |Im(z) f (z)| ≤ A Im(z) + Im(z) , which proves (iv). If f is as in (v), then |Im(εz)k/2 f (εz)| < Ay −c for every ε ∈ E and z ∈ T with some A and c > 0. Then we easily see that |Im(εz)k/2 f (εz)| is bounded on T. Since |Im(z)k/2 f (z)| is a Γ -invariant function on H and H = ε∈E Γ εT, we obtain (v). This completes the proof. k/2

c

6.5. Given f, g ∈ Ck (Γ ), we put f¯gy k dz, (6.11) f, g = μ(Φ)−1 Φ

Φ = Γ \H.

34

II. THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

The integral over Φ is formally meaningful, since f¯gy k is Γ -invariant, as can be seen from (6.3). We call f, g the inner product of f and g if the integral is convergent, in which case we easily see that the quantity of (6.11) is independent of the choice of Γ. The integral is convergent if f g is rapidly decreasing at every cusp. Indeed, by Lemma 6.4(v), |y k f g| is bounded on the whole H, which implies that the integral of (6.11) is convergent, since Φ y −2 dxdy < ∞. We easily see that f k α, gk α = f, g

(6.12)

/ Z, then we either assume that α ∈ P Γ θ , for every α ∈ SL2 (Q). Here, if k ∈ −k or put f k α = κjα (z) f (αz) with κ ∈ T and any choice of a branch of jα (z)−k . We also note an easy fact: tk f (tz), g(tz) = f, g if 0 < t ∈ Q.

(6.12a)

Lemma 6.6. The inner product f, g is meaningful for every f, g ∈ M 1/2 , even when neither f nor g is a cusp form. Proof. In this proof we put k = 1/2. Take Γ ⊂ Γ (2) so that f, g ∈ M k (Γ ), and take T and E as in (6.10a, b). For each ε ∈ E put fε (z) = jε (z)−k f (εz) and gε (z) = jε (z)−k g(εz) with any choice of a branch of jε (z)−k . Then fε , gε ∈ M k by Lemma 5.4, and so by Lemma 6.2(i), |fε gε | ≤ Aε on T with a constant Aε . Since Γ \H is covered by ε∈E εT, we have k f, g ≤ |f gy k | ◦ ε dz. |f g|y dz = ε∈E

εT

ε∈E

T

Now |f gy | ◦ ε = y |fε gε | ≤ Aε y on T, and so f, g ≤ Aε y k−2 dxdy = Aε k

k

k

ε∈E

T

ε∈E

∞

y −3/2 dy < ∞.

1/2

This proves our lemma. 6.7. We put y = Im(z) and view it as a real-valued function on H as we have done in previous sections. For k ∈ R we deﬁne diﬀerential operators ε, δk , and Lk acting on C ∞ functions f on H by (6.13a) (6.13b) (6.13c)

εf = −y 2 ∂f /∂z, ∂f kf + , δk f = y −k (∂/∂z)(y k f ) = 2iy ∂z

2 ∂ ∂ ∂2 Lk = 4δk−2 ε = −y 2 + 2iky = 4εδk − k, + 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z

and deﬁne also δkp for 0 ≤ p ∈ Z inductively by (6.13d)

δkp+1 = δk+2p δkp ,

δk1 = δk ,

For every α ∈ GL+ 2 (R) these operators satisfy

δk0 = 1.

6. HOLOMORPHIC AND NONHOLOMORPHIC MODULAR FORMS ON H1 35

(6.14a)

ε(f k α) = (εf )k−2 α,

(6.14b) (6.14c)

δk (f k α) = (δk f )k+2 α, p δk (f k α) = (δkp f )k+2p α,

(6.14d)

Lk (f k α) = (Lk f )k α.

Here f k α for k ∈ / Z can be deﬁned by (f k α)(z) = jα (z)−k f (αz) with any choice of a branch of jα (z)−k . Then we deﬁne (f k+2p α)(z) with jα (z)−k−2p = jα (z)−k jα (z)−2p for every p ∈ Z. From (6.13c) we easily obtain (6.14e)

Lk−2 ε = ε(Lk − k + 2),

Lk+2 δk = δk (Lk + k).

To prove the above formulas, we ﬁrst note that −2 ∂f ∂f ∂ ∂ f (αz) = (αz)jα (z)−2 , f (αz) = (αz)jα (z) . (6.15) ∂z ∂z ∂ z¯ ∂ z¯ Employing (6.3) and (6.15), we have k δk f k α = y −k (∂/∂z) y k jα−k f (αz) = y −k (∂/∂z) y(αz)k jα f (αz) k k = y −k jα (∂/∂z) (y k f ) ◦ α = y −k jα jα−2 {(∂/∂z)(y k f )}(αz) = jα−k−2 y(αz)−k {(∂/∂z)(y k f )}(αz) = (δk f )k+2 α, which gives (6.14b). Formula (6.14a) can be proved in a similar way. Then (6.14c) and (6.14d) follow immediately from (6.14a, b). From (6.2) we easily see that y −2(dx2 + dy 2 ) is a Riemannian metric on H invariant under SL2 (R). Therefore −L0 is exactly the Laplace-Beltrami operator with respect to this metric. Theorem 6.8. Let f ∈ Ck (Γ ) and h ∈ Ck−2 (Γ ) with a congruence subgroup Γ. Then (6.16)

f, δk−2 h = εf, h,

provided f h, f · δk−2 h and (εf )h are rapidly decreasing at every cusp. Proof. Replacing Γ by Γ ∩ Γ (4) if necessary, we may assume that Γ ⊂ Γ (4). Then Γ has no elements of ﬁnite order other than 1. Throughout the proof, we put y = Im(z). For 0 < r ∈ R put Mr = z ∈ H y = r . (6.17) Tr = z ∈ H y > r , Take a ﬁnite Then Γ \(Q ∪ {∞}) is repre X ofΓ (1) as in (6.10). subset Qξ = ξ −1 Γ ξ ∩ P for each ξ ∈ X. Then sented by ξ(∞) ξ ∈ X . Put ξQξ ξ −1 = γ ∈ Γ γξ(∞) = ξ(∞) . Now Γ \(H ∪ Q ∪ {∞}) can be viewed as a compact Riemann surface. We can ﬁnd a suﬃciently large r such that the set ξ(Qξ \Tr ) for ξ ∈ X can be embedded in Γ \H without overlap. Let K be the complement of ξ∈X ξ(Qξ \Tr ) in Γ \H. Then K is a compact manifold with boundary, and

36

II. THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

∂K =

ξ(Bξ ),

Bξ = Qξ \Mr .

ξ∈X

Let ϕ be a Γ -invariant C ∞ 1-form on H. Then dϕ = ϕ= ϕ ◦ ξ. K

∂K

ξ∈X

Bξ

Given f and h as in our theorem, take ϕ = f¯hy k−2 d¯ z . Then dϕ = (∂/∂z)(f¯hy k−2 )dz ∧ d¯ z k−2 ¯ ¯ z. = (∂ f /∂z)hy + f (∂h/∂z)y k−2 + (−i/2)(k − 2)f¯hy k−3 dz ∧ d¯ Since dz ∧ d¯ z = −2idx ∧ dy and (∂ f¯/∂z) = (∂f /∂ z¯), we see that (6.18)

(2i)−1 dϕ = εf · hy k−4 dx ∧ dy − f¯ · (δk−2 h)y k−2 dx ∧ dy.

Thus

εf · hy k−4 dx ∧ dy −

K

f¯ · (δk−2 h)y k−2 dx ∧ dy = (2i)−1

K

ξ∈X

ϕ ◦ ξ.

Bξ

We now take the limit assumption the left-hand side when r → ∞. By our z with converges to μ(Γ \H) εf, h − f, δk−2 h . We have ϕ ◦ ξ = pξ (z)d¯ −2 k−2 k−1 ¯ ¯ pξ (z) = jξ (z) (f hy ) ◦ ξ. Notice that y|p | ◦ ξ. Now Qξ is ξ (z)| = |f hy 1 tξ with 0 < tξ ∈ Q, and so Qξ \Mr generated by a matrix of the form 0 1 can be identiﬁed with the line segment x + ir 0 ≤ x ≤ tξ . Thus tξ pξ (x + ir)dx. ϕ ◦ ξ ≤ Bξ

0

Suppose f h is rapidly decreasing at every cusp; then |pξ (x + iy)| ≤ Aξ y −c with positive constants Aξ and c for suﬃciently large y. Therefore we obtain our theorem. Corollary 6.9. (i) Let Γ be a congruence subgroup and let f ∈ S k . Then f, δk−2 h = 0 for every h ∈ Ck−2 (Γ ) such that both h and δk−2 h are slowly increasing at every cusp. (ii) Let f ∈ Ck (Γ ). Suppose both f and εf are rapidly decreasing at every cusp and Lk f = 0. Then f ∈ S k . (iii) Let f, g ∈ Ck (Γ ). Then under a suitable condition (see the following Proof) we have (6.19) (6.20)

f, Lk g = Lk f, g, f, Lk f ≥ 0.

Proof. Let f and h be as in (i). Then, by Lemma 6.4(ii), both f h and f δk−2 h are rapidly decreasing at every cusp. Since f is holomorphic, we have εf = 0, and so f, δk−2 h = 0 by (6.16). This proves (i). Next let f be as

6. HOLOMORPHIC AND NONHOLOMORPHIC MODULAR FORMS ON H1 37

in (ii). Then δk−2 εf = 4−1 Lk f = 0, and so εf, εf = f, δk−2 εf = 0 by (6.16). Thus εf = 0, which means that f is holomorphic, and so f ∈ S k by Lemma 6.4(ii). As for (iii), we have, by (6.16), f, δk−2 εg = εf, εg = δk−2 εf, g, which gives (6.19). To justify the last sequence of equalities, we need some conditions on f and g as stated in Theorem 6.8, which are often easy to verify, and so we leave the precise statements to the reader. If we take f = g, then f, Lk f = 4εf, εf ≥ 0, which proves (6.20). This completes the proof. Remark. In Corollary 6.9(ii) the condition on εf is unnecessary. This will be explained after the proof of Lemma 9.3. Lemma 6.10. If f ∈ M k (Γ ), then δkp f for every p ∈ Z, ≥ 0, belongs to Ck+2p (Γ ), and is slowly increasing at every cusp. Moreover, it is rapidly decreasing at every cusp if f ∈ S k . Proof. That δkp f ∈ Ck+2p (Γ ) follows from (6.14c). Let α ∈ Γ (1) and g(z) = jα (z)−k f (αz) = m∈Z cα (m)e(mz/rα ) as in (3.4d). By (6.14c) we have jα (z)−k−2p (δkp f )(αz) = δkp g(z), and by induction on p we easily see p that δkp g = ν=0 aν y −ν (∂/∂z)p−ν g with aν ∈ C, and so p ∞ aν y −ν cα (m)(2πim/rα )p−ν e(mz/rα ). δkp g(z) = ν=0

m=0

Since cα (m) = O(mk ) by Lemma 6.2(iii), we can easily verify the inequality of (6.9a) for δkp g. If f ∈ S k , then cα (0) = 0, and so δkp g satisﬁes (6.9b). Thus we obtain our lemma. 6.11. We have been discussing modular forms as functions on H. Instead, we can treat them as functions on SL2 (R) or its us explain the covering. Let idea in the case k ∈ Z for simplicity. Put K = α ∈ SL2 (R) t αα = 12 and ρ(ξ) = jξk (i)−1 for ξ ∈ K. Then ρ is a continuous homomorphism of K into T. Given f ∈ Ck (Γ ), deﬁne a function f˜ on SL2 (R) by f˜(α) = (f k α)(i) for α ∈ SL2 (R). Then f˜(γα) = f˜(α) for every γ ∈ Γ and f˜(αξ) = ρ(ξ)f˜(α) for every ξ ∈ K. In this way we can associate with f a function on Γ \G belonging to a representation ρ of K. One consequence of this association is that the action of the diﬀerential operators ε and δkp corresponds to that of some elements of the universal enveloping algebra U of the Lie algebra of SL2 (R). This approach gives a certain conceptual perspective, and even clariﬁes some technical points, especially when we deal with higher-dimensional Lie groups and symmetric spaces. In this book, however, we stay within the traditional framework of functions on H. The reader who is interested in the higher-dimensional cases and also in the Lie-theoretical treatment of this topic is referred to the author’s articles as follows: the operators in the higher-dimensional cases are discussed in [S94],

38

II. THETA FUNCTIONS AND FACTORS OF AUTOMORPHY

[S00, Sections 12 and A8], and [S04, Section A1]; the connection with U is explained in [S90, Section 7], and [S02, vol. IV, pp. 739–740]. In particular, (6.16) formulated on a Lie group G can be given in the form Xf · h dμ = − f · Xh dμ, (6.21) Γ \G

Γ \G

where X is an element of the Lie algebra of G. However, in almost all papers and textbooks this is proved under the condition that f and h have compact support, or under a similar strong condition, which makes its application impractical. The fact under a much weaker condition is given in [S00, p. 287, Lemma A8.3].

CHAPTER III

THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

7. The rationality of modular forms 7.1. We employ the symbols Q and Qab deﬁned in §0.1, which are the algebraic closure of Q in C and the maximal abelian extension of Q in Q. We also denote by Aut(C) the group of all ring-automorphisms of C, and for σ ∈ Aut(C) and x ∈ C we denote by xσ the image of x under σ. Thus, for τ ∈ Aut(C) the product στ is deﬁned by xστ = (xσ )τ . These are consistent with what we said in §0.4. Given two subﬁelds K and L of a ﬁeld M, we denote by KL their composite, that is, the subﬁeld of M generated by K and L. Putting H∗ = H ∪ Q ∪ {∞}, we recall the basic fact that for a congruence subgroup Γ of SL2 (Q) the orbit space Γ \H∗ has a structure of compact Riemann surface, which can naturally be viewed as an algebraic curve deﬁned over C; for this the reader is referred to [S71]. (In the present book we mean by an algebraic curve a nonsingular projective curve.) We denote by A0 (Γ ) the ﬁeld of all Γ -invariant meromorphic functions on H which can be viewed as meromorphic functions on the compact Riemann surface Γ \H∗ , and put ∞ A0 Γ (N ) . (7.0) A0 = N =1

If f ∈ A0 , we can put (7.1)

f (z) =

an e(nz/t)

n0 ≤n∈Z

with n0 ∈ Z, 0 < t ∈ Z and an ∈ C. For a subﬁeld Φ of C we denote by A0 (Φ) the set of all f ∈ A0 such that an ∈ Φ for every n, and put A0 (Γ, Φ) = A0 (Φ) ∩ A0 (Γ ). If A0 (Γ ) = CA0 (Γ, Φ), then the curve Γ \H∗ has a model over Φ. Now we have: Theorem 7.2. (i) A0 Γ (N ) = CA0 Γ (N ), Q for every N ∈ Z, > 0. (ii) Given σ ∈ Aut(C) and f ∈ A0 as in (7.1), there exists an element f σ of A0 such that aσn e(nz/t). (7.2) f σ (z) = n0 ≤n∈Z

G. Shimura, Modular Forms: Basics and Beyond, Springer Monographs in Mathematics, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-2125-2_3, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

39

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III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

(iii) A0 (Γ ) = CA0 (Γ, Qab ) for every congruence subgroup Γ of SL2 (Q). Proof. The ﬁrst assertion is proved in [S71, Proposition 6.9]. To prove (ii), let A denote the set of all formal inﬁnite sums of the form (7.1). We easily see that A is a ﬁeld containing A0 . For f ∈ A as in (7.1) and σ ∈ σ Aut(C) deﬁne f σ ∈ A of by (7.2). Clearly f → f is an automorphism A. Let f ∈ A0 Γ (N ) . By (i) we can put f = ( μ cμ gμ )/( ν dν hν ) with ﬁnitely many elements cμ , dν ∈ C and gμ , hν ∈ A0 Γ (N ), Q . Viewing this expression of f as an equality in A0 and applying σ to it, we obtain f σ = ( μ cσμ gμ )/( ν dσν hν ), since gμσ = gμ and hσν = hν . This shows that f σ ∈ A0 , which proves (ii). As for (iii), a detailed discussion about the ﬁelds of deﬁnition for Γ \H∗ is given in [S71, Section 6.7], which includes (iii); see especially Propositions 6.27 and 6.30 of the book. 7.3. We next consider M k with 0 ≤ k ∈ 2−1 Z and deﬁne f σ for f ∈ M k . In fact, we do this for a more general class of functions. Namely we consider a weight k ≥ 0 and a function f on H such that m ca (ξ)(πy)−a e(ξz), y = Im(z), (7.3a) f (z) = 0≤ξ∈Q a=0

(7.3b)

f k γ = f for every γ ∈ Γ,

where 0 ≤ m ∈ Z, ca (ξ) ∈ C, and Γ is a congruence subgroup of SL2 (Q), / Z. One more condition: which is contained in Γ θ if k ∈ (7.3c) For every α ∈ SL2 (Q) the function jα (z)−k f (αz) can be written in the form (7.3a). Since (7.3b) implies that f (z + t) = f (z) for some t ∈ Z, > 0, we have ca (ξ) = 0 in (7.3a) only for tξ ∈ Z. Then we denote by N m k (Γ ) the set of all f satisfying (7.3a, b, c), and put ∞ m Nk = ∞ (7.3d) N km = N =1 N km Γ (2N ) , m=0 N k . For a subﬁeld Φ of C we denote by N km (Φ) the set of all f ∈ N km such that ca (ξ) in (7.3a) belongs to Φ for every a and ξ; we then put N km (Γ, Φ) = N km (Γ ) ∩ N km (Φ). We also use these symbols with N k in place of N km , when m is not speciﬁed, or rather N k is understood in the sense of (7.3d). Clearly M k = N k0 ; notice that (7.3c) implies (3.4d) if f ∈ M k . We call an element of N k a nearly holomorphic modular form of weight k. If an element of N k belongs to N k (Φ), then we call it Φ-rational. We put M k (Φ) = M k ∩ N k (Φ), M k (Γ, Φ) = M k (Γ ) ∩ M k (Φ), S k (Φ) = S k ∩ M k (Φ), and S k (Γ, Φ) = S k (Γ ) ∩ M k (Φ). 7.4. Let Γ be a congruence subgroup of Γ (1) such that CA0 (Γ, Q) = A0 (Γ ). Then the curve Γ \H∗ has a Q-rational model V whose function-ﬁeld

7. THE RATIONALITY OF MODULAR FORMS

41

over Q can be identiﬁed with A0 (Γ, Q). We then denote by VC the algebraic curve Γ \H∗ over C in which V is embedded. By a divisor on VC we mean as usual a formal ﬁnite sum A = P ∈VC cP P with cP ∈ Z. We write A A if A = P ∈VC cP P and cP ≥ cP for every P. We also consider a sum B = P ∈VC dP P with dP ∈ Q; we call it a fractional divisor on VC . Given a divisor A we put (7.4) L(A) = {0} ∪ 0 = g ∈ A0 (Γ, C) div(g) −A , (7.4a)

L(A, Φ) = L(A) ∩ A0 (Γ, Φ),

where div(g) is a divisor of g and Φ is a subﬁeld of C. It is well known that if A is Φ-rational, then (7.4b)

L(A) = L(A, Φ) ⊗Φ C.

By Theorem 7.2 we can take Γ (N ) as Γ ; then we denote V by VN . Let p be the natural projection map of VN onto V1 . Then p is deﬁned over Q, since it corresponds to the injection A0 (Γ (1), Q) → A0 (Γ (N ), Q). Let CN be the divisor that is the sum of all inequivalent cusps of ΓN viewed as points of (VN )C . Then C1 is the point on V1 represented by ∞, which is Q-rational. We have p−1 (C1 ) = μN CN with a positive integer μN , and so CN is a Qrational divisor on VN . Now, for 0 = f ∈ M k (Γ (N )) with k ∈ Z we can deﬁne the divisor of f, written div(f ), as a fractional on (VN )C ; see divisor [S71, §2.4]. We can even deﬁne div(f ) for f ∈ M k Γ (N ) with N ∈ 2Z and 4 k ∈ / Z. We merely put div(f ) = (1/4)div(f ), which is well deﬁned, since 4 f ∈ M 4k Γ (N ) as can be seen from Theorem 4.4(iii). Theorem 7.5. Let k be a weight ≥ 0, and let X denote any of the three symbols M , N , and S . For σ ∈ Aut(C) and f ∈ N k given by (7.3a) deﬁne f σ as a formal inﬁnite series by m ca (ξ)σ (πy)−a e(ξz). (7.5) f σ (z) = 0≤ξ∈Q a=0

Then the following assertions hold: (i) We have Xk = Xk (Q) ⊗Q C, and consequently for every f ∈ Xk and σ ∈ Aut(C) the series of (7.5) is convergent and deﬁnes an element of Xk . (ii) For two positive integers M and N put Γ (M, N ) = γ ∈ Γ (1) bγ ∈ M Z, cγ ∈ N Z . (This is clearly a congruence subgroup of Γ (1).) Given a character ψ modulo M N, assuming that M, N ∈ 2Z if k ∈ / Z, put (7.6) Xk (M, N ; ψ) = f ∈ Xk f k γ = ψ(dγ )f for every γ ∈ Γ (M, N ) . Then (iia) Xk (M, N ; ψ)σ = Xk (M, N ; ψ σ ); (iib) Xk (M, N ; ψ) is spanned by its Qab -rational elements.

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III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

(iii) For every subﬁeld Φ of C containing Qab , the set Xk (Φ) is stable under f → (cα z + dα )−k f (αz) for every α ∈ GL+ 2 (Q). (iv) Xk is spanned by Xk (M, N ; ψ) for all combinations of (M, N, ψ). (v) If f (z) = ξ∈Q c(ξ)e(ξz) ∈ M k , then the coeﬃcients c(ξ) belong to a ﬁeld that is ﬁnitely generated over Q. Proof. Before starting our proof, we note that Xk (M, N ; ψ) = {0} only if ψ(−1) = (−1)[k] , since f k (−1) = (−1)[k] f. Now we prove the statements of our theorem ﬁrst for M k and S k . The case of N k will be treated in §7.9. We take η and Δ of (5.12) and assume that 24|N. By Theorem 4.7(2) and (5.12a), η2k ∈ M k Γ (N ), Q for every weight k > 0. Clearly Δ has no zeros in H, and so div(Δ) considered on V1 is C1 . Since e(z/N ) is the local parameter at ∞ on (VN )C and (VN )C is a Galois covering of (V1 )C , we see that div(Δ) considered on VN is N CN . Thus div(η) considered on VN is (N/24)CN . Suppose f ∈ M k Γ (N ) . Put g = f /η 2k and DN = (kN/12)CN . Then g ∈ A0 Γ (N ) and div(g) = div(f )− div(η2k ) −DN , and so g ∈L(DN ). Conversely, given f ∈ M k (Q) g ∈ L(DN ), we easily see that gη2k ∈ M k Γ (N ) . Moreover, 2k if and only if g ∈ A0 Q), and so M k Γ (N ), Q = gη g ∈ L(DN , Q) . Thus from (7.4b) we obtain (7.7) M k Γ (N ) = M k Γ (N ), Q ⊗Q C for every weight k at least when 24|N. Therefore M k = M k (Q) ⊗Q C, and so every element f of M k is a sum f = a∈A aqa with a ﬁnite subset A of C and qa ∈ M k (Q). Then for σ ∈ Aut(C) we see that f σ deﬁned by (7.5) equals a∈A aσ qa , which belongs to M k . This proves (i) for M k . Also, if f is as in (v), then the c(ξ) are contained in the ﬁeld generated by all a ∈ A over Q. This proves (v). To discuss S k , we have to be careful about the contribution of cusps to the divisor in question. To simplify the matter, put tα (z) = η(αz)/η(z) for α ∈ Γ (1). Then tα (z)2 = ζjα (z) with a root of unity ζ, tαβ (z) = tα (βz)tβ (z) for α, β ∈ Γ (1), and by (5.12a), tα (z) = hα (z) if α ∈ Γ (24). Put g|k α = tα (z)−2k g(αz) for a function g on H. Let f ∈ Sk Γ (N ) with N ∈ 24Z. Then for every α ∈ Γ (1), we see that f |k α ∈ S k Γ (N ) and f |k α = ∞ n=1 cα (n)e(nz/N ) with cα (n) ∈ C, and so we see that div(f ) CN , where div(f ) is considered argument about g = f /η2k with f restricted to S k Γ (N ) on VN . The above 2k g ∈ L(DN − CN ) and S k Γ (N ), Q = shows 2k that S k Γ (N ) = gη g ∈ L(DN − CN , Q) . Thus from (7.4b) we obtain gη (7.7b) S k Γ (N ) = S k Γ (N ), Q ⊗Q C (7.7a)

if 24|N. This proves (i) for S k .

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43

As for (iii), we note that GL+ 2 (Q) is generated by ι, P, and the elements diag[e, 1] with 0 < e ∈ Q, by Lemma 2.2(iv) and (1.3). Thus it is suﬃcient to prove (iii) for α of three such types. The cases with the latter two types are easy. We also note that A0 (Qab ) is stable under ι. (In fact A0 (Qab ) is stable under GL+ 2 (Q); see [S71, Theorem 6.23].) Now let f ∈ M k (Qab ). Then f |k ι ∈ M k by Lemma 5.4, f /η2k ∈ A0 (Qab ), and (f |k ι)/(η 2k |k ι) = (f /η 2k ) ◦ ι ∈ A0 (Qab ). Since η2k |k ι = η 2k , we see that f |k ι ∈ M k (Qab ). Thus we obtain (iii) for M k . Since S k (Qab ) = M k (Qab ) ∩ S k and S k is stable under f → f |k ι as noted at the end of §5.8, we obtain (iii) for S k . To prove (iv), we observe that f → f ||k γ for γ ∈ Γ (N, N ) for even N deﬁnes an action of Γ (N, N )/Γ (N ) on Xk Γ (N ) with X = M or S . (This is so even for N k , provided (iii) is established for N k .) Now the map γ → aγ is a homomorphism of Γ (N, N ) into (Z/N Z)× whose kernel is Γ (N ), and so Xk Γ (N ) as a representation space of Γ (N, N )/Γ (N ), or rather of (Z/N Z)× , can be decomposed as the direct sum of Xk (N, N ; ψ) with the characters ψ modulo N such that ψ(−1) = (−1)[k] , from which we can easily derive (iv). As for (ii), we ﬁrst prove: Lemma 7.6. (i) Given σ ∈ Aut(C), three positive integers M, N, K such that K ∈ M Z∩N Z, and γ ∈ Γ (M, N ), there exists an element β ∈ Γ(M, N) such that dβ − dγ ∈ KZ and f σ k γ = (f k β)σ for every f ∈ M k Γ (K) , where we assume that both M and N are even if k ∈ / Z. / Z and even M, N, deﬁne (ii) For f ∈ M k (M, N ; ψ)∩ M k (Qab ) with k ∈ −1 ¯ ∩ . Then f X ∈ M k (2, M N ; ψρ) f X by f X (z) = (−iN z)−k

f − (N z) N , and for every σ ∈ Gal(Qab /Q) we have M k (Qab ), with ρ(d) = d

[k] −1 σ X σ X σ and s is an integer prime (f ) = χ(s) (f ) , where χ(d) = ψ(d) d σ to M N such that e(1/M N ) = e(s/M N ). Proof. We put G = GL2 (Q) and deﬁne the adelization GA of G as usual; see [S71, §6.4] or [S97, Section 8]. We also put Ga+ = GL+ 2 (R) and deﬁne subgroups GA+ , U, and UN of GA by (7.7c) GA+ = x ∈ GA xa ∈ Ga+ , U = Ga+ p GL2 (Zp ), (7.7d) UN = x ∈ U xp − 1 ≺ N Zp for every p , where xa resp. xp denotes the archimedean component resp. p-component of x, and p is the product over all prime numbers p. Notice that Γ (1) = SL2 (Q) ∩ U and Γ (N ) = SL2 (Q) ∩ U (N ). We can let GA+ act on A0 (Qab ) as a group of automorphisms; see [S71, Theorem 6.23]. This action can be ex∞ tended to the graded algebra k=0 Ak (Qab ), where Ak (Qab ) is the A0 (Qab )linear span of M k (Qab ). This is explained in [S07, Section A5]. Namely, there

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III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

∞ is an action of GA+ on k=0 Ak (Qab ), written (x, f ) → f [x] for x ∈ GA+ and f ∈ Ak (Qab ), with the following properties: (7.8a) The map f → f [x] gives a Q-linear map of Ak (Qab ) onto itself. (7.8b) (f [x] )[y] = f [xy] , (f g)[x] = f [x] g [x] . (7.8c) f [α] = (cα z + dα )−k f (αz) if α ∈ GL+ 2 (Q). [u] {t} −1 if u = diag[1, t ] with t ∈ p Z× (7.8d) f = f p , where {t} is the image of t under the canonical homomorphism of Q× A onto Gal(Qab /Q) and f {t} is understood in the sense of (7.5). (7.8e) For f, g ∈ Ak (Qab ), g = 0, we have f [x] /g [x] = (f /g)τ (x) with τ (x) deﬁned in [S71, §6.6]. (7.8f) Given f ∈ Ak (Qab ), there exists M ∈ Z, > 0, such that f [v] = f for every v ∈ UM . (7.8g) If t ∈ p Z× p , s ∈ Z, 0 < N ∈ Z, and stp − 1 ∈ N Zp for all prime numbers p, then e(1/N ){t} = e(s/N ). We put Ak Γ (N ), Qab = f ∈ Ak (Qab ) f k γ = f for every γ ∈ Γ (N ) and prove (7.9) f [w] = f for every f ∈ Ak Γ (N ), Qab and w ∈ UN ∩ SL2 (Q)A . To prove this, given f ∈ M k Γ (N ), Qab , take M as in (7.8f). We may assume that N |M. Put WN = UN ∩ SL2 (Q)A . By strong approximation (see [S71, Lemma 6.15]), SL2 (Q)A = WM SL2 (Q), and so if w ∈ WN , then w = yγ with y ∈ WM and γ ∈ SL2 (Q). We see that γ ∈ UN ∩ SL2 (Q) = Γ (N ) and f [y] = f by (7.8f). Thus f [w] = f [y][γ] = f [γ] = f k γ = f, which proves (7.9). when f ∈ M k Γ (K), In view of (7.7) it is suﬃcient to prove (i) of our lemma Q . Let σ ∈ Aut(C) and γ ∈ Γ (M, N ). We can ﬁnd t ∈ p Z× p such that σ = −1 {t} on Qab . Put u = diag[1, t ]. Again by strong approximation, uγu−1 = xβ with x ∈ WK and β ∈ SL2 (Q). Then dβ − dγ ∈ KZ, β ∈ Γ (M, N ), and f [uγ] = f [xβu] . By (7.8c, d), f [uγ] = f σ k γ and by (7.9), f [xβu] = f [βu] = (f k β)[u] = (f k β){t} = (f k β)σ . This proves (i) for integral k. Γ (K), Q . Put m = k − 1/2. Suppose k ∈ / Z and M, N ∈ 2Z; let f ∈ M k −1 Then θ f ∈ Am Γ (K), Q , and the above argument with f replaced by σ θ−1 f shows that (θ−1 f )σ m γ = (θ−1 f )m β . We have (θ−1 f )σ m γ = (θ1/2 γ)−1 (f σ k γ), (θ−1 f )m β = (θ1/2 β)−1 (f k β), and θ1/2 γ = θ1/2 β = θ, and so we obtain our lemma when k ∈ / Z. This completes the proof of (i). As for (ii), f X ∈ M k (Qab ) by Theorem 7.5(iii). Now take t ∈ p Z× p and s ∈ Z so that σ = {t} on Qab and stp − 1 ∈ M N Zp for all prime num0 −1 ,u= bers p. Then e(1/M N )σ = e(s/M N ) by (7.8g). Put α = N 0

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diag[1, t−1 ], and v = diag[t−1 , t]. Take γ ∈ Γ (1) so that γ − vp ≺ M N Zp for all prime numbers p. Then αu = vuα. Put g = θ−2k f. Then g ∈ A0 (Qab ). [k]

−1 2k Since θ ∈ M k (2, 2; ϕ) with ϕ(d) = , we see that g ◦ ε = χ(dε )g d for every ε ∈ Γ (M, N ), where χ = ψϕ. By (7.9), g ◦ γ = g [v] , and so ¯ σ g σ ◦ α. Now θ − (g ◦ α)σ = g [αu] = g [vuα] = (g ◦ γ)σ ◦ α = χ(dγ )σ g σ ◦ α = χ(s) −1 1/2 2k X 2k (N z) = (−iN z) θ(N z), and so (θ ) = θ (N z). Since θσ = θ, we have 2k X σ 2k σ X = (θ ) . We have f X = (θ2k )X g ◦ α = θ2k (N z)g ◦ α. We easily (θ ) see that g ◦ α ◦ δ = χ(d ¯ δ )g ◦ α for every δ ∈ Γ (1, M N ) and θ2k (N z) belongs ¯ and to M k (2, N ; ϕρ) with ρ as in our lemma. Thus f X ∈ M k (2, M N ; ψρ), X σ 2k X σ σ 2k σ σ σ X (f ) = (θ ) (g ◦ α) = χ(s) ¯ θ (N z)g ◦ α = χ(s) ¯ (f ) . This proves (ii) and completes the proof. 7.7. We now prove Theorem 7.5(iia) for M k and S k . Put K = M N. Given σ ∈ Aut(C), f ∈ M k (M, N ; ψ), and γ ∈ Γ (M, N ). take β ∈ Γ (M, N ) as in Lemma 7.6. Then f σ k γ = (f k β)σ = ψ(dβ )σ f σ = ψ(dγ )σ f σ , and so f σ ∈ M k (M, N ; ψ σ ), which proves Theorem 7.5(iia) for M k . Then the case of S k follows immediately. Theorem 7.5(iib) will be proven in §7.9. To prove Theorem 7.5 for N k , we ﬁrst put ∞ 1 1 − + (7.10) E2 (z) = d e(nz), 8πy 24 n=1 0 a > 0,

which can easily be veriﬁed. From the deﬁnition of Dk and (6.14b), we easily see that (i) is true if p = 1. Then the general case can be proved by induction on p. To prove (iii), suppose f of (7.13) belongs to N k (Γ, Φ); suppose also k ∈ Z for the moment. For γ ∈ SL2 (Q) we have (y ◦ γ)−a = |jγ |2a y −a and j γ = jγ − 2icγ y, and so t (πy)−a jγa−k (jγ − 2icγ y)a (fa ◦ γ), (7.15) f k γ = a=0

t

which can be written a=0 (πy)−a gaγ with holomorphic functions gaγ . Viewing this as a polynomial in y −1 and comparing the coeﬃcients of y −t , we obtain gtγ = jγ2t−k (ft ◦ γ), that is, gtγ = ft k−2t γ, because the function y −1 is an algebraically independent variable over the ﬁeld of meromorphic functions on H. In particular, gtγ = ft if γ ∈ Γ, and so ft k−2t γ = ft for γ ∈ Γ. By condition (7.3c), gtγ has a Fourier expansion ﬁnite at ∞ for every γ ∈ SL2 (Q). This shows that ft ∈ M k−2t (Γ ). Therefore, if t > 0 and ft = 0, then k ≥ 2t. Consequently, t = 0 if k < 2, which proves (iii). We prove (ii) for f ∈ N kt (Γ, Φ) as above with ft = 0 by induction on t. We have seen that ft ∈ M k−2t (Γ ). This combined with the deﬁnition of N kt (Γ, Φ) shows that ft ∈ M k−2t (Γ, Φ). Suppose k = 2t; then ft ∈ M 0 (Γ, Φ) = Φ. From (7.14) we see that D2t−1 E2 = b(πy)−t + q with b ∈ Q× and q ∈ At−1 . Put p = f − (ft /b)D2t−1 E2 . Then p ∈ N kt−1 (Γ, Φ). In particular, if k = 2, then p ∈ N 2 (Γ, Φ) ∩ A0 = M 2 (Γ, Φ), which settles the problem. If k > 2, we apply induction to p. Thus we obtain (ii) when k = 2t. It remains to consider the case k > 2t > 0. Then ft ∈ M k−2t (Γ, Φ), and by (7.14) we see that t t Dk−2t ft = c(πy)−t ft +r with c ∈ Q× and r ∈ At−1 . Put g = f −c−1 Dk−2t ft . t−1 Then g ∈ N k (Γ, Φ), and applying induction to g, we can complete the proof of (ii). So far we have assumed k ∈ Z. The case k ∈ / Z can be proved in the same way; we have only to make the meaning of f k α or jγ−k precise, which can easily be done. Our proof is now complete. 7.9. We now return to Theorem 7.5 and prove the assertions concerning N k . Given σ ∈ Aut(C) and f as in (7.3a), deﬁne f σ formally by (7.5). Clearly E2σ = E2 . Also, we can easily verify that (Dk f )σ = Dk f σ for every

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f ∈ N k , and so (Dkp f )σ = Dkp f σ for every p. Since Theorem 7.5(i) for M k was proved, from Lemma 7.8(ii) we obtain Theorem 7.5(i) for N k . As for (iii), it is suﬃcient to prove it for α = diag[e, 1] with 0 < e ∈ Q, α ∈ P, and α ∈ Γ (1). The ﬁrst two cases are clear. If α ∈ Γ (1), we have E2 2 α = E2 , and so the desired result follows from Lemma 7.8(ii), (6.14c), and Theorem 7.5(iii) for M k . To prove Theorem 7.5(iia) for N k , we consider the sum expression for f as in Lemma 7.8(ii), and take γ and β in Γ (M, N ) as in the ﬁrst paragraph of p gp )σ k γ = §7.7. Since they are independent of the weight k, we have (Dk−2p p p p (Dk−2p gpσ )k γ = Dk−2p (gpσ k−2p γ) = Dk−2p (gp k−2p β)σ by (6.14c); sim(k/2)−1

(k/2)−1

E2 )σ k γ = D2 (E2 2 β)σ , and so f σ k γ = (f k β)σ , ilarly (D2 from which we obtain Theorem 7.5(iia) for N k . Theorem 7.5(iv) for N k was proved in the paragraph above Lemma 7.6. It remains to prove Theorem 7.5(iib). From Lemma 7.8(ii) and (7.7) we obtain (7.16) N k Γ (N ) = N k Γ (N ), Q ⊗Q C if 24|N. We apply Lemma 2.11 to the present setting with Xk Γ (N0 ), Qab , Qab , and ˜} C as V, F, and K in that lemma, where N0 = 24M N ; we also take {α there to be the set of the maps f → f γ − ψ(d )f for all γ ∈ Γ (M, N ). k γ Then W = V ⊗F K = Xk Γ (N0 ) by (7.7), (7.7b), and (7.16). By Theorem 7.5(iii) that is already proved, V is stable under these maps. Then α) = Xk (M, N ; ψ) and α∈A Ker(α) = Xk (M, N ; ψ) ∩ Xk (Qab ). α∈A Ker(˜ Therefore Lemma 2.11 gives Theorem 7.5(iib), and the proof of Theorem 7.5 is now complete. We add here two remarks. First, in (5.14) we deﬁned fρ for f ∈ M k . If we mean by ρ the complex conjugation in C, then this coincides with f ρ deﬁned by (7.5). However, we employ fρ in addition to f ρ for some notational reasons. Next, we assumed 24|N in (7.7) and (7.7b) merely for expediency. In fact, we can prove better and more comprehensive results as follows. Theorem 7.10. Let X denote M , S , or N as in Theorem 7.5 and let k ∈ 2−1 Z, > 0. Then the following assertions hold. (i) For every congruence subgroup Γ of Γ (1) the set Xk (Γ ) is spanned by / Z. its Qab -rational elements, provided Γ ⊂ Γ θ if k ∈ (ii) Let Γ denote any one of the groups Γ0 (N ), Γ1 (N ), Γ (M, N ), and cγ ∈ N Z Γ (N ) with positive integers M and N, where Γ (N ) = γ ∈ Γ (1) 0 and Γ1 (N ) = γ ∈ Γ0 (N ) dγ − 1 ∈ N Z . Then Xk (Γ ) = Xk (Γ, Q) ⊗Q C, provided Γ ⊂ Γ θ if k ∈ / Z. Proof. To prove (i), take a multiple N0 of 24 so that Γ (N0 ) ⊂ Γ. We then

48

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

apply Lemma 2.11 to the present setting by taking Xk Γ (N0 ), Qab , Qab , and C to be V, F, and K in that lemma. We also take {α ˜ } there to be the set of the maps f → f k γ − f for all γ ∈ Γ. Then W = V ⊗F K = Xk Γ (N0 ) by (7.7), (7.7b), and (7.16). By Theorem 7.5(iii), V is stable under these α) = Xk (Γ ) and α∈A Ker(α) = Xk (Γ, Qab ), and so maps. Then α∈A Ker(˜ we obtain (i) from Lemma 2.11. Given Γ as in (ii), we note (7.17) Xk (Γ )σ = Xk (Γ ) for every σ ∈ Aut(C). This in Theorem 7.5(iia) if Γ is Γ0(N ) or Γ (M, N ), because is included Xk Γ0 (N ) = Xk (1, N ; χ0 and Xk Γ (M, N ) = Xk (M, N ; χ0 , where character. Now, as shown in the proof of Theorem 7.5(iv), χ0 is the trivial Xk Γ (N ) is the sum of Xk (N, N ; ψ) for all characters ψ of (Z/N Z)× such that ψ(−1) = (−1)[k] , and so (7.17) for Γ = Γ (N ) follows from Theorem 7.5(iia). Also, (7.17) for X = N follows from Lemma 7.8(ii) combined with (7.17) for X = M . Therefore we have only to prove (7.17) for X = M or S when Γ = Γ1 (N ). Clearly M k Γ1 (N ) = f ∈ M k Γ (N ) f k γ = f for every γ ∈ Γ1 (N ) . Let f ∈ M k Γ1 (N ) , γ ∈ Γ1 (N ), and σ ∈ Aut(C). Taking M = 1 and N = K in Lemma 7.6(i), we have f σ k γ = (f k β)σ with some β ∈ Γ1 (N ). Then we ﬁnd that f σk γ = f σ , and so f σ ∈ M k Γ1 (N ) , which proves (7.17) when Xk (Γ ) = M k Γ1 (N ) . The case of S k follows from this immediately, since S σk = S k . To prove (ii), in view of (i), it is suﬃcient to show that Xk (Γ, Qab ) is spanned by its Q-rational elements. Take a Qab -basis B of Xk (Γ, Qab ). By Theorem 7.5(v) and Lemma 7.8(ii) we can ﬁnd a ﬁnite extension K of Q contained in Qab such that every member of B is K-rational. By (7.17), Xk (Γ, K)σ = Xk (Γ, K) for every σ ∈ Gal(K/Q). Therefore Xk (Γ, K) = Xk (Γ, Q) ⊗Q K by Lemma 2.13. This proves (ii) and completes the proof. Lemma 7.11. Every element of N k is slowly increasing at every cusp. Proof. Given f ∈ N k , take the expression for f as in Lemma 7.8(ii). p By Lemma 6.10, Dk−2p gp is slowly increasing at every cusp. Now take E2 in place of g in the proof of Lemma 6.10. Then from the expression (7.10) we easily see that δ2p E2 is slowly increasing at every cusp, and so we obtain our lemma. Lemma 7.12. Given 0 < t ∈ Q, put θt (z, λ) = θ(0, tz; λ) with θ(u, z; λ) as in (4.48b). Then for α ∈ Sp(n, Q) and r(z) = jα (z)1/2 there exists an element μ of L (Qn ) such that θt (αz, λ) = r(z)θt (z, μ). Moreover, if λ is Qab -valued, then so is μ.

7. THE RATIONALITY OF MODULAR FORMS

49

Proof. Put β = diag[t1n , 1n ]α·diag[t1n , 1n ]−1 . Then β ∈ Sp(n, Q), t·α(z) = β(tz), jβ (tz) = jα (z), and θt (αz, λ) = θ(0, β(tz); λ) = r(z)θ(0, tz; μ) with μ ∈ L (Qn ) determined for λ and β by (4.49g). This proves the ﬁrst part of our lemma. Suppose λ is Qab -valued; then θt (z, λ) ∈ M 1/2 (Qab ), and so θt (z, μ) belongs to M 1/2 (Qab ) by Theorem 7.5(iii). This completes the proof when n = 1, since the quoted theorem concerns only that case. However, a similar fact is true in the case n > 1 too, as proved in [S00, Theorem 7.11]. We will later employ this lemma only in the case n = 1. ∞ Lemma 7.13. (i) Let f (z) = n=0 an e(nz/ν) ∈ M k (ν, N/ν; ψ), where 0 < N ∈ Z, ν = 1 if k ∈ Z, and ν = 2 if k ∈ / Z; we assume N ∈ 4Z if k∈ / Z. Let s be the conductor of ψ. Given a character χ modulo rt, where ∞ 0 < t ∈ Z and r is the conductor of χ, put g(z) = n=0 χ(n)an e(nz/ν). Let t0 be the product of all the prime factors of t. Then g ∈ M k (ν, M/ν; χ2 ψ), where M is the least common multiple of N, t20 , r2 , and rs. (ii) Given f as in (i), put h(z) = (n,t)=1 an e(nz/ν) with a positive integer t. Deﬁne t0 as in (i). Then h ∈ M k (ν, M/ν; ψ), where M is the least common multiple of N and t20 . Proof. We ﬁrst prove (i) when χ is primitive, that is, when t = 1.

1 νu/r For u ∈ Z let ξ(u) = . Using (2.3a), we easily see that G(χ)g ¯ = 0 1

r b ν a bν a ∈ Γ (ν, M/ν) and γ χ(u)f ¯ ξ(u). Let γ = = k u=1 M c/ν d M c/ν d 2 2 2 with a = a + M cu/r, b = b + du(1 − ad)/r − cd u M/r , and d = d − cd2 uM/r. Then γ ∈ Γ (ν, M/ν), d − d ∈ sZ, and ξ(u)γ = γ ξ(d2 u). Assuming that k ∈ Z for the moment, we have f k ξ(u)γ = f k γ ξ(d2 u) = ψ(d)f k ξ(d2 u),

(∗) and so G(χ)g ¯ kγ =

r u=1

χ(u)f ¯ k ξ(u)γ = ψ(d)

r

χ(u)f ¯ k ξ(d2 u) = ψ(d)χ(d2 )G(χ)g, ¯

u=1

which proves (i) when k ∈ Z and t = 1. If k ∈ / Z, we have to justify (∗) by checking (4.40) for hγ and hγ . First suppose r is

odd; then 4r2 q

with q ∈ Z,

andso d − d ∈ 4qcZ. Thus M

= Mc 4qc 4qc Mc = , from which we obtain = = εd = εd and d d d d (∗). Next suppose r is even; then r = 2α r1 with α > 1 and an odd r1 . Thus M = 22α r12 q with q ∈ Z and d − d ∈ 4qcZ, and so we obtain (∗) in this case too. This completes the proof of (i) when t = 1. We next prove (ii). Taking the prime decomposition of t, we can reduce the problem to the case where t is a prime number.Assuming this to be so, put t ∞ 1 νu/t . Then u=1 f k η(u) = t. (z) = n=0 atn e(tnz/ν) and η(u) = 0 1

50

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

Deﬁne the matrices γ and γ in the above proof of (i) with t in place of r and M deﬁned as in (ii). Then γ, γ ∈ Γ (ν, M/ν), η(u)γ = γ η(d2 u), and we ﬁnd that f k η(u)γ = f k γ η(d2 u) = ψ(d)f k η(d2 u). Since d is prime to t, we easily see that tk γ = ψ(d)t, and so ∈ M k (ν, M/ν; ψ). We have clearly h = f − , from which we obtain (ii). Finally to prove (i) in the general case, we have only to observe that it can be obtained by combining (ii) and the special case of (i) in which t = 1. This completes the proof. In the proof of Lemma 5.5 we proved (5.8) only when ψ is primitive. That result combined with Lemma 7.3(ii) settles the case of imprimitive ψ. ∞ Lemma 7.14. For f (z) = n=0 c(n)e(nz/N ) ∈ M k Γ (N ) with N ∈ N/ν νZ, put (P f )(z) = (ν/N ) u=1 f (z + νu), where ν is as in Lemma 7.13. ∞ Then (P f )(z) = n=0 c(N n/ν)e(nz/ν), and P f, h = f, P h for every h ∈ S k Γ (N ) . Moreover, if f ∈ M k (N, N ; ψ), then P f ∈ M k (ν, N ; ψ). Proof. The ﬁrst equality for (P f )(z) is easy. Next, for h ∈ S k Γ (N ) we have, by (6.12), ! N/ν " ! N/ν " P f, h = (ν/N ) f (z + νu), h = (ν/N ) f, h(z − νu) = f, P h. u=1

u=1

a bν ∈ Γ (N, N ) deﬁne γ = Suppose f ∈ M k (N, N ; ψ). Given γ = Nc d

a b ν as in the proof of Lemma 7.13 with r = 1 and M = νN. Then N c d we see that γ ∈ Γ (N, N ), d − d ∈ νcN Z, and (∗) in the proof holds with 1 νu ξ(u) = , and so 0 1 N/ν N/ν (P f )k γ = (ν/N ) f k ξ(u)γ = ψ(d)(ν/N ) f k ξ(d2 u) = ψ(d)P f. u=1

u=1

Now (P f )(z + ν) = P f, and Γ (ν, N ) can be generated by Γ (N, N ) and ξ(1), as will be proven in Lemma 8.18. Therefore P f ∈ M k (ν, N ; ψ), which completes the proof. Lemma 7.15. Let K be a multiple of N, and A a complete set of repre- sentatives for Γ (N )/Γ (K); suppose N ∈ 2Z if k ∈ / Z. For f ∈ M k Γ (K) put q(f ) = #(A)−1 γ∈A f k γ. Then q(f ) ∈ M k Γ (N ) , q(f )σ = q(f σ ) for every σ ∈ Aut(C), and f, h = q(f ), h for every h ∈ S k Γ (N ) . Proof. That q(f ) ∈ M k Γ (N ) is easy. For h ∈ S k Γ (N ) we have, by (6.12), ! ! " " −1 −1 −1 f, = f, h. f k γ, h = #(A) hk γ q(f ), h = #(A) γ∈A

γ∈A

8. DIRICHLET SERIES AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

51

Let σ ∈ Aut(C). Then the proof of Lemma 7.6(i) shows that the element β there can be chosen so that γ → β gives an automorphism of Γ (N )/Γ (K). Writing βγ for β, we obtain q(f σ ) = #(A)−1 γ∈A f σ k γ = #(A)−1 γ∈A (f k βγ )σ = q(f )σ . This completes the proof. 8. Dirichlet series and Eisenstein series 8.1. We are going to consider various types of Dirichlet series associated with modular forms. In order to study their analytic properties, the gamma function Γ (s) is essential, and so we ﬁrst recall its basic properties: (8.1a)

Γ (s) is a meromorphic function on the whole C.

(8.1b)

Γ (s)−1 is an entire function.

(8.1c)

Γ (s + 1) = sΓ (s).

(8.1d) The set of poles of Γ consists of 0 and all negative integers, and each pole is of order 1. Γ (n) = (n − 1)! if 0 < n ∈ Z.

(8.1e)

These are well known. We will often be using ∞ e−at ts−1 dt if a ∈ C, Re(a) > 0, and Re(s) > 0. (8.2) Γ (s)a−s = 0 −s

Here a = exp(−s log a) with the standard branch of log a for Re(a) > 0. Indeed, the formula is well known for 0 < a ∈ R. Now the integral is meaningful for Re(a) > 0, and deﬁnes a holomorphic function of a. Since it coincides with Γ (s)a−s for 0 < a ∈ R, we obtain (8.2) as stated. Given f (z) = ξ∈Q aξ e(ξz) ∈ M k with an integral or a half-integral weight k, we put, ignoring a0 , (8.3) D(s, f ) = aξ ξ −s , ξ>0 −s

R(s, f ) = (2π) Γ (s)D(s, f ). ∞ We can put f (z) = m=0 cm e(mz/N ) as in Lemma 6.2. Then D(s, f ) = ∞ N s m=1 cm m−s , and so from (ii) of the same lemma, we see that the righthand side of (8.3) is convergent for Re(s) > k + 1, and so D(s, f ) is holomorphic for such s. For z = iy with 0 < y ∈ R we have f (iy) − a0 = ξ>0 aξ e−2πξy , and so in view of (8.2) we obtain ∞ f (iy) − a0 y s−1 dy = (2π)−s Γ (s) (8.5) aξ ξ −s = R(s, f ) (8.4)

0

ξ>0

for Re(s) > k + 1. Termwise integration is justiﬁed, since the series for such s is absolutely convergent. Fixing a positive integer N, put

52

(8.6)

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

f # (z) = N −k/2 (−iz)−k f − (N z)−1 ,

where the branch of (−iz)−k is taken so that it is real and positive if z ∈ H∩iR. By Lemma 5.4, f # ∈ M k , and so we can put f # (z) = ξ∈Q bξ e(ξz). Thus D(s, f # ) and R(s, f # ) are meaningful. Theorem 8.2. In the above setting R(s, f ) and R(s, f # ) can be continued as meromorphic functions to the whole s-plane with the following properties: b0 a0 + an entire function, (8.7a) N s/2 R(s, f ) = − + s s−k (8.7b) R(k − s, f ) = N s−k/2 R(s, f # ). In particular, R(s, f ) is an entire function if a0 = b0 = 0. This is a standard theorem ﬁrst proved by Hecke in a somewhat diﬀerent formulation. For the proof, see [S07, Theorem 3.2]. 8.3. For a Dirichlet character ψ and a positive integer N we put, as we did in §2.9, (8.8) LN (s, ψ) = ψ(n)n−s , (n, N )=1

where the sum is extended over the positive integers n prime to N. If ψ is primitive, then L1 (s, ψ) is the L-function of ψ, and is usually denoted by L(s, ψ). Let χ be the primitive character associated with ψ. Then (8.9) LN (s, ψ) = L(s, χ) 1 − χ(p)p−s . p|N

Thus the analytic properties of LN (s, ψ) can be reduced to those of L(s, χ), which can be summarized as follows. Let r be the conductor of χ and let χ(−1) = (−1)ν with ν = 0 or 1. Put (8.10) R(s, χ) = (r/π)(s+ν)/2 Γ (s + ν)/2 L(s, χ). Then R(s, χ) as a meromorphic function of s can be continued to the whole C, and satisﬁes the functional equation (8.10a)

R(s, χ) = W (χ)R(1 − s, χ) with W (χ) = i−ν r−1/2 G(χ),

where G(χ) is deﬁned by (2.3). Notice that |W (χ)| = 1 because of (2.3c). Moreover, R(s, χ) is entire except when χ is the principal character, in which case it is holomorphic on C except for simple poles at s = 0 and 1, with residues 1 and −1 respectively. These are well known, and in fact, can be obtained from Theorem 8.2 by taking f to be θψ of (5.7). For simplicity we treat here the case of nontrivial χ. (If χ is the principal character, then L(s, χ) = ζ(s), and its functional equation is well known.)

8. DIRICHLET SERIES AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

53

The notation being as in Lemma 5.5, put f (z) = θψ (z/r), f ∗ (z) = θψ¯ (z/r),

0 −r−1 α= , and ω = ψ(−1)r−1/2 G(ψ). Since jαk (z) = rk jιk (z), we have r 0 f (−1/z)r−k jιk (z/r)−1 = θψ (−1/rz)jαk (z/r)−1 = (θψ k α)(z/r). By (5.9) this can be written f (−1/z)z −ν (−iz)−1/2 = ωf ∗ (z).

(8.10b)

Take N = 1 in (8.6). Then the left-hand side of (8.10b) is i−ν f # . Thus f # = iν ωf ∗ = W (ψ)f ∗ with W (ψ) of (8.10a). We see that R(s, f ) = (2π)−s Γ (s) ∞ ∞ · n=1 ψ(n)nν (n2 /2r)−s = (r/π)s Γ (s) n=1 ψ(n)nν−2s , and so (8.10c) R (s + ν)/2, f = R(s, ψ). By (8.7b) we have R(k − s, f ) = R(s, f # ) = W (ψ)R(s, f ∗ ). Substituting (s + ν)/2 for k − s, we obtain (8.10a) with ψ in place of χ. We add here a formula that will be needed in Section A3. In [S07, p. 20] it was shown that ∞ ∞ f (iy)y k−s−1 dy + f # (iy)y s−1 dy, R(k − s, f ) = 1

and so

(8.10d) R(s, ψ) =

∞

f (iy)y

1 (s+ν−2)/2

1 ∞ ν n=1 ψ(n)n

dy + W (ψ)

∞

f ∗ (iy)y (ν−1−s)/2 dy.

1

exp(−πn2 y/r) and f ∗ (iy) is the series of the We have f (iy) = ¯ same type with ψ in place of ψ. 8.4. There are two types of Eisenstein series with respect to SL2 (Q). The ﬁrst type can be deﬁned for both integral and half-integral weights, but the second type can be deﬁned only for integral weights. There is also the question whether the series involves a complex variable, which is usually denoted by s. In this book we ﬁrst deﬁne the series with s, and specialize s to an element of 2−1 Z. We begin our discussion with two easy lemmas: / Lemma 8.5. + The series 0=(m,n)∈Z2 |mz + n|−σ with a ﬁxed z ∈ C, ∈ R, is convergent for 2 < σ ∈ R. Proof. Let L = Zz + Z. For 0 < n ∈ Z let Qn be the parallelogram on the plane C whose vertices are ±(nz + n) and ±(nz − n). Then there are exactly 8n points of L lying on the sides of Qn . Take r ∈ R, > 0, so that the circle |z| = r is inside Q1 . Then |ξ| ≥ nr for any ξ of such 8n points, and so for ∞ −σ σ > 0 we have 0=ξ∈L |ξ|−σ ≤ ∞ = 8r−σ n=1 n1−σ , which is n=1 8n(nr) convergent for σ > 2 as expected. 8.6. For two positive integers M and N we put (as we did in Theorem 7.5) (8.11) Γ (M, N ) = γ ∈ Γ (1) bγ ∈ M Z, cγ ∈ N Z . We also put

54

(8.11a)

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

Γ0 (N ) = Γ (1, N ),

Γ1 (N ) = γ ∈ Γ0 (N ) aγ − 1 ∈ N Z .

These are traditional. Notice that the condition aγ − 1 ∈ N Z is equivalent to dγ − 1 ∈ N Z. For a character ψ modulo M N we put (8.11b) M k (M, N ; ψ) = f ∈ M k f k γ = ψ(dγ )f for every γ ∈ Γ (M, N ) , S k (M, N ; ψ) = S k ∩ M k (M, N ; ψ),

(8.11c) (8.11d)

M k (N, ψ) = M k (1, N ; ψ),

S k (N, ψ) = S k (1, N ; ψ),

where we assume that M, N ∈ 2Z if k ∈ / Z. In fact, (8.11b) and (8.11c) are included in (7.6). Since f k (−1) = (−1)[k] f, we have M k (M, N ; ψ) = {0} if ψ(−1) = (−1)[k] . Observing that γ → aγ (mod N ) gives an isomor- × phism of Γ0 (N )/Γ 1 (N ) onto (Z/N Z) (if N > 1), we see that M k Γ1 (N ) resp. S k Γ1 (N ) is the direct sum of M k (N, ψ) resp. S k (N, ψ) for all characters ψ modulo N. For two characters ψ and χ modulo N we have $ # (8.11e) M k (N, ψ), S k (N, χ) = 0 if χ = ψ. This can be seen by taking α of (6.12) to be an element γ of Γ0 (N ) such that ψ(dγ ) = χ(dγ ). Lemma 8.7. Put Γ = Γ (M, N ) and Γ∞ = Γ ∩ P with ﬁxed M and N ; put also if M N > 1, (c, d) ∈ N Z × Z M cZ + dZ = Z, d > 0 M WN = {(1, 0)} ∪ (c, d) ∈ Z × Z cZ + dZ = Z, d > 0 if M N = 1. Then each coset Γ∞ α in Γ∞ \Γ contains an element γ such that (cγ , dγ ) ∈ WNM , and the map Γ∞ α → (cγ , dγ ) with such a γ gives a bijection of Γ∞ \Γ onto WNM . Proof. Since Γ∞ = γ ∈ Γ (0, 1)γ = ±(0, 1) and Γ∞ is generated by −1

1 M and , we easily see that the map from Γ∞ \Γ to WNM can be deﬁned 0 1 as described above and that it is injective. Conversely, let (c, d) ∈ WNM with M N > 1. Then d is prime to M

c, and so we can ﬁnd a, b ∈ Z such that a bM ad − M bc = 1. Put γ = . Then γ ∈ Γ and our map sends Γ∞ γ to c d (c, d), which proves our lemma when M N > 1. The case M N = 1 requires only an additional observation that (1, 0) corresponds to Γ∞ ι. 8.8. The ﬁrst type of Eisenstein series is deﬁned for any weight k and a congruence subgroup Γ = Γ (M, N ) with some M and N ; we assume that M ∈ 2Z and N ∈ 2Z if k ∈ / Z. We put Γ∞ = P ∩ Γ and (8.12) Ek (z, s) = Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) = ψ(dγ )y s k γ, γ∈Γ∞ \Γ

or more explicitly,

8. DIRICHLET SERIES AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

(8.12a)

Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) = y s

55

ψ(dγ )jγk (z)−1 |jγ (z)|−2s .

γ∈Γ∞ \Γ

Here z ∈ H, s ∈ C, y = Im(z), ψ is a character modulo M N such that ψ(−1) = (−1)[k] , and jγk is as in (5.1b). Clearly the sums of (8.12) and (8.12a) are formally well deﬁned. By Lemma 8.7, for σ = Re(s) these sums are majorized by yσ 0=(c, d)∈Z2 |cz +d|−2σ−k , which is convergent for 2σ+k > 2 by Lemma 8.5. Thus Ek (z, s) is deﬁned as a holomorphic function of s at least for Re(s) > 1 − k/2. Moreover, we easily see that Ek (γz, s) = ψ(dγ )−1 jγk (z)Ek (z, s) for every γ ∈ Γ, ¯ = y k Ek (z, s¯ − k; Γ, χ0 ψ), (8.13a) E−k (z, s; Γ, ψ) if k ∈ / Z; we where χ0 is the principal character if k ∈ Z and χ0 (d) = −1 d use (5.3c) for the proof of (8.13a). (8.13)

8.9. The second type of Eisenstein series is deﬁned for an integral weight k. For k ∈ Z, a positive integer N, and (p, q) ∈ Z2 we put s (8.14) EN (mz + n)−k |mz + n|−2s (z ∈ H, s ∈ C), k (z, s; p, q) = y (m, n)

where the sum is taken over all (m, n) ∈ Z2 such that 0 = (m, n) ≡ (p, q) (mod N Z2 ). From Lemma 8.5 we see that the series of (8.14) is convergent for Re(2s) + k > 2. Also, we can easily verify that N for every γ ∈ Γ (1), (8.14a) jγ (z)−k EN k (γz, s; p, q) = Ek z, s; (p, q)γ (8.14b) (8.14c)

k N EN ¯ − k; p, q), −k (z, s; p, q) = y Ek (z, s r rs ErN EN k (z, s; rp, q + iN ) k (rz, s; p, q) =

(0 < r ∈ Z),

i=1

(8.14d)

−k−2s N Ek (z, s; p, q) EhN k (z, s; hp, hq) = h

(0 < h ∈ Z).

Theorem 8.10. (i) If k ∈ Z, there is a real analytic function F (z, s) of (z, s) ∈ H×C which is holomorphic in s and coincides with s(s − 1)Γ (s + k )EN k (z, s; p, q) for Re(2s) + k > 2, where k = Max(k, 0). The factor s(s − 1) is unnecessary −2 if k = 0. If k = 0, then Γ (s)EN at s = 1, and 0 (z, s; p, q) has residue πN −δ(p/N )δ(q/N ) at s = 0, where δ(x) = 1 if x ∈ Z, and δ(x) = 0 otherwise. (ii) For every ﬁxed s ∈ C, F (z, s) as a function of z belongs to Ck Γ (N ) . Moreover, F (z, s) is slowly increasing at every cusp locally uniformly in s. Proof. In view of (8.14b) it is suﬃcient to prove the case k ≥ 0. The ﬁrst assertion can be proved in a rather elementary way as an application of Theorem 8.2. For details, the reader is referred to [S07, Theorem 9.7]. The ﬁrst part of (ii) follows from (8.14a), since EN k (z, s; p, q) depends only on

56

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

(p, q) modulo N Z2 . The second part of (ii) will be proven in §A3.7 of the Appendix. Notice that EN k (z, 0; p, q) is meaningful for k > 0. In particular, put (8.14e)

Ek (z) = 2−1 (2πi)−k E1k (z, 0; 0, 0)

(2 ≤ k ∈ 2Z).

Then Ek ∈ M k (Q) if k > 2; E2 is exactly the function of (7.10); see [S07, §9.2]. 8.11. For k ∈ Z, 0 < N ∈ Z, and a primitive or an imprimitive character ψ modulo N such that ψ(−1) = (−1)k , we put (8.15) EkN (z, s; ψ) = y s ψ(n)(mN z + n)−k |mN z + n|−2s , 0=(m, n)∈Z2

where we put ψ(n) = 0 if n is not prime to N. Notice that the sum over (m, n) is 0 if ψ(−1) = (−1)k . Again Lemma 8.5 guarantees the convergence of (8.15) for Re(s) > 1 − k/2. We easily see that N ψ(q)EN (8.16) EkN (z, s; ψ) = k (z, s; 0, q), q=1

and so from (8.14a) we obtain (8.16a)

jγ (z)−k EkN (γz, s; ψ) = ψ(aγ )EkN (z, s; ψ) for every γ ∈ Γ0 (N ).

From (8.16) and Theorem 8.10 we immediately obtain Theorem 8.12. (i) There is a real analytic function Fψ (z, s) of (z, s) ∈ H × C such that Fψ (z, s) = s(s − 1)Γ (s + k )EkN (z, s; ψ) for Re(2s) + k > 2, where k = Max(k, 0); moreover Fψ is holomorphic in s. The factor s(s − 1) is unnecessary if k = 0 or ψ is nontrivial. If k = 0 and ψ is trivial, then Γ (s)E0N (z, s; ψ) has residue πN −2 ϕ(N ) at s = 1, and −δ(1/N ) at s = 0, where ϕ is Euler’s function. (ii) For every ﬁxed s ∈ C, Fψ (z, s) as a function of z belongs to Ck Γ (N ) , and is slowly increasing at every cusp locally uniformly in s. 8.13. Returning to (8.12) with k ∈ Z, by Lemma 8.7 we have (8.17) Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) = y s ψ(d)(cz + d)−k |cz + d|−2s M (c,d)∈WN

for Γ = Γ (M, N ). Let us now assume that M |N and ψ is a character modulo N. Given mN z + n as in (8.15), put (m, n) = ±r(m , n ) with 0 < r ∈ Z and relatively prime m and n such that n > 0. If ψ(n) = 0, then (m N, n ) ∈ WNM . Therefore we ﬁnd that (8.18)

EkN (z, s; ψ) = 2LN (2s + k, ψ)Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ),

and so the analytic properties of Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) can be obtained from those of LN (s, ψ) and EkN (z, s; ψ). We note here only its residue at s = 1.

8. DIRICHLET SERIES AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

57

(8.19) For Γ = Γ (M, N ) and ψ as above and k ≥ 0, Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) has nonzero residue at s = 1 only if k = 0 and ψ is trivial, in which case the residue is (3/π)N −1 p|N (1 + p−1 )−1 . This follows from Theorem 8.12, since if χ0 is the principal character, then (8.19a) LN (2, χ0 ) = ζ(2) p|N (1 − p−2 ) and ζ(2) = π 2 /6. The case k ∈ / Z is more complex and diﬃcult. Indeed, we have the following theorem which will be proven in §A3.6 of the Appendix. Theorem 8.14. Suppose k ∈ / Z and Γ = Γ (M, N ) with N ∈ M Z ⊂ 2Z; put κ = 2k, λ = (1 − κ)/2, and λ0 = 0 or 1 according as λ is even or odd. For z ∈ H and s ∈ C put F ∗ (z, s) = (2s − λ − 1)LN (4s − 2λ, ψ 2 )E k (z, s; Γ, ψ) Γ (s)Γ s + (1 − λ − λ0 )/2 (κ ≤ 1), · (κ ≥ −1). Γ s + k Γ s + (λ0 − λ)/2 Then F ∗ (z, s) can be continued as a holomorphic function of s to the whole s-plane. for any ﬁxed s ∈ C, F ∗ (z, s) as a function of z belongs Moreover, to Ck Γ (N ) . Moreover, F ∗ (z, s) is slowly increasing at every cusp, locally uniformly in s. The factor 2s−λ−1 is necessary only if (|κ|+1)/2 is odd and ψ2 is trivial, in which case F ∗ (z, s) at s = (λ + 1)/2 is a nonzero function on H, whose nature is described in Theorem 8.16 below when k > 0. Theorem 8.15. (i) If 0 < k ∈ Z, then Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) with Γ = Γ (M, N ) and ψ as in (8.12) is ﬁnite at s = 0 and Ek (z, 0; Γ, ψ) belongs to M k (Qab ) except when k = 2 and ψ is trivial, in which case it is a nonholomorphic element of N 21 (Qab ). Moreover, Ek (z, 0; Γ, ψ)σ = Ek (z, 0; Γ, ψ σ ) for every σ ∈ Gal(Qab /Q). (ii) If 0 < k ∈ Z, then EkN (z, s; ψ) is ﬁnite at s = 1−k and EkN (z, 1−k; ψ) belongs to πM k (Qab ) except when k = 2 and N = 1, in which case it is a nonholomorphic element of πN 21 (Qab ). Moreover, k σ i G(ψ)−1 π −1 EkN (z, 1 − k; ψ) = ik G(ψσ )−1 π −1 EkN (z, 1 − k; ψ σ ) for every σ ∈ Gal(Qab /Q), where G(ψ) is the Gauss sum deﬁned in §2.7. (iii) If 3/2 ≤ k ∈ / Z, then Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) of (8.12) is ﬁnite at s = 0, and Ek (z, 0; Γ, ψ) belongs to M k (Qab ) except when k = 3/2 and ψ 2 is trivial. Moreover, when it belongs to M k (Qab ) we have Ek (z, 0; Γ, ψ)σ = Ek (z, 0; Γ, ψ σ ) for every σ ∈ Gal(Qab /Q). (iv) If 3/2 ≤ k ∈ / Z, then LN (4s + 2k − 1, ψ2 )Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) is ﬁnite at s = 1 − k and its value at s = 1 − k is π times a nonzero element of M k (Qab ) except when k = 3/2 and ψ 2 is trivial. Denote this Qab -rational element times 2k i[k] G(ψ)−1 by Ck∗ (Γ, ψ), that is,

58

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

Ck∗ (Γ, ψ) = 2k i[k] G(ψ)−1 π −1 LN (4s + 2k − 1, ψ 2 )Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) s=1−k . Then Ck∗ (Γ, ψ)σ = Ck∗ (Γ, ψ σ ) for every σ ∈ Gal(Qab /Q). Proof. Suppose k ∈ Z. From (8.16) and (8.18) we obtain 2(πi)−k LN (k, ψ)Ek (z, 0; Γ, ψ) =

N

ψ(q)(πi)−k EN k (z, 0; 0, q).

q=1

Let A(ψ) denote the right-hand side times G(ψ)−1 , and let σ ∈ Aut(C). In [S07, (9.4)] we gave a Fourier expansion of (πi)−k EN k (z, 0; p, q), which shows that A(ψ) is Qab -rational. Applying σ to the expansion and employing (2.17b), we ﬁnd that A(ψ)σ = A(ψ σ ). Combining this with Lemma 2.10, we obtain (i). Assertion (ii) can be derived similarly from (8.16) and [S07, (9.14)]. In the case k ∈ / Z assertion (iii) will be proven in §A3.8 and (iv) in §A3.9 of the Appendix. Notice that 4s + 2k − 1 becomes 3 − 2k at s = 1 − k, and 0 ≥ 3 − 2k ∈ 2Z if k ≥ 3/2. Since Γ (s/2)LN (s, ψ 2 ) is ﬁnite for Re(s) ≤ 0, we see that LN (m, ψ 2 ) = 0 for every m ∈ 2Z, ≤ 0. Thus LN (4s + 2k − 1, ψ 2 ) = 0 at s = 1 − k. For this reason, Theorem 8.15(iv) cannot be given as a statement on the value of Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) at s = 1 − k. Similarly, Theorem 8.15(ii) cannot be stated in terms of Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) at s = 1 − k. Theorem 8.16. Let the notation be as in Theorem 8.14 with k ∈ / Z; suppose that k > 0, λ is even, and ψ 2 is trivial. Then F ∗ (z, s) is nonzero at s = (λ + 1)/2, and the following assertions hold: (i) If k = 1/2, then λ = 0, and F ∗ (z, 1/2) belongs to π3/2 M 1/2 (Qab ). More precisely, F ∗ (z, 1/2) = π 3/2 ξ∈Q μ(ξ)e(tξ 2 z/2) with 0 < t ∈ Q and a Qab -valued element μ of L (Q). (ii) If k > 1/2, then k = 2p + 1/2 with 0 < p ∈ Z, and F ∗ z, (λ + 1)/2 belongs to π 3/2+p N kp (Qab ). Proof. Assertion (i) will be proven in §A3.10 of the Appendix. To prove (ii), we take the operator δkp of (6.13d) and Dkp of (7.11). Then we have (8.20)

Dkp Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) = (−4π)−p εk (s)Ek+2p (z, s − p; Γ, ψ) with

p−1

εk (s) =

(s + k + a) = Γ (s + k + p)/Γ (s + k).

a=0

(This is true even for integral k.) Indeed, we can easily verify (by induction on p, for example) that δkp y s = (2i)−p εk (s)y s−p . By (6.14c), δkp (y s k γ) = (δkp y s )k+2p γ = (2i)−p εk (s)y s−p k+2p γ for every γ ∈ Γ, and so we obtain (8.20) at least formally. To justify termwise diﬀerentiation of the inﬁnite series of (8.12), we note a well-known principle on the validity of (d/dx) γ∈A fγ (x) = γ∈A dfγ /dx. If it is applied to (8.12) p times, then we see that (8.20) holds

8. DIRICHLET SERIES AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

59

at least for suﬃciently large Re(s). Since δkp commutes with ∂/∂¯ s, we easily see that the left-hand side of (8.20) is meromorphic in s when Ek (z, s) is deﬁned, and the same is true with the right-hand side. This proves (8.20) in the domain of s in which both sides of (8.20) are meaningful as meromorphic functions. (There are alternative methods that are applicable to the case of many complex variables instead of a single z. We refer the reader to Lemma A in [S02, vol. III, p. 922].) Now in the setting of (ii) put −λ = 2p. Then 0 < p ∈ Z and k = 2p + p 1/2, and so from (8.20) we obtain (2i)p δ1/2 E1/2 (z, s + p) = ε0 Ek (z, s) with ∗ ε0 = Γ (s + k)/Γ (s + p + 1/2). Let Fk denote F ∗ of Theorem 8.14. Then, after verifying the cancellation of all gamma factors, we see that Fk∗ (z, s) = p p p ∗ ∗ ∗ F1/2 (z, 1/2) (2i) δ1/2 F1/2 (z, s+ p), and therefore Fk z, (λ+ 1)/2 = (2i)p δ1/2 p p ∗ ∗ = (−4π) D1/2 F1/2 (z, 1/2). By Lemma 7.8(i) we see that Fk z, (λ + 1)/2 belongs to π3/2+p N kp (Qab ). This proves (ii) and completes the proof. Lemma 8.17. Let 0 < m ∈ Z and f ∈ M k (M, N ; ψ) in the notation of §8.6; suppose 2|M and 2|N if k ∈ / Z. Then the following assertions hold. (i) Put g1 (z) = f (mz) and g2 (z) = f (z/m). Then g1 ∈ M k

(M, mN ; χ) m ψ(a) if and g2 ∈ M k (mM, N ; χ), where χ = ψ if k ∈ Z and χ(a) = a k∈ / Z. Moreover, g2 ∈ M k (mM, N/m; χ) if 2m|N. (ii) The map f → f k ι is a bijection of M k (M, N ; ψ) onto M k (N, M ; ψ −1 ) and (f k ι)k ι = (−1)[k] f. / Z and 0 < K ∈ 4Z deﬁne f τ by (iii) For f ∈ M k (2, K/2; ψ) with k ∈ τ k −1 f (z) = f (−4/Kz)jι (z) . Then

f →f τ is a bijection of M k (2, K/2; ψ) K ψ(a)−1 and (f τ )τ = (−1)[k] (K/4)k f. onto M k (2, K/2; ζ), where ζ(a) = a (iv) The forms g1 , g2 , f k ι and f τ belong to S k if f ∈ S k .

a mb a b . ∈ Γ (M, mN ) with d > 0 put β = Proof. For α = c/m d c d Then β ∈ Γ (M, N ) and g1 (αz) = f β(mz) = ψ(d)jβk (mz)f (mz). We have

m [k] [k] clearly jβ (mz) = jα (z) and hβ (mz) = hα (z) by (4.40). Thus g1 ∈ d

a b/m M k (M, mN ; χ) in view of Lemma 5.4. As for g2 , taking in cm d place of β, we obtain the desired results in the same way. To prove (ii), put δ = ι−1 γι for γ ∈ Γ (M, N ). Then δ ∈ Γ (N, M ) and aδ = dγ , and so (ii) can easily be veriﬁed. In the proof of (i) suppose 2m|N ; then we see that g2 ∈ M k (mM, N/m; χ). Now, to prove (iii), take M = 2, N = K/2, and m = K/4. Then g 2 (z)= f (4z/K) and f τ = g2 k ι. Thus g2 ∈ M k (K/2, 2; χ) K ψ(a), and f τ ∈ M k (2, K/2; χ−1 ) by (ii). Now (f τ )τ (z) = with χ(a) = a

60

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

f (z)jιk (−4/Kz)−1jιk (z)−1 . We easily see that jι (−4/Kz)jι (z) = (−4/K)[k] and hι (−4/Kz)hι(z) is (4/K)1/2 times an element t of T. Taking z = iy with y > 0, we ﬁnd that t = 1, and so jιk (−4/Kz)jιk(z) = (−1)[k] (4/K)k , which completes the proof of (iii). Assertion (iv) follows immediately from the last statement of §5.8. [k]

[k]

Lemma 8.18. Let M, N, K be positive integers such that K ∈ M N Z.

1 0 1 M , and Γ (K, K). , Then Γ (M, N ) can be generated by N 1 0 1 Proof. This is not so easy as it looks. We put U = p SL2 (Zp ), E(M ) = p Ep (M ), E (N ) = p Ep (N ), and D(M, N ) = p Dp (M, N ), where p runs over all prime numbers and 1 b 1 0 , E Ep (M ) = b ∈ M Z c ∈ N Z (N ) = p p , p 0 1 c 1 Dp (M, N ) = γ ∈ SL2 (Zp ) bγ ∈ M Zp , cγ ∈ N Zp . Then D(M, N ) can be generated by E(M ), E (N ), and D(K, K). To prove this, we ﬁrst note that Dp (M, N ) = Dp (K, K) if p K. Thus it is suﬃcient to show that Dp (M, N ) is generated by Ep (M ), Ep (N ), and Dp (K, K) if p|K. If p M N, then Dp (M, N ) = SL2 (Zp ), and the fact is easy to verify, noting that

0 −1 1 −1 1 0 1 −1 = . 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1

a b ∈ Dp (M, N ). Then a ∈ Z× Suppose p|M N and let α = p and c d

a 0 a b 1 ba−1 1 0 , = −1 −1 0 1 0 a c d a c 1 and so we obtain the desired fact. Now put H= Hp , Hp = w ∈ Dp (K, K) w − 1 ≺ KZp . p

Then H is a normal subgroup of U. Let β ∈ Γ (M, N ). Since β ∈ D(M, N ), we have β = u1 · · · um with ui ∈ E(M ) ∪ E (N ) ∪ D(K, K). By strong approximation in SL2 (Q) (see [S71, Lemmas 1.38 and 6.15] or [S10, Theorem 10.21], for example) we can put ui = γi vi with γi ∈ SL2 (Q)

and vi ∈ H. 1 Mb If ui ∈ E(M ), then clearly we can take γi of the form γi = with 1

0 1 0 b ∈ Z; similarly, if ui ∈ E (N ), then we can take γi = with c ∈ Z. If Nc 1 ui ∈ D(K, K), then γi − ui ≺ KZp for every p|K, and so γi ∈ Γ (K, K). Put γ = γ1 · · · γm . Then we see that β = γz with z ∈ H, that is, γ −1 β ∈ Γ (K, K). This proves our lemma. This lemma can be generalized to the case of Sp(n, F ) with an arbitrary algebraic number ﬁeld F ; see [S93, Lemma 3b.4].

8. DIRICHLET SERIES AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

61

8.19. Let us add some technical and historical remarks on the Eisenstein series discussed in this section. Let Ek (z, s) denote any function belonging to types (8.12), (8.14), and (8.15). If the series expressing Ek (z, s) is absolutely convergent at s = 0, then obviously Ek (z, 0) is a holomorphic function in z, which one can deﬁne without the parameter s. For example, if it is of type (8.12) with k ∈ Z, the function is γ∈Γ∞ \Γ ψ(dγ )jγk (z)−1 , which is meaningful only for k ≥ 3. In order to include the cases k = 1 and 2, Hecke introduced in [H27] the parameter s and proved that Ek (z, s) can be continued analytically to a neighborhood of 0, and obtained the explicit forms of the Fourier expansions of the value at s = 0. Similar results in the case of half-integral weight were obtained by Maass. However, neither Hecke nor Maass investigated analytic continuation of Ek (z, s) as a meromorphic function in s on the whole complex plane. Analytic continuation of Ek (z, s), especially in the case k = 0, was investigated by several researchers, Rankin [Ra39] for example. The proof of the fact alone is not diﬃcult. However, it is important to show that Ek (z, s) is slowly increasing at every cusp locally uniformly in s, which guarantees the convergence of the integral of the type (8.27) below, a highly nontrivial fact that almost all authors took for granted without proof. I found that the Fourier expansion of Ek involving both z and s was also important, and conﬂuent hypergeometric functions were quite eﬀective in obtaining such basic pieces of information. In fact, I investigated such Fourier expansions in [S75], and eventually similar expansions, as well as analytic continuation, of Eisenstein series on Hn . In §A2 of the Appendix we will give an exposition of conﬂuent hypergeometric functions, and employing them, we will discuss in the next section various properties of Ek (z, s) in the context of eigenforms of the operator Lk of (6.13c). 8.20. For f ∈ M k with k ∈ 2−1 Z we put μf (ξ)e(ξz). (8.21) f (z) = 0≤ξ∈Q

Let f ∈ M k (K, M ; ψ) and g ∈ M (K , M ; ϕ) with characters ψ and ϕ. We naturally assume (see §8.6) (8.22)

ψ(−1) = (−1)[k] ,

ϕ(−1) = (−1)[] .

We now deﬁne a Dirichlet series D(s; f, g) by (8.23) D(s; f, g) = μf (ξ)μg (ξ)ξ −s−(k+)/2 . 0 (k + )/2 + 1. Thus D(s; f, g) is holomorphic for such s. We assume: (8.24) k ≥ and f is a cusp form.

62

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

To ﬁnd an integral expression for (8.23), we ﬁrst take gρ deﬁned by (5.14) with n = 1 and g in place of f there, and observe that μf (ξ)μg (η)e2πi(ξ−η)x e−2π(ξ+η)y f (z)gρ (z) = 0 (k + )/2 + 1. The expression of a series of type (8.23) by an integral of type (8.27) was ﬁrst given in [Ra39] by Rankin when g = fρ and k ∈ Z. Thus this technique may be called Rankin’s transformation. We will later use this transformation at various places. Let us now put if k − ∈ Z, LN (2s + 2, ω) (8.28) DN (s; f, g) = D(s; f, g) · 2 LN (4s + 3, ω ) if k − ∈ / Z, ⎧ if k − ∈ Z,

1

k− ⎨

k+ ˜ Γ s+1+ · (8.29) Γ (s) = Γ s+ 3 λ ⎩ Γ s + + 0 if k − ∈ 2 2 / Z, 4 2 where λ0 is 0 or 1 according as [k − ] is even or odd. Theorem 8.21. Under (8.24) the product Γ˜ (s)DN (s; f, g) can be continued to the whole s-plane as a meromorphic function, which is holomorphic except for possible simple poles at the following points: s = 0 only if k = and ϕψ is trivial; s = −1 only if k = ∈ Z and N = 1; s = −1/4 only if ψ 2 ϕ2 is trivial and k − − 1/2 ∈ 2Z. The residue of DN (s; f, g) at s = 0 is π 2+k Γ (k)−1 gρ , f r0 , where r0 is a positive rational number that depends on the choice of the levels of f and g. Proof. Suppose k − ∈ Z; then by Theorem 8.12, s(s − 1)Γ (s + k − N )Ek− (z, s; ω) is entire in s; moreover, for each ﬁxed s the product as a function of z is slowly increasing at every cusp locally uniformly in s. Since f is a cusp form, we see that s(s + 1)LN (2s + 2, ω)Γ s + 1 + (k − )/2 times the right-hand side of (8.27) is meaningful for the reason explained in §6.5; s(s + 1) is unnecessary if k = or ω is nontrivial. From the reasoning there we also see that the integral is convergent locally uniformly in s. Suppose k = and ω is trivial; then a pole may occur at s = 0 and s = −1. By Theorem 8.12 we ﬁnd that the residue of DN (s; f, g) at s = 0 is N −1 Γ (k)−1 (4π)k μ(Φ) gρ , f · 2−1 πN −2 ϕ(N ). By (6.6), μ(Φ) ∈ πQ, and so we obtain the residue as stated in our theorem. Next suppose k − ∈ / Z. We apply Theorem 8.14 to Ek− (· · · ) in (8.27). ∗ Deﬁne κ, λ, and F (z, s) as in that theorem. Then we ﬁnd that κ = 2k − 2, λ = −[k − ], and F ∗ z, s + ( − k)/2 + 1 equals

λ0 k− 3 −k 2 (2s+1/2)LN (4s+3, ω )Γ s+ 2 Γ s+ 4 + 2 Ek− z, s+ 2 +1; Γ, ω ¯ .

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III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

Then we obtain the results in this case as stated in our theorem. This completes the proof. If f and g of §8.20 are eigenfunctions of Hecke operators of integral weight, then D(s; f, g) has an Euler product that can be given as follows. ∞ Lemma 8.22. Let f (z) = n=1 a(n)e(nz) ∈ S k (N, ψ) and g(z) = ∞ b(n)e(nz) ∈ M (M, ϕ) with k, ∈ Z. Suppose that these are nor n=0 malized eigenfunctions of Hecke operators in the sense that we can put ∞ −1 a(n)n−s = , 1 − a(p)p−s + ψ(p)pk−1−s p

n=1 ∞

b(n)n−s

−1 = , 1 − b(p)p−s + ϕ(p)p−1−s p

n=1

where p means the product over all the prime numbers p (see [S71,Theorem 3.43]). Taking an indeterminate X, put, for each prime number p, X 2 − a(p)X + ψ(p)pk−1 = (X − αp )(X − βp ), X 2 − b(p)X + ϕ(p)p−1 = (X − γp )(X − δp ) with complex numbers αp , βp , γp , δp . Then ∞ a(n)b(n)n−s LN M (2s + 2 − k − , ψϕ) n=1

−1 = (1 − αp γp p−s )(1 − αp δp p−s )(1 − βp γp p−s )(1 − βp δp p−s ) . p

Proof. We have ∞

∞ n=0

−1 a(pn )X n = 1 − a(p)X + ψ(p)pk−1 X 2 , and so

(αnp − βpn )X n = (1 − αp X)−1 − (1 − βp X)−1

n=0

∞ −1 = (αp − βp )X (1 − αp X)(1 − βp X) = (αp − βp ) a(pn )X n+1 . n=0

Thus we obtain a(p ) = − − βp ) if αp = βp . Similarly, −s = b(pn ) = (γpn+1 − δpn+1 )/(γp − δp ) if γp = δp . Now ∞ m=1 a(m)b(m)m ∞ n n −ns and a(p )b(p )p n=0 p n

(αp − βp )(γp − δp )

∞ n=0

(αn+1 p

βpn+1 )/(αp

a(pn )b(pn )X n =

∞

(αn+1 − βpn+1 )(γpn+1 − δpn+1 )X n p

n=0

αp δp βp γp βp δp αp γp − − + = 1 − αp γp X 1 − αp δp X 1 − βp γ p X 1 − βp δp X =

(αp − βp )(γp − δp )(1 − αp βp γp δp X 2 ) . (1 − αp γp X)(1 − αp δp X)(1 − βp γp X)(1 − βp δp X)

8. DIRICHLET SERIES AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

65

This gives the desired result when αp = βp and γp = δp . However, we have n n i and b(pn ) = i=0 γpn−i δpi unconditionally, and so our a(pn ) = i=0 αn−i p βp n n n−i i n−i i δp X n , which is valid result is a formula for ∞ n=0 i=0 αp βp i=0 γp even if αp = βp or γp = δp . This completes the proof. ∞ Theorem 8.23. Given f (z) = n=1 a(n)e(nz) ∈ S k (N, ψ) and a primitive or an imprimitive Dirichlet character χ, put (8.30)

D(s; f, χ) = LN (2s − 2k + 2, χ2 ψ 2 )

∞

χ(n)a(n2 )n−s

n=1

and χ(−1) = (−1) with μ = 0 or 1. Put also Γ˜ (s) = Γ (s/2)Γ (s + 1)/2 Γ (s − k − 1 + λ0 )/2 , where λ0 = 0 or 1 according as k − μ − 1 is even or odd. Then Γ˜ (s)D(s; f, χ) can be continued to a meromorphic function on the whole complex plane, which is holomorphic except for a possible simple pole at s = k, that occurs only if ψ2 χ2 is trivial and k − μ − 1 ∈ 2Z. Proof. Put θ1 (z) = 2−1 m∈Z χ(m)mμ e(m2 z). Then θ1 (z) = θχ (2z) with θχ of (5.7). Suppose χ is deﬁned modulo r; then by Lemmas

5.5 and 8 2 8.17, θ1 ∈ M (2, 4r ; χ1 ), where = μ + 1/2 and χ1 (a) = χ(a). We a then see that ∞ χ(m)a(m2 )m−2s−k−1/2 , D(s; f, θ1 ) = μ

m=1

and so D(s; f, χ) = L(2s − 2k + 2, χ2 ψ 2 )D(s/2 − k/2 − 1/4; f, θ1 ). Comparing this with (8.28), we ﬁnd that D(s; f, χ) = DM (s/2 − k/2 − 1/4; f, θ1 ), where M is the least common multiple of N and 4r2 . Thus we obtain the desired result from Theorem 8.21. The above theorem was essentially given in [S75, Theorem 1], which stated that another pole at s = k − 1 might occur, but that is not the case as shown here. The pole at s = k can indeed happen; see Theorem 2 and the discussion on page 97 of that paper. Notice that if k − μ − 1 ∈ 2Z, then (ψχ)(−1) = −1, and so ψχ is nontrivial. Lemma 8.24. Suppose that f of Theorem 8.23 is a normalized Hecke eigenform as in Lemma 8.22; deﬁne αp and βp as in that lemma. Then −1 D(s; f, χ) = (1 − χ(p)α2p p−s )(1 − χ(p)αp βp p−s )(1 − χ(p)βp2 p−s ) . p

66

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

Proof. We have and (αp − βp )

∞

n=1 χ(n)a(n

∞

2

)n−s =

a(p2m )X m =

m=0

∞

∞ p

m=0

χ(p)m a(p2m )p−2ms ,

(α2m+1 − βp2m+1 )X m p

m=0

αp βp (αp − βp )(1 + αp βp X) = − = 1 − α2p X 1 − βp2 X (1 − α2p X)(1 − βp2 X) −1 . = (αp − βp )(1 − α2p βp2 X 2 ) (1 − α2p X)(1 − αp βp X)(1 − βp2 X) Thus we obtain the desired equality. The result is valid even if αp = βp for the reason explained at the end of the proof of Lemma 8.22. Comparing this with the case f = g in Lemma 8.22, we obtain ∞ (8.31) L(s − k + 1, χψ)D(s; f, χ) = L(2s − 2k + 2, χ2 ψ 2 ) χ(n)a(n)2 n−s n=1

(8.32)

= L(2s − 2k + 2, χ2 ψ 2 )D(s − k; f, h), ∞ ∞ L(s − k + 1, χψ) χ(n)a(n2 )n−s = χ(n)a(n)2 n−s , ∞

n=1

n=1

where h(z) = n=1 χ(n)a(n)e(nz). By Lemma 7.13, h ∈ S k (M, ψχ2 ) with a multiple M of N, and so the analytic continuation of D(s, f, h) follows from Theorem 8.21. Therefore we can derive the analytic continuation of D(s; f, χ) also by combining this with (8.31), but this gives a weaker result than Theorem 8.23, because of the factor L(s − k + 1, χψ). 9. Eisenstein series as automorphic eigenforms 9.1. Given a congruence subgroup Γ of Γ (1) and a weight k (not necessarily ≥ 0) we consider a C ∞ function f on H satisfying the following three conditions: (9.1a)

f k γ = f for every γ ∈ Γ ;

(9.1b)

Lk f = λf with λ ∈ C, where Lk is as in (6.13c);

(9.1c)

f is slowly increasing at every cusp, that is, f satisﬁes (6.9a).

Such an f is called an automorphic eigenform, or simply, an eigenform of Lk belonging to the eigenvalue λ. It is also called a Maass form, as Maass introduced this type of function and made some fundamental contributions in [Ma49] and [Ma53]. We denote by Ak (Γ, λ) the set of all such functions f. / Z. We put We naturally assume that Γ ⊂ Γ θ if k ∈ ∞ (9.2) Ak (λ) = Ak Γ (2N ), λ . N =1

9. EISENSTEIN SERIES AS AUTOMORPHIC EIGENFORMS

67

By (6.14d), for every f ∈ Ak (λ) and α ∈ SL2 (Q), we see that jα (z)−k f (αz) ∈ / Z, then we have to invoke Theorem Ak (λ). This is clear if k ∈ Z, but if k ∈ 4.7(4); cf. Lemma 5.4. If f is holomorphic, then Lk f = 4δk−2 εf = 0, since ε = −y 2 ∂/∂ z¯, and so from Lemma 6.4(i) we see that (9.3) M k consists of the holomorphic elements of Ak (0). As the title of this section indicates, we are mainly interested in the signiﬁcance of Eisenstein series among eigenforms in general; we will not investigate much about the so-called cusp eigenforms, though we will deﬁne them and prove a few of their elementary properties. If f ∈ Ak (Γ, λ), we have f (z + b) = f (z) for b ∈ N Z for some positive integer N, for the same reason as in (3.6a). Therefore, putting r = N −1 , we see that f (x + iy) as a function of x has a Fourier expansion ch (y)e(hx) (9.4) f (x + iy) = h∈rZ

with C ∞ functions ch (y) of y. It should be noted that h may be negative. Moreover, termwise partial diﬀerentiation is valid (see [S07, §A2]), and so (2πih)a (∂/∂y)b ch (y)e(hx) (∂/∂x)a (∂/∂y)b f (x + iy) = h∈rZ

for every a and b. Therefore, applying Lk to (9.4), we ﬁnd that ch is a solution of the diﬀerential equation 2 (9.5) y (d/dy)2 + ky · d/dy − 4π 2 h2 y 2 + 2πhky + λ c(y) = 0. If h = 0, the solutions of this equation are given by Whittaker functions, which we use in the form ∞ (9.6) V (y; α, β) = e−y/2 Γ (β)−1 y β e−yt (1 + t)α−1 tβ−1 dt, 0

where 0 < y ∈ R and (α, β) ∈ C2 . The last integral is convergent for Re(β) > 0. In fact, V (y; α, β) can be deﬁned as a holomorphic function of (α, β) on the whole C2 . In §A2 of the Appendix we give an exposition of some basic facts on this function. Given k and λ ∈ C, we take (α, β) ∈ C2 so that (9.7)

k = α − β,

λ = β(1 − α),

and deﬁne a function Wk (t, λ) for t ∈ R× by V (4πt; α, β) if t > 0, (9.8) Wk (t, λ) = −k |4πt| V (|4πt|; β, α) if t < 0. If (α, β) is a solution of (9.7), then the other solution is (1 − β, 1 − α) (which may be equal to (α, β)), but Wk (t, λ) is determined by k and λ, since V (y; 1 − β, 1 − α) = V (y; α, β), as will be shown in Lemma A2.2 of the Appendix.

68

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

Returning to ch (y) of (9.4), we have 1/r f (x + iy)e(−hx)dx, (9.9) ch (y) = r 0

and so (9.1c) implies that ch (y) = O(y B ) as y → ∞ with B ∈ R. By Lemma A2.4 of the Appendix every solution c of (9.5) such that c(y) = O(y B ) as y → ∞ is a constant times Wk (hy, λ), and vice versa. Thus ch (y) = bh Wk (hy, λ) with bh ∈ C, and so bh Wk (hy, λ)e(hx) (9.10) f (x + iy) = b0 (y) + 0=h∈rZ ∞

with a C function b0 . We call this the Fourier expansion of f, and b0 the constant term of f. (The word “constant” is used with respect to the variable x, and b0 (y) may involve y nontrivially.) Let α ∈ SL2 (Q). Then jα (z)−k f (αz) belongs to Ak (λ), and so has a Fourier expansion of the type (9.10). We call f a cusp form if the constant term of jα (z)−k f (αz) is 0 for every α ∈ SL2 (Q), and we denote by Sk (λ) the set of cusp forms of Ak (λ), and put Sk (Γ, λ) = Ak (Γ, λ) ∩ Sk (λ). Taking h = 0 in (9.5), we obtain a diﬀerential equation y 2 b0 + kyb0 + λb0 = 0,

(9.11)

which is easy to solve. Indeed, let X 2 + (k − 1)X + λ = (X − p)(X − q) with p, q ∈ C, and p = q if and only if 4λ = (k − 1)2 ; if 4λ = (k − 1)2 , then X 2 + (k − 1)X + λ = (X − p)2 with p = (1 − k)/2. With these p and q equation (9.11) has linearly independent solutions as follows: (9.12a)

y p and y q with p + q = 1 − k and pq = λ if 4λ = (k − 1)2 ,

(9.12b)

y p and y p log y with p = (1 − k)/2 if 4λ = (k − 1)2 .

Thus b0 is a C-linear combination of these two functions in each case. We call the eigenvalue λ critical in the latter case. Lemma 9.2. For f, b0 , and bh as in (9.10), the following assertions hold: (i) There exist two positive constants M and m such that |bh | ≤ M |h|k/2+m for every h ∈ rZ, = 0. Moreover, we can take m = 0 if f is a cusp form. (ii) There exist positive constants A, B, and C such that bh Wk (hy, λ) ≤ Ae−By if y ≥ C. y k/2 0=h∈rZ

(iii) Sk (λ) consists of all the elements of Ak (λ) that are rapidly decreasing at every cusp. (iv) Sk (0) = S k . Proof. We have

bh Wk (hy, λ) = r

f (x + iy)e(−hx)dx, 0

and so by Lemma 6.4(iv) we have

1/r

9. EISENSTEIN SERIES AS AUTOMORPHIC EIGENFORMS

69

k/2 y bh Wk (hy, λ) ≤ A(y c + y −c )

(9.13) with positive Appendix we a constant d 2−1 e−y/2 if y

constants A and c independent of h. In Lemma A2.5 of the will show that limy→∞ ey/2 V (y; α, β) = 1. Thus we can ﬁnd > 1 such that |V (y; α, β)| ≥ 2−1 e−y/2 and |V (y; β, α)| ≥ > d, and so by (9.8) we obtain −1 −2πhy 2 e if h > 0 and 4πhy > d, (9.14) |Wk (hy, λ)| ≥ −1 −2π|h|y −k 2 e |4πhy| if h < 0 and 4π|h|y > d. Dividing (9.13) by this, we can ﬁnd a positive constant M independent of h such that 1 if h > 0 and 4πhy > d, |bh | ≤ M e2π|h|y y −k/2 (y c + y −c ) · |hy|k if h < 0 and 4π|h|y > d. Taking y = d/|2πh|, we obtain |bh | ≤ M ed |h|k/2+c with a constant M independent of h. This proves the ﬁrst part of (i). By Lemma A2.2(i) of the Appendix we have, for any positive number y0 , (9.15)

|V (y; α, β)| + |V (y; β, α)| ≤ A1 e−y/2

for y > y0

with a positive constant A1 . Combining this with (i), we obtain bh Wk (hy, λ) ≤ A2 y k/2 y k/2 |h|k/2+m e−2π|h|y . 0=h∈rZ

0=h∈rZ

for y > 1/2 with a constant A2 > 0. Put |h| = rn with 0 < n ∈ Z. Then ∞ the last sum is majorized by 2ra e−πry n=1 na e−πrny with an integer a ≥ ∞ k/2 + m. We have n=1 na xn = xPa (x)/(1 − x)a+1 with a polynomial Pa of degree a − 1, and so we obtain the estimate of (ii). If f ∈ Ak (λ), then (ii) is applicable to f k α for every α ∈ SL2 (Q). If f ∈ Sk (λ) in particular, (ii) implies that f is rapidly decreasing at every cusp. Conversely, if an element f of Ak (λ) is rapidly decreasing at every cusp, then from (9.9) with h = 0 we see that limy→∞ y c b0 (y) = 0 for every c ∈ R, and so b0 = 0. This is so for f k α in place of f for every α ∈ SL2 (Q). Thus f ∈ Sk (λ). This proves (iii). Returning to (i), suppose f is a cusp form; then Lemma 6.4(v) combined with (iii) shows that |y k/2 f | is bounded on H, and so we can take c = 0 in (9.13). Thus |bh | ≤ M |h|k/2 , which proves the last part of (i). As for (iv), we have S k ⊂ Sk (0) by (9.3) combined with (iii). Let f ∈ Sk (0). As will be shown in Lemma 9.3 below, εf is rapidly decreasing at every cusp. Therefore, by Corollary 6.9(ii), f ∈ S k . This proves (iv) and completes the proof. Remark. For h > 0 and λ = 0 we have Wk (hy, 0) = V (4πhy; k, 0) = e by (A2.3) of the Appendix, and so Wk (hy, 0)e(hx) = e(hz). Thus the Fourier expansion of an element of M k is a special case of (9.10), and (i) of the above lemma includes Lemma 6.2(ii, iii) as special cases. −2πhy

70

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

Lemma 9.3. Let ε and δk be as in (6.13a, b). Then the following assertions hold: (i) εAk (Γ, λ) ⊂ Ak−2 (Γ∗ , λ − k + 2). (ii) δk Ak (Γ, λ) ⊂ Ak+2 (Γ ∗ , λ + k). (iii) These inclusions are true with S in place of A. (iv) Sk (Γ, λ) contains a nonholomorphic function only if 0 < λ ∈ R. For the moment we have Γ∗ = Γ ∗ = Γ. In §9.5 we will generalize the notion of A congruence subgroup, and explain the meaning of Γ∗ and Γ ∗ . Proof. Let f ∈ Ak (Γ, λ). Then, from (6.14a, b, e) we easily see that εf and δk f satisfy (9.1a, b) with k and λ modiﬁed as in (i) and (ii). Thus our task is to show that they are slowly increasing at every cusp. We see that Wk (hy, λ)e(hx) equals ϕA (x + iy; k, λ) of (A2.9) of the Appendix with A = 2πh, and so from (A2.10) and (A2.11) of the Appendix we obtain (8πih)−1 λ if h > 0, ε Wk (hy, λ)e(hx) = Wk−2 (hy, λ + 2 − k)e(hx) · (8πih)−1 if h < 0, 2πih if h > 0, δk Wk (hy, λ)e(hx) = Wk+2 (hy, λ + k)e(hx) · 2πih(λ + k) if h < 0. Therefore, if f is as in (9.10), then εf = εb0 + ch Wk−2 (hy, λ + 2 − k)e(hx) h=0 −1

with ch = (8πih) λbh if h > 0 and ch = (8πih)−1 bh if h < 0. By Lemma 9.2(i), |ch | = M |h|(k−2)/2+m with positive constants M and m. Since the technique of the proof of Lemma 9.2(ii) is applicable to εf − εb0 , we have y (k−2)/2 |εf −εb0 | = O(e−By ) as y → ∞ with some B > 0. Observe that εb0 is a function of the same type as b0 with (k−2, λ+2−k) in place of (k, λ). These are applicable to ε(f k α) with any α ∈ SL2 (Q). Since ε(f k α) = (εf )k−2 α by (6.14a), we see that εf is slowly increasing at every cusp. Thus εf ∈ Ak−2 (Γ, λ−k +2), which is (i). The proof of (ii) can be given in a similar way. Suppose f ∈ Sk (Γ, λ). Then b0 = 0, and so |y (k−2)/2 (εf )k−2 α| = O(e−By ) as y → ∞. Thus εf is rapidly decreasing at every cusp, and the same is true with δk f. This proves (iii). To prove (iv), let 0 = f ∈ Sk (Γ, λ). Then, ¯ f ; also, f, Lk f ≥ 0 by by (6.19), λf, f = f, Lk f = Lk f, f = λf, (6.20). Therefore, in view of Lemma 9.2(iv) we obtain (iv). This completes the proof. Returning to Corollary 6.9(ii), we see that the assumption on εf is unnecessary in view of (iii) of the above lemma. Theorem 9.4. The vector space Ak (Γ, λ) is ﬁnite-dimensional.

9. EISENSTEIN SERIES AS AUTOMORPHIC EIGENFORMS

71

Proof. We ﬁrst note that given 0 < r < 1 and two positive integers a and p, we have ∞ ma xm ≤ Ca,r pa xp for 0 ≤ x ≤ r (9.16) m=p

with a constant Ca, r independent of p and x. Indeed, ∞ ∞ a ∞ a ma xm−p = (n + p)a xn ≤ ni r n pa−i i m=p

n=0

i=0

n=0

for 0 ≤ x ≤ r, which proves (9.16). Next, take a ﬁnite subset X of Γ (1) such that H = Γ XT with T = x + iy ∈ C |x| ≤ 1/2, y > 1/2 , as we did in the proof of Lemma 6.4. By Lemma 9.2(iii) and Lemma 6.4(v), |y k/2 f | is bounded on H. Given f ∈ Sk (Γ, λ) and ξ ∈ X, put Mf = Maxz∈H |y k/2 f (z)| and f k ξ = 0=h∈rZ bh,ξ Wk (hy, λ)e(hx) with the same r for all ξ ∈ X and all f ∈ Sk (Γ, λ). Since |y k/2 (f k ξ)| = |(y k/2 f ) ◦ ξ| ≤ Mf , from (9.9) we obtain y k/2 |bh,ξ Wk (hy, λ)| ≤ Mf . Dividing this by (9.14) and employing the technique of a few lines below (9.14), we ﬁnd that |bh,ξ | ≤ BMf |h|k/2 with a constant B independent of h, ξ, and f. Fix an integer p > 1 and suppose bh,ξ = 0 for all ξ ∈ X and all h such that |h| < rp. Then by (9.15), |y k/2 (f k ξ)| ≤ y k/2 |bh,ξ Wk (hy, λ)| ≤ DMf |h|k/2 e−2π|h|y |h|≥p

|h|≥rp

for y > 1/2 with a constant D independent of f and ξ. The last sum is a −2πrmy with a positive integer a ≥ k/2. By (9.16) majorized by 2ra ∞ m=p m e a a −2πrpy this is ≤ 2r Cp e for y > 1/2 with some C independent of p. Thus (9.17)

|y k/2 (f k ξ)| ≤ 2ra CDMf pa e−2πrpy for y > 1/2.

Now, given z ∈ H, take γ ∈ Γ, ξ ∈ X, and w ∈ T so that z = γξw. Then |y f (z)| = |y k/2 f (γξw)| = |v k/2 (f k ξ)(w)|, where v = Im(w). Therefore, by (9.17) we have k/2

(9.17a)

|y k/2 f (z)| ≤ 2ra CDMf pa e−2πrpv ≤ 2ra Ca,1 DMf pa e−πrp ,

since v > 1/2. The last quantity of (9.17a) tends to 0 as p → ∞. Thus if p is suﬃciently large, we obtain Mf = 0. This means that for f ∈ Sk (Γ, λ) if bh,ξ = 0 for all ξ ∈ X and all h such that |h| < rp with a large enough p, then f = 0. This shows that dim Sk (Γ, λ) is ﬁnite. Since an element of Ak (Γ, λ)/Sk (Γ, λ) is determined by the terms of f k ξ for all ξ ∈ X, constant #(X) . This proves our theorem. we see that dim Ak (Γ, λ)/Sk (Γ, λ) ≤ 2 9.5. So far it was unnecessary to specify a branch of jαk for an arbitrary α in SL2 (Q) when k ∈ / Z, but in the following treatment, that is not satisfactory. To make it more speciﬁc, for a weight k we deﬁne a group Gk as follows: / Z, Gk consists of all couples (α, q), where Gk = SL2 (Q) if k ∈ Z. If k ∈

72

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

α ∈ SL2 (Q) and q is a holomorphic function on H such that q(z)2 = tjα (z)2k with a root of unity t. We make Gk a group by the law of multiplication (9.18) (α, q)(α , q ) = αα , q(α z)q (z) . We deﬁne a projection map pr : Gk → SL2 (Q) by pr(α, q) = α if k ∈ / Z, and take the identity map to be pr if k ∈ Z. We put Pk = α ∈ Gk pr(α) ∈ P . (This is diﬀerent from what was deﬁned in Lemma 2.2(iii), since we are in the one-dimensional case.) Notice that Pk is isomorphic to P × T0 , where T0 is the group of all roots of unity. Thus Pk is commutative. If Γ is a congruence subgroup of Γ θ , then the map γ → (γ, jγk ) for k ∈ /Z with jγk as in (5.1b) is an injection of Γ into Gk . We identify Γ with its image under this map, and view Γ as a subgroup of Gk . For ξ = (γ, q) ∈ Gk , z ∈ H, and a function f on H we put aξ = aγ , bξ = bγ , cξ = cγ , dξ = dγ , jξk (z) = q(z), ξz = γz, and (9.19)

(f k ξ)(z) = q(z)−1 f (γz).

From (9.18) we easily obtain (9.19a)

f k (ξη) = (f k ξ)k η.

We also deﬁne elements ξ∗ of Gk−2 and ξ ∗ of Gk+2 by (9.20)

ξ∗ = (γ, qjγ−2 ),

ξ ∗ = (γ, qjγ2 ).

Then from (6.14a, b) we obtain (9.21)

ε(f k ξ) = (εf )k−2 ξ∗ ,

δk (f k ξ) = (δk f )k+2 ξ ∗ .

We easily see that (6.12) is valid for α ∈ Gk . Also, we have (9.21a) Let the notation be as in Theorem 7.5, and let Φ be a subﬁeld of C containing Qab . Then Xk (Φ) is stable under the map f → f k ξ for every ξ ∈ Gk . This follows immediately from Theorem 7.5(iii). By a congruence subgroup of Gk we mean a subgroup Γ of Gk that contains Γ (N ) (viewed as a subgroup of Gk ) for some even N as a subgroup of ﬁnite index, and such that pr restricted to Γ is injective. For such a Γ and ξ ∈ Gk we see that ξΓ ξ −1 is a congruence subgroup of Gk . This follows from Theorem 4.7(4). Ak (Γ, Given a congruence subgroup Γ of Gk , we can deﬁne λ) by (9.1a, b, c). If Γ (N ) ⊂ Γ as above, then Ak (Γ, λ) ⊂ Ak Γ (N ), λ , and so what we have done in §9.1 is applicable to the elements of Ak (Γ, λ); also, Sk (Γ, λ) can be deﬁned in an obvious fashion. Lemma 9.2 and Theorem 9.4 arevalid in this generalized sense. In Lemma 9.3 we take Γ = ξ∗ ξ ∈ Γ and ∗ ∗ ∗ Γ = ξ ξ ∈ Γ . These are congruence subgroups of Gk−2 and Gk+2 .

9. EISENSTEIN SERIES AS AUTOMORPHIC EIGENFORMS

73

We note here an alternative way of treating factors of automorphy of nonintegral weight. In [S74] we developed an axiomatic (and algebraic) theory of automorphic forms of an arbitrary weight. The advantage of this method is that we can prove a certain trace formula for Hecke operators, which is quite practicable. Indeed, in [N77] Niwa computed the traces of some Hecke operators of half-integral weight, and investigated the structure of Hecke algebras eﬀectively. Though we do not discuss this theory here, those researchers interested in the computation of the trace of a Hecke operator of half-integral weight may be encouraged to look at [S74]. 9.6. Given a congruence subgroup Γ of Gk , we put Γ∞ = Pk ∩ Γ and y s k α, (9.22) Ek (z, s; Γ ) = α∈Γ∞ \Γ

where z ∈ H, s ∈ C, and y = Im(z); we assume that jγk = 1 for γ ∈ Γ∞ . Then the sum of (9.22) is formally well deﬁned, and convergent for Re(s) > 1 − k/2 by Lemma 8.7. This series is called the Eisenstein series of Γ. Let Γ be a congruence subgroup of Gk contained in Γ, and let Γ∞ = Γ ∩ Pk . Then we easily see that ]Ek (z, s; Γ ) = Ek (z, s; Γ )k α. (9.23) [Γ∞ : Γ∞ α∈Γ \Γ

Take a multiple N of 4 so that Γ (N ) ⊂ Γ. Let Ψk be the set of all characters ψ modulo N such that ψ(−1) = (−1)[k] . Then we easily see that Ek z, s; Γ (N, N ), ψ . (9.24) 2#(Ψk )Ek z, s; Γ (N ) = ψ∈Ψk

This combined with (9.23) on analytic properties of reduces the problems Ek (z, s; Γ ) to those of Ek z, s; Γ (N, N ), ψ . Therefore from Theorems 8.12 and 8.14 we see that Ek (z, s; Γ ) can be continued as a meromorphic function of s to the whole complex plane. We will give more precise statements in Theorem 9.9. In view of (9.21) we can easily verify, by termwise diﬀerentiation, that (9.25a) (9.25b) (9.25c)

εEk (z, s; Γ ) = (−si/2)Ek−2 (z, s + 1; Γ∗ ), δk Ek (z, s; Γ ) = − (s + k)i/2 Ek+2 (z, s − 1; Γ ∗ ), Lk Ek (z, s; Γ ) = s(1 − k − s)Ek (z, s; Γ ).

Strictly speaking, termwise diﬀerentiation is ﬁrst justiﬁed for suﬃciently large Re(s), but meromorphic continuation of both sides guarantees the equalities on the whole s-plane. For more details, see the paragraph below (8.20). Given a congruence subgroup Γ of Gk , the projection map pr gives a bijection of Pk \Gk /Γ onto P \SL2(Q)/pr(Γ ), which corresponds to the pr(Γ )equivalence classes of cusps as observed in §6.3. We call each coset Pk ξΓ

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III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

with ξ ∈ Gk a cusp-class of Γ, and call it regular if jηk = 1 for every η ∈ Pk ∩ ξΓ ξ −1 . This is the condition on Pk ξΓ, and is independent of the choice of ξ. Then Ek (z, s; ξΓ ξ −1 ) is well deﬁned. Lemma 9.7. Let Γ be a congruence subgroup of Gk , Y˜ a complete set of representatives for Pk \Gk /Γ, and Y the set of all ξ ∈ Y˜ such that Pk ξΓ is regular. Then the following assertions hold: (i) Let f ∈ Ak (Γ, λ) and ξ ∈ Y˜ . Then the Fourier expansion of f k ξ −1 has a nontrivial constant term only if ξ ∈ Y. (ii) For ξ, η ∈ Y we have gξη (h, s, y)e(hx), Ek (z, s; ξΓ ξ −1 )k ξη −1 = δξη y s + fξη (s)y 1−k−s + 0=h∈pZ

where δξη is Kronecker’s delta, fξη and gξη are meromorphic functions in s, and 0 < p ∈ Q. Proof. Put Γξ = ξΓ ξ −1 . Let α ∈ Pk ∩ Γξ and β = pr(α). Then β ∈ 1 b with b ∈ Q. Thus y s k α = (jαk )−1 y s . Since P ∩ pr(Γξ ), and so β = ± 0 1 f k ξ −1 α = f k ξ −1 in the setting of (i), f k ξ −1 has a nontrivial constant term only if jαk = 1. This proves (i). To prove (ii), for a ∈ Q deﬁne an element r(a) of Pk by

1 a (9.26) r(a) = ,1 . 0 1 Then r(Q) ∩ Γξ = r(qZ) with 0 < q ∈ Q. (This is because Γ (N ) ⊂ Γ for some even N.) Take a subset Φ of Γ so that 1 ∈ / Φ and Φ ∪ {1} is a complete set of representatives for (Pk ∩ Γξ )\Γξ /r(qZ). Then 1 and the elements ϕr(a) with ϕ ∈ Φ and a ∈ qZ represent (Pk ∩ Γξ )\Γξ without overlap. Therefore y s k ϕr(qm). Ek (z, s; Γξ ) = y s + ϕ∈Φ m∈Z

For a ﬁxed ϕ ∈ Φ put c = cϕ and d = dϕ . Then c = 0 and jϕk (z)/(cz + d)k ∈ T, and so y s k ϕr(qm) = ty s c−2s−k (z + c−1 d + qm)−s−k (¯ z + c−1 d + qm)−s m∈Z

m∈Z

with an element t ∈ T determined by ϕ. By Lemma A2.3 of the Appendix the last sum over Z has an expansion of the form i−k (2π/q)2s+k e q −1 n(x + c−1 d) + q −1 |n|iy gn (q −1 y; s + k, s) n∈Z

with gn as in (A2.4). For n = 0, from (A2.4) we obtain y 1−2s−k h(s) with a meromorphic function h(s). Multiplying by ty s c−2s−k and taking the sum over all ϕ ∈ Φ, we obtain the Fourier expansion of Ek (z, s; Γξ ) as stated in our lemma in the case ξ = η.

9. EISENSTEIN SERIES AS AUTOMORPHIC EIGENFORMS

75

Next, let ξ = η ∈ Y.Let Z be a complete set of representatives for (Pk ∩ Γξ )\ξΓ η −1 / r(Q) ∩ Γη . Then the elements ζr(a) with ζ ∈ Z and r(a) ∈ r(Q)∩Γη represent (Pk ∩Γξ )\ξΓ η −1 without overlap, because of the following simple fact:

1 x α−1 ∈ P with x ∈ Q× , then α ∈ P. (9.27) If α ∈ SL2 (Q) and α 0 1

−1

u v 1 x −1 . Then cα = vcα and Indeed, suppose x = 0 and α α = 0 v 0 1 cα x + dα = vdα . If cα = 0, then v = 1 and x = 0, a contradiction. This proves (9.27). Therefore the same argument as above establishes the Fourier expansion of Ek (z, s; Γξ )k ξη −1 ; the only new feature is that y s does not appear. This proves (ii) and completes the proof. Lemma 9.8. Let Q be a ﬁnite set of functions q(z, s) of the form q(z, s) = E(z, s)k α with E of type (8.12a) or (9.22) and α ∈ Gk , and let g(z, s) = q∈Q fq (s)q(z, s) with meromorphic functions fq on C. Then, for every s0 ∈ C there exists an integer m and a neighborhood V of s0 such that (s − s0 )m g(z, s) is a real analytic function on H × V that is holomorphic in s, and, as a function of z, is slowly increasing at every cusp, locally uniformly in s ∈ V. In particular, if g is ﬁnite at s = s0 , then g(z, s0 ) is an element of Ak (λ) with λ = s0 (1 − k − s0 ). Proof. In view of (9.23) and (9.24), it is suﬃcient to prove our lemma when q = Ek α with a function E of type (8.12). Then our ﬁrst assertion follows immediately from Theorems 8.12 and 8.14. From (9.25c) and (6.14d) we obtain Lk g(z, s) = s(1 − k − s)g(z, s), and so Lk g(z, s0 ) = λg(z, s0 ) with λ = s0 (1 − k − s0 ) if g is ﬁnite at s = s0 . Moreover, those theorems show that m and V can be taken in such a way that (s − s0 )m g(z, s) is slowly increasing at every cusp, locally uniformly in s ∈ V. This shows that g(z, s0 ), if ﬁnite, belongs to Ak (λ). This proves our lemma. Theorem 9.9. Given a congruence subgroup Γ of Gk , there exist a nonzero entire function A(s) and a real analytic function B(z, s) on H × C holomorphic in s such that A(s)Ek (z, s; Γ ) = B(z, s). Moreover, Ek (z, s; Γ ) is holomorphic in s except at the points given in (1), (2), (1 ), (2 ), and (3 ) below, and E0 (z, s; Γ ) has a pole as described in (4). (1) k ∈ Z and −k/2 ≤ Re(s) < (1 − k)/2. (2) k ∈ Z and s is an integer such that s ≤ −(k + ν)/2, where ν is 0 or 1 determined by k + ν ∈ 2Z. (1 ) k ∈ / Z and (1 − 2k)/4 ≤ Re(s) < (1 − k)/2. / Z and s is an element of 4−1 Z such that 0 ≥ 2s + k − 1/2 ∈ Z. (2 ) k ∈ (3 ) k ∈ / Z and |k| − 1/2 ∈ 2Z; then Ek (z, s; Γ ) has at most a simple pole at s = (3 − 2k)/4.

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III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

(4) If k = 0, then E0 (z, s; Γ ) has a simple pole at s = 1, and the residue is π −1 times a positive rational number. Proof. By (9.23) and (9.24) our problem can be reduced to the functions of type (8.12). Therefore the existence of A(s) and B(z, s) follows from Theorems 8.12 and 8.14 combined with those formulas. Suppose k ∈ Z. We employ Theorem 8.12 and (8.18), which involves a character ψ such that ψ(−1) = (−1)k . Thus ψ(−1) = (−1)ν with ν as in (2). Let ψ be the primitive character associated with ψ. It is well known that L(s, ψ ) can be 0 only if 0 < Re(s) < 1 or 0 ≥ s + ν ∈ 2Z. We have LN (2s + k, ψ) in (8.18), and so we have to consider 1 − ψ (p)p−2s−k , which becomes 0 only if Re(2s + k) = 0. Therefore LN (2s + k, ψ) = 0 only if −k/2 ≤ Re(s) < (1 − k)/2 or 0 ≥ 2s + k + ν ∈ 2Z. Thus, from (8.18), (9.23), and (9.24) we see that Ek (z, s; Γ ) is ﬁnite except at the points of (1) and (2). Suppose k = 0; then E0N (z, s; χ0 ) = 2ζ(2s)E0 z, s; Γ (1) by (8.18), where χ0 is the principal character. From Theorem 8.12 we see that E0 z, s; Γ (1) has a simple pole at s = 1 with residue π/[2ζ(2)], which equals 3/π. This combined with (9.23) proves (4). Next suppose k ∈ / Z. We employ Theorem 8.14, in which LN (4s−1+2k, ψ 2 ) appears. In this case N > 1. For the same reason as in the case k ∈ Z we see that it becomes 0 only if (1 − 2k)/4 ≤ Re(s) < (1 − k)/2 or 0 ≥ 4s − 1 + 2k ∈ 2Z. Also, a factor 2s − λ − 1 appears in Theorem 8.14, where λ = 1/2 − k. This is necessary only if |k| + 1/2 is odd. Thus Ek (z, s; Γ ) may have a simple pole at s = (3 − 2k)/4 if |k| + 1/2 is odd. Therefore we have conditions (1 ), (2 ), and (3 ) when k ∈ / Z. This completes the proof. 9.10. Let Γ be a congruence subgroup of Gk and X a ﬁnite subset of Gk % such that Gk = ξ∈X Γ ξPk . (This is consistent with (6.10). Then we can take Y˜ = ξ −1 ξ ∈ X in Lemma 9.7.) Let f ∈ Ak (Γ, λ) and g ∈ Ak (Γ, μ). Assuming that both λ and μ are noncritical, denote by {p}λ the set {p, q} with p, q such that p + q = 1 − k and pq = λ. Then for each ξ ∈ X we put ap,ξ y p + nonconstant terms, (9.28a) f k ξ = p∈{p}λ

(9.28b)

gk ξ =

bp,ξ y p + nonconstant terms

p∈{p}μ

with ap,ξ , bp,ξ ∈ C. If both λ and μ are critical, we put (9.28c)

f k ξ = aξ y p + aξ y p log y + nonconstant terms,

(9.28d)

gk ξ = bξ y p + bξ y p log y + nonconstant terms

with aξ , bξ , aξ , bξ ∈ C, where p = (1−k)/2. We also put Qξ = P ∩pr(ξ −1 Γ ξ) and R = ξ∈X Qξ .

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77

¯ and λ is not Theorem 9.11. With f and g as above, suppose μ = λ critical. Fix one p ∈ {p}λ and put q = 1 − k − p. Then (9.29a) νξ (¯ ap,ξ bq¯,ξ − a ¯q,ξ bp,ξ ¯ ) = 0, ξ∈X

−1 where νξ = {±1}Qξ : {±1}R . If λ = μ and λ is critical, then νξ (¯ aξ bξ − a ¯ξ bξ ) = 0. (9.29b) ξ∈X

Proof. The idea of the proof is the same as in the proof of Theorem 6.8. Deﬁne Tr and Mr as in (6.17), and take a suﬃciently large r so that the sets ξ(Qξ \Tr ) for ξ ∈ X can be embedded into Γ \H without overlap. Also, take a union J of small neighborhoods of elliptic ﬁxed points on Γ \H. Let K be the complement of ξ∈X ξ(Qξ \Tr ) ∪ J in Γ \H. Then K is a compact manifold with boundary, and ξ(Qξ \Mr ) − ∂J. ∂K = ξ∈X

Let ϕ be a 1-form on H that is C ∞ and Γ -invariant. Then (9.30) dϕ = ϕ= νξ ϕ◦ξ− ϕ, K

∂K

ξ∈X

Br

∂J

where Br = R\Mr with a natural orientation. Take ϕ = f¯ · εg · y k−2 d¯ z . Then by (6.18) with εg as h, we have dϕ = (2i)−1 f¯ · Lk g · y k dz + 2iεf · εg · y k−2 dz with dz viewed as a 2-form. Putting similarly ψ = g¯ · εf · y k−2 d¯ z , we ﬁnd that dϕ + dψ = (2i)−1 (f¯ · Lk g − Lk f · g)y k dz = 0, ¯ Applying (9.30) to this form, we obtain since Lk f = λf and Lk g = λg. ¯ ◦ξ− ¯ = 0. νξ (ϕ + ψ) (ϕ + ψ) ξ∈X

Br

∂J

We now take the expansions (9.28a, b) into consideration. We have ϕ ◦ ξ = f k ξ · ε(gk ξ)y k−2 d¯ z , and a similar formula holds for ψ¯ ◦ ξ. Fix one p ∈ {p}λ ¯ we have {p}μ = {¯ and put q = 1 − k − p. Then for μ = λ p, q¯}, and so p+1 ¯ 2iϕ ◦ ξ = (¯ ap,ξ y p¯ + a ¯q,ξ y q¯)(¯ pbp,ξ + q¯bq¯,ξ y q¯+1 )y k−2 d¯ z ¯ y

+ nonconstant terms, p¯ q¯ ¯ ¯ − 2iψ ◦ ξ = (bp,ξ pa ¯p,ξ y p+1 + q¯a ¯q,ξ y q¯+1 )y k−2 dz ¯ y + bq¯,ξ y )(¯ + nonconstant terms. Since Br y s (dx ± dy) = − we have

h s 0 r dx

with a constant h > 0 independent of ξ,

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h

¯ ◦ ξ = (¯ 2i(ϕ + ψ) p − q¯)(¯ ap,ξ bq¯,ξ − a ¯q,ξ bp,ξ ¯ )

dx + nonconstant terms. 0

Br

By Lemma 9.2(ii) the sum of the nonconstant terms of (9.28a, b, c, d) are O(e−cy ) as y → ∞ with some c > 0, and so the same is true for the nonconstant terms of ϕ ◦ ξ and ψ¯ ◦ ξ, and even for their integrals over Br . We have q − p = 1 − k − 2p = 0, since λ is noncritical. Therefore, taking the limit as r → ∞ and making J shrink to the elliptic points, we obtain (9.29a). When λ is critical, the constant terms involving log y cancel each other, and so equality (9.29b) can be proved in a similar way. Our proof is now complete. 9.12. We put (9.31a) (9.31b)

Nk (λ) = g ∈ Ak (λ) f, g = 0 for every f ∈ Sk (λ) , Nk (Γ, λ) = g ∈ Ak (Γ, λ) f, g = 0 for every f ∈ Sk (Γ, λ) ,

where Γ is a congruence subgroup of Gk . The inner product f, g is meaningful in view of (9.1c), Lemma 9.2(iii), and what we said in §6.5. From (6.12) we see that Nk (λ)k α = Nk (λ) for every α ∈ Gk . We have also (9.32a)

Ak (λ) = Sk (λ) ⊕ Nk (λ),

(9.32b)

Ak (Γ, λ) = Sk (Γ, λ) ⊕ Nk (Γ, λ),

(9.33)

Nk (Γ, λ) = Nk (λ) ∩ Ak (Γ, λ).

Indeed, (9.32b) is easy, since Ak (Γ, λ) is of ﬁnite dimension, as proved in Theorem 9.4. Clearly the left-hand side of (9.33) contains the right-hand side. To prove the opposite inclusion, let g ∈ Nk (Γ, λ) and f ∈ Sk (λ). Take a normal congruence subgroup Δ of Γ so that f ∈ Sk (Δ, λ). By (9.32b), g = p + q with p ∈ Sk (Δ, λ) and q ∈ Nk (Δ, λ). For γ ∈ Γ we have g = gk γ = pk γ + qk γ. We easily see that pk γ ∈ Sk (Δ, λ) and qk γ ∈ Nk (Δ, λ) by virtue of (6.12), and so (9.32b) with Δ in place of Γ shows that pk γ = p and qk γ = q, and so p ∈ Sk (Γ, λ) and q ∈ Nk (Γ, λ). By (9.32b), g = q ∈ Nk (Δ, λ), and so g, f = 0, which shows that g ∈ Nk (λ). This proves (9.33). Since Ak (λ) is the union of Ak (Γ, λ) for all Γ, we obtain (9.32a) from (9.32b) and (9.33). 9.13. Lemma 9.8 shows that a function of type Ek (z, s; Γ )k α, if ﬁnite, belongs to Ak (λ) with λ = s(1−k−s). We are going to show that the function actually belongs to Nk (λ), and moreover, Nk (λ) is generated by such functions for almost all values of λ. To prove the ﬁrst statement, given f ∈ Sk (λ1 ) with any λ1 ∈ C, take an even integer N > 2 so that f ∈ Sk Γ (N ), λ1 ). We have expansion (9.10) N with r = 1/N. Since the constant term of f is 0, we have 0 f (z)dx = 0, and ∞ N so 0 0 f (z)dx y s+k+2 dy = 0. Let Γ (N )∞ = Pk ∩ Γ (N ), Ψ = Γ (N )∞ \H,

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N

and Φ = Γ (N )\H. Then we see that 0 0 · · · y −2 dxdy = Ψ · · · dz. Since % Ψ can be given by γ∈R γΦ with R = Γ (N )∞ \Γ (N ), we have by Rankin’s transformation, at least formally, s+k f (z)y dz = 0= f¯y s+k ◦ γdz

Ψ

f (z)

= Φ

γ∈R

Φ

jγk (z)|jγ (z)|−2s−2k y s+k dz =

f (z)Ek z, s; Γ (N ) y k dz. Φ

γ∈R

This can be justiﬁed for suﬃciently large Re(s). Indeed, Ek z, s; Γ (N ) is majorized by |jγ (z)|−2σ = E0 z, σ; Γ (N ) yσ γ∈R

for σ ∈ R, which, if ﬁnite, is slowly increasing at every cusp. Since f, being an element of Sk (λ1 ), is rapidly decreasing at every cusp, our formal calculation is justiﬁed for suﬃciently large σ. Combining this with (9.23), for every f ∈ Sk (λ1 ) and every congruence subgroup Γ of Gk we have (9.34) f (z)Ek (z, s; Γ )y k dz = 0 Γ \H

at least for suﬃciently large Re(s). By Lemma 9.8, for every s0 ∈ C there is an integer m and a neighborhood V of s0 such that (s−s0 )m Ek (z, s; Γ ) is slowly increasing at every cusp, locally uniformly in s ∈ V. Therefore the left-hand side of (9.34) is meaningful as a meromorphic function of s on the whole C, and also is valid whenever Ek (z, s; Γ ) is ﬁnite at s. Thus Ek (z, s; Γ ), if ﬁnite at s, belongs to Nk (λ1 ) with any λ1 ∈ C. For the moment λ1 is unrelated to s, but we will eventually take λ1 = s(1 − k − s). 9.14. Let Γ be a congruence subgroup of Gk . Taking Y as in Lemma 9.7, we denote by Ek (Γ ) the C-linear span of Ek (z, s; ξΓ ξ −1 )k ξ for all ξ ∈ Y. Given s0 ∈ C, we denote by Ek [s0 , Γ ] the subset of Ek (Γ ) consisting of all ) that are ﬁnite at s = s , and put E (s , Γ ) = g(z, s0 ) g(z, s) in Ek (Γ 0 k 0 ∗ g ∈ Ek [s0 , Γ ] . We also denote by Ek [s0 , Γ ] the set of all g ∈ Ek (Γ ) that have at most a simple pole at s0 , and by E∗k (s0 , Γ ) the set of the residues at s0 of the elements of E∗k [s0 , Γ ]. Let us now prove (9.35)

Ek (s0 , Γ ) + E∗k (s0 , Γ ) ⊂ Nk (Γ, λ) with λ = s0 (1 − k − s0 ).

Indeed, from Lemma 9.8 it follows that both Ek (s0 , Γ ) and E∗k (s0 , Γ ) are contained in Ak (Γ, λ). Now the elements of Ek (Γ ) are functions of the type g(z, s) of Lemma 9.8, and so formula (9.34) can be generalized to f (z)g(z, s)y k dz = 0 (9.36) Γ \H

for every f ∈ Sk (λ1 ) with any λ1 ∈ C in the sense that the left-hand side is meromorphic in s on the whole C, and is valid whenever g(z, s) is ﬁnite at

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III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

s. This shows that Ek (s0 , Γ ) ⊂ Nk (Γ, λ). Considering (s − s0 )g instead of g, we see similarly that E∗k (s0 , Γ ) ⊂ Nk (Γ, λ), and so we obtain (9.35). Lemma 9.15. (i) The symbols being as in §9.14, we have dim Ek (Γ ) = #Y. (ii) The map g(z, s) → g(z, s0 ) is a bijection of Ek [s0 , Γ ] onto Ek (s0 , Γ ), provided s0 = (1 − k)/2. (iii) Ek (Γ ) = Ek [s0 , Γ ] if Re(s0 ) ≥ (1 − k)/2 except in the following two cases: (a) s0 = 1 and k = 0; (b) s0 = (3 − 2k)/4 and |k| − 1/2 ∈ 2Z. Proof. Let g(z, s) = ξ∈Y cξ Ek (z, s; ξΓ ξ −1 )k ξ with cξ ∈ C. Suppose g ∈ Ek [s0 , Γ ]. Then from Lemma 9.7 we obtain, for every η ∈ Y,

−1 s0 g(z, s0 )k η = cη y + cξ fξη (s0 )y 1−k−s0 + · · · . ξ∈Y

If s0 = (1 − k)/2, then s0 = 1 − k − s0 , and so if g(z, s0 ) = 0, we have cη = 0 for every η ∈ Y. This proves (ii). In particular, if g = 0, then cξ = 0 for every ξ ∈ Y, which proves (i). Assertion (iii) follows immediately from Theorem 9.9. Theorem 9.16. (i) The notation being as in §9.14, suppose that Ek (Γ ) = Ek [s0 , Γ ] = Ek [¯ s0 , Γ ] and s0 = (1 − k)/2; let λ = s0 (1 − k − s0 ). Then Nk (Γ, λ) = Ek (s0 , Γ ) and dim Nk (Γ, λ) = #Y. (ii) In the setting of (i) let f ∈ Ak (Γ, λ) and f k ξ −1 = aξ y s0 + aξ y 1−k−s0 + nonconstant terms. If aξ = 0 for every ξ ∈ Y, then f is a cusp form. ¯ for each ξ ∈ Y put Proof. Given f ∈ Ak (Γ, λ) and g ∈ Ak (Γ, λ), f k ξ −1 = aξ y s0 + aξ y 1−k−s0 + nonconstant terms, gk ξ −1 = bξ y s¯0 + bξ y 1−k−¯s0 + nonconstant terms. (We can consider such expansions even for ξ ∈ Y˜ , but the constant term is 0 by Lemma 9.7(i) if ξ ∈ / Y.) By Theorem 9.11 (with X = ξ −1 ξ ∈ Y˜ ) we have νξ−1 aξ ¯bξ − aξ¯bξ = 0, (9.37) ξ∈Y

where ν∗ is as in that theorem. Moreover, the map (9.38)

f → (aξ , aξ )ξ∈Y

gives an injection of Ak (Γ, λ)/Sk (Γ, λ) into C2κ , where κ = #Y. A sim¯ in place of λ. By Lemma 9.15 and our asilar statement holds with λ s0 , Γ ) = κ. Each nonzero element g sumption, dim Ek (s0 , Γ ) = dim Ek (¯ of Ek (¯ s0 , Γ ) deﬁnes a nontrivial linear relation on (aξ , aξ ) by (9.37), since ¯ = {0} by (9.32b) and (9.35). Therefore the elements s0 , Γ ) ∩ Sk (λ) Ek (¯ s0 , Γ ) produce κ linearly independent relations on (aξ , aξ ), which of Ek (¯

9. EISENSTEIN SERIES AS AUTOMORPHIC EIGENFORMS

81

means that dim Nk (Γ, λ) = dim Ak (Γ, λ)/Sk (Γ, λ) ≤ κ. Since Ek (s0 , Γ ) ⊂ Nk (Γ, λ), this proves (i). Let f be as in (ii). By (i) we can put f (z) = g(z, s0 ) + h(z) with g ∈ Ek (s0 , Γ ) and h ∈ Sk (Γ, λ). Take this g as g in the proof of Lemma 9.15. Then our assumption aξ = 0 means cξ = 0 in that lemma, and so g = 0. This proves (ii). Theorem 9.17. The notation being as in §9.14, deﬁne a CY -valued function Ek on H × C by Ek (z, s; Γ ) = Ek (z, s; ξΓ ξ −1)k ξ ξ∈Y . Then there exists an End(CY )-valued meromorphic function Φk (s, Γ ) such that (9.39a)

Ek (z, s; Γ ) = Φk (s, Γ )Ek (z, 1 − k − s; Γ ),

(9.39b)

Φk (1 − k − s, Γ )Φk (s, Γ ) = 1.

Moreover, there is a diagonal element A of End(CY ), depending only on Γ and Y, whose diagonal entries are positive integers such that Φk (s, Γ )A · t Φk (1 − k − s¯, Γ ) = A.

(9.39c)

Proof. Put Γξ = ξΓ ξ −1 and Eξ (s) = Ek (z, s; Γξ )k ξ. By Lemma 9.7, for ξ, η ∈ Y we have Eξ (s)k η−1 = δξη y s + fξη (s)y 1−k−s + · · ·

(9.40a)

with meromorphic functions fξη on C, and so Eξ (1 − k − s)k η −1 = δξη y 1−k−s + fξη (1 − k − s)y s + · · · .

(9.40b) Therefore (9.41)

fξζ (1 − k − s)Eζ (s) k η−1 Eξ (1 − k − s) −

ζ∈Y = 0 · y s + δξη − fξζ (1 − k − s)fζη (s) y 1−k−s + · · · . ζ∈Y

We can easily ﬁnd a nonempty open subset W of C such that Ek (Γ ) = Ek [s, Γ ] = Ek [¯ s, Γ ] = Ek [1 − k − s, Γ ] = Ek [1 − k − s¯, Γ ], fξη (1 − k − s) is ﬁnite, and s = (1 − k)/2 for every s ∈ W. Then by Theorem 9.16(i) the left-hand side of (9.41) without k η −1 for such an s belongs to Nk (Γ, λ) with λ = s(1 − k − s). By Theorem 9.16(ii) it must be a cusp form, and so fξζ (1 − k − s)fζη (s) = δξη and Eξ (1 − k − s) = fξζ (1 − k − s)Eζ (s) ζ∈Y

ζ∈Y

for every s ∈ W. Writing Φk (s, Γ ) for the matrix [fξη (s)], we obtain (9.39a, ¯ and so from (9.37), (9.40a), and b). Next, Eξ (1 − k − s¯) belongs to Ak (Γ, λ), (9.40b) with ζ in place of ξ we obtain νη−1 δξη δζη − fξη (s)fζη (1 − k − s¯) = 0. η∈Y

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Let A = diag[νη−1 ]η∈Y . Viewing this as an element of End(CY ), we obtain (9.39c). This completes the proof. Theorem 9.18. The notation being as in Theorem 9.17, suppose λ = subgroup Γ of Gk , let Ek (Γ ) μ2 with μ = (1 − k)/2. Given a congruence denote the space spanned by z, μ for g ∈ Ek [μ, Γ ] and E0k (Γ ) the (∂g/∂s) space consisting of (∂g/∂s) z, μ for all g ∈ Ek [μ, Γ ] such that g(z, μ) = 0. Further let κ+ resp. κ− be the multiplicity of 1 resp. −1 in the eigenvalues of Φk (μ, Γ ). Then #Y = κ+ + κ− , dim Ek (μ, Γ ) = κ+ , dim E0k (Γ ) = κ− , and Ek (Γ ) ⊂ Nk (Γ, λ) = Ek (μ, Γ ) ⊕ E0k (Γ ). Moreover, Ek (μ, Γ ) consists of the elements of Nk (Γ, λ) that do not involve y μ log y. Proof. Put κ = #Y. By Lemma 9.15(iii), Ek (Γ ) = Ek [μ, Γ ] and so every function appearing in this proof is ﬁnite at s = μ; also, dim Ek [μ, Γ ] = κ by Lemma 9.15(i). We easily see that the elements of Ek (Γ ) satisfy (9.1a, b), and also (9.1c), in view of Lemma 9.8. Also, equality (9.34) holds with an element g(z, s) of Ek [μ, Γ ] in place of Ek (z, s; Γ ), and the integral is uniformly convergent in a neighborhood of s = μ. Therefore we see that (∂g/∂s)(z, μ) ∈ Nk (λ), and so Ek (Γ ) ⊂ Nk (Γ, λ). From (9.39b) we obtain Φk (μ, Γ )2 = 1. Thus the eigenvalues of Φk (μ, Γ ) are ±1. Let Eξ (s) be as in the proof of Theorem 9.17. Then from (9.40a) we obtain Eξ (μ)k η −1 = δξη + fξη (μ) y μ + · · · , (∂Eξ /∂s)(μ)k η −1 = δξη − fξη (μ) y μ log y + (dfξη /ds)(μ)y μ + · · · for every ξ, η ∈ Y. Let g(z, s) = ξ∈Y cξ Eξ (s) ∈ Ek [μ, Γ ] with cξ ∈ C. Put c = (cξ )ξ∈Y . Then g(z, μ) = 0 if and only if t Φk (μ, Γ )c = −c, which means that dim Ek (μ, Γ ) = κ − κ− = κ+ . If t Φk (μ, Γ )c = −c, then g(z, μ) = 0 and (∂g/∂s)(z, μ)k η−1 = 2cη y μ log y + bη · y μ + · · · with some bη , which shows that dim E0k (Γ ) = κ− . Since no element of Ek (μ, Γ ) involves y μ log y, we see that Ek (μ, Γ ) and E0k (Γ ) form a direct sum. Next, the notation being as in (9.28c, d), consider the map f → (aξ , aξ )ξ∈Y deﬁned for f ∈ Ak (Γ, λ). This sends Ak (Γ, λ) into C2κ with kernel Sk (Γ, λ). Let d be the dimension of the image space. Then d = dim Nk (Γ, λ) and (9.29b) shows that d ≤ 2κ − d, and so d ≤ κ. Since Ek (μ, Γ ) ⊕ E0k (Γ ) is a subspace of Nk (Γ, λ) of dimension κ+ + κ− = κ, we can establish all the statements of our theorem. Theorem 9.19. Let λ = s0 (1 − k − s0 ) with s0 ∈ C. The notation being as in §9.14, suppose that s0 = (1 − k)/2, λ ∈ R, and Ek (Γ ) = E∗k [s0 , Γ ]. Then dim Nk (Γ, λ) = #Y and Nk (Γ, λ) = Ek (s0 , Γ ) ⊕ E∗k (s0 , Γ ).

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83

Proof. Put κ = #Y. For p ∈ Ek (Γ ) denote by ρ(p) the residue of p at s = s0 . Then ρ is a C-linear map of Ek (Γ ) onto E∗k (s0 , Γ ) with kernel Ek [s0 , Γ ], and so by Lemma 9.15(i,ii), dim Ek (s0 , Γ )+ dim E∗k (s0 , Γ ) = κ. Let h ∈ Ek (s0 , Γ ) ∩ E∗k (s0 , Γ ). Then h(z) = g(z, s0 ) = ρ(p) with g ∈ Ek [s0 , Γ ] and p ∈ Ek (Γ ). Put g = ξ∈Y aξ Eξ (s) and p = ξ∈Y bξ Eξ (s) with aξ , bξ ∈ C and Eξ (s) = Ek (z, s; ξΓ ξ −1 )k ξ. By (9.40a) we have, for η ∈ Y, hk η −1 = aη y s0 + aξ fξη (s0 )y 1−k−s0 + · · · ξ∈Y

= 0·y

s0

+

bξ Ress=s0 fξη (s) y 1−k−s0 + · · · ,

ξ∈Y

and so aη = 0 for every η ∈ Y. Thus h = 0, and consequently, Ek (s0 , Γ ) and E∗k (s0 , Γ ) form a direct sum of dimension κ. Take again the map of Ak (Γ, λ) into C2κ with kernel Sk (Γ, λ) given by (9.38). Let m = dim Nk (Γ, λ), which ¯ = λ, relation (9.37) is the dimension of the image space of (9.38). Since λ shows that m ≤ 2κ − m, and so m ≤ κ. We have seen that the left-hand side of (9.35) has dimension κ, and so we obtain our theorem. Corollary 9.20. Let Γ and Y be as in Lemma 9.7. Then dim Nk (Γ, λ) = #Y for every λ. Proof. If λ is critical, this is included in Theorem 9.18. Suppose λ is not critical. Let s0 be a solution of X 2 + (k − 1)X + λ = 0. Then the other solution is 1 − k − s0 . Replacing s0 by 1 − k − s0 if necessary, we may assume that Re(s0 ) ≥ (1 − k)/2. Excluding cases (a) and (b) of Lemma 9.15(iii), we obtain dim Nk (Γ, λ) = #Y from Theorem 9.16. In cases (a) and (b) we obtain the desired result from Theorem 9.19. 9.21. We now return to holomorphic modular forms on H. Given a congruence subgroup Γ of Gk , we denote by M k (Γ ) resp. S k (Γ ) the set of elements f of M k resp. S k such that f k γ = f for every γ ∈ Γ. This is consistent with what we already have if k ∈ Z or if k ∈ / Z and Γ ⊂ Γ θ . We have then (9.42a) M k (Γ ) consists of the holomorphic elements of Ak (Γ, 0), (9.42b) S k (Γ ) = Sk (Γ, 0). These follow immediately from (9.3) and Lemma 9.2(iv). We put (9.43a) Ek (Γ ) = f ∈ M k (Γ ) f, g = 0 for every g ∈ S k (Γ ) , (9.43b)

Ek =

∞

Ek Γ (2N ) .

N =1

Theorem 9.22. For every congruence subgroup Γ of Gk with k > 0 we have

84

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

(9.44)

Ek (Γ ) = M k (Γ ) ∩ Nk (0),

(9.45a)

M k = S k ⊕ Ek ,

(9.45b)

M k (Γ ) = S k (Γ ) ⊕ Ek (Γ ),

(9.46)

Ek (Γ ) = M k (Γ ) ∩ Ek (0, Γ ) if k ≥ 1,

(9.47)

Ek (Γ ) = Ek (0, Γ ) if k > 2 or k = 1,

(9.48)

E1/2 (Γ ) = E∗1/2 (1/2, Γ ).

Proof. By (9.42b) the right-hand side of (9.44) is contained in Ek (Γ ). Conversely, let f ∈ Ek (Γ ) and g ∈ Sk (Γ , 0) with any Γ ⊂ Γ. Let R be a complete set of representatives for Γ \Γ. Then by (6.12) we have ! " [Γ : Γ ]f, g = f, gk α = f, gk α = 0,

α∈R

α∈R

since α∈R gk α ∈ Sk (Γ, 0) = S k (Γ ) by (9.42b). Thus f ∈ Nk (0), which proves (9.44). Formula (9.45b) follows immediately from the deﬁnition of Ek (Γ ). Then clearly (9.45a) holds. Take s0 = 0 in Lemma 9.15 and Theorem 9.16(i); then we ﬁnd that Ek (0, Γ ) = Nk (Γ, 0) for k ≥ 3/2, which combined with (9.44) proves (9.46) for such k. Next, take k = 1 in Theorem 9.18. Then M 1 ∩N1 (Γ, 0) = M 1 ∩E1 (0, Γ ), which gives (9.46) for k = 1. Formulas (9.47) and (9.48) will be poven in the proof of the following theorem. Theorem 9.23. Let Ek (z, s) denote the analytic continuation of any series of type (8.12) or (9.22) with k > 0. Then the following assertions hold: (i) Ek (z, s) is ﬁnite at s = 0. (ii) Ek (z, 0) belongs to M k (Qab ) if k > 2 or k = 1. (iii) If k = 2, then E2 z, 0; Γ (N, N ), ψ belongs to M 2 (Qab ) except when ψ is trivial, in which case it belongs to N 12 (Qab ). (iv) If k = 3/2, then E3/2 z, 0; Γ (N, N ), ψ belongs to M 3/2 (Qab ) except when ψ 2 is trivial. (v) If k = 1/2, then E1/2 (z, s; Γ ) has at most a simple pole at s = 1/2, and the residue belongs to π−1 M 1/2 (Qab ). More explicitly, the residue is of the form π −1 ξ∈Q λ(ξ)e(tξ 2 z/2) with 0 < t ∈ Q and a Qab -valued element λ of L (Q). Proof. By (9.23), (9.24), and Theorem 7.5(iii) the problems can be reduced to the case of Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ). Assertions (i), (ii), and (iv) follow from Theorem 8.15(iii) if 3/2 ≤ k ∈ / Z. Suppose k ∈ Z; then (8.18) reduces the problem to EkN (z, s; ψ). Indeed, since ψ(−1) = (−1)k , we have LN (k, ψ) ∈ π k Q× ab by Lemma 2.9, and so we obtain (i) and (ii) from Theorem 8.15(i). Combining these results with (9.46), we obtain (9.47). Assertion (iii) follows from Theorem 8.15(i). Suppose k = 1/2; let F ∗ be as in Theorem 8.14. Then

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85

F ∗ (z, s) = (2s − 1)Γ (s)Γ (s + 1/2)LN (4s, ψ 2 )E1/2 (z, s; Γ, ψ). By Lemma 2.10, LN (2, ψ 2 ) ∈ π 2 Q× ab . Therefore from Theorem 8.16(i) we see that Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) has at most a simple pole at s = 1/2, and the residue is π −1 times a Qab -rational theta series as given in that theorem. Thus we obtain (v), and see that Ek (Γ ) = E∗k [1/2, Γ ] and E∗k (1/2, Γ ) ⊂ M k (Γ ). Therefore, by Theorem 9.19, Nk (Γ, 0) = Ek (1/2, Γ ) ⊕ E∗k (1/2, Γ ). Thus, to prove (9.48), it is suﬃcient to show that the only holomorphic element of Ek (1/2, Γ ) is 0. For that purpose, take h(z) = g(z, 1/2) with g ∈ Ek [1/2, Γ ]. Put g = ξ∈Y aξ Eξ (s) with aξ ∈ C as in the proof of Theorem 9.19. Then hk η −1 = aη y 1/2 + cη + · · · with cη ∈ C for every η ∈ Y. If h is holomorphic, then aη = 0 for every η ∈ Y, and so h = 0 as expected. This proves (9.48) and completes the proof of our theorem. From (v) above and (9.48) we obtain (9.49) E1/2 (Γ ) is spanned by some functions of the form with 0 < t ∈ Q and an element λ of L (Q).

ξ∈Q

λ(ξ)e(tξ 2 z/2)

We also note that

), 0 if k > 0. In particular, Ek (z) (9.50) EN k (z, 0; p, q) belongs to Nk Γ (N deﬁned by (8.14e) belongs to Nk Γ (N ), 0 . In view of (8.14d) we may assume that (N, p, q) = 1. Then there exist relatively prime integers p0 and q0 such that (p0 , q0 ) − (p, q) ∈ N Z2 . We N have EN k (z, s; p, q) = Ek (z, s; p0 , q0 ), and (8.14a) reduces the problem to N Ek (z, s; 0, 1). From (8.16) we see that EkN (z, s; ψ), ϕ(N )EN k (z, s; 0, 1) = ψ∈Ψ

where Ψ is the set of all characters modulo N such that ψ(−1) = (−1)k . Notice that ϕ(N ) = #(Ψ ) = 1 and k ∈ 2Z if N ≤ 2. By (8.18) we obtain LN (2s + k, ψ)Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ), ϕ(N )EN k (z, s; 0, 1) = 2 ψ∈Ψ

which together with (9.35) proves (9.50). 9.24. We note here one of the easiest cases of Φk (s, Γ ) of (9.39a, b). Take Γ = Γ (1) and 0 ≤ k ∈ 2Z. Let χ0 denote the principal character. Then (8.18) shows that 2ζ(2s + k)Ek z, s; Γ (1), χ0 = Ek1 (z, s; χ0 ) = E1k (z, s; 0, 1). The Fourier expansion of E1k (z, s; 0, 1) is a special case of the formula given in [S07, p. 134]. Employing it, we obtain Γ (2s + k − 1)ζ(2s + k − 1) Ek z, s; Γ (1), χ0 = y s + y 1−k−s πi−k 22−k−2s Γ (s)Γ (s + k)ζ(2s + k)

86

III. THE RATIONALITY AND EISENSTEIN SERIES

+ nonconstant terms. Put ξ(s) = π −s/2 Γ (s/2)ζ(s). Since Γ (s)Γ (s − 1/2) = π 1/2 22−2s Γ (2s − 1), we have (9.51) Ek z, s; Γ (1), χ0 = y s + Φk s, Γ (1) y 1−k−s + nonconstant terms ξ(2s + k − 1) Γ (s + k/2)2 · . with Φk s, Γ (1) = i−k · ξ(2s + k) Γ (s)Γ (s + k) Then the relation Φk s, Γ (1) Φk 1 − k − s, Γ (1) = 1 means the well-known equality ξ(1 − s) = ξ(s) combined with the fact that the map s → 1 − k − s transforms Γ (s)Γ (s + k)Γ (s + k/2)−2 (which is a rational expression in s) into its inverse. Lemma 9.25. Given f ∈ M k , α ∈ Gk , and σ ∈ Aut(C), there exists an element β of Gk such that (f k α)σ = f σ k β. Proof. We ﬁrst prove the case k ∈ Z. Since SL2 (Q) = P Γ (1), it is 1 b suﬃcient to prove the cases α ∈ Γ (1) and α is of the form α = or 0 1

a 0 α= . The ﬁrst case is included in Lemma 7.6. The latter two cases 0 d can easily be veriﬁed. Now suppose k ∈ / Z; let f ∈ M k and γ = (α, p) ∈ Gk . Then f 2 ∈ M 2k and we ﬁnd β ∈ SL2 (Q) such that (f 2 2k α)σ = (f 2 )σ 2k β. 2 We easily see that (f k γ)σ = ζ(f 2 2k α)σ with a root of unity ζ. Therefore (f k γ)σ = f σ k (β, q) with a suitable (β, q) ∈ Gk . This completes the proof. Theorem 9.26. For every weight k > 0 the space Ek is spanned by its Q-rational elements. Proof. This follows from (9.49) if k = 1/2. Since the cases k = 3/2 and k = 2 require special considerations, we ﬁrst assume k > 2 or k = 1. Our task is to show that Ek for such a k isspanned by Q-rational elements. By (9.23) and (9.24), Ek is spanned by Ek z, 0; Γ (N, N ), ψ k α for all choices of (N, ψ) and α ∈ Gk . By Theorem 9.23(ii) and (9.21a), such a function is Qab -rational. To obtain the desired result, it is suﬃcient to show that Ek is stable under the action of Aut(C) deﬁned by (7.2). Indeed, assuming such a stability, take a Qab -rational element f (z) = ξ∈Q c(ξ)e(ξz) of Ek . Let K be the ﬁeld generated over Q by the c(ξ). By Theorem 7.5(v), [K : Q] is ﬁnite. Put G = Gal(K/Q) and gb = σ∈G (bf )σ for b ∈ K. Then gb is a Q-rational element of Ek and f is a ﬁnite K-linear combination of gb for elements. Thus our problem is to some b, and soEk is spanned by Q-rational σ show that Ek z, 0; Γ (N, N ), ψ k α belongs to Ek for every σ ∈ Aut(C). This is indeed so by Lemma 9.25, Theorem 8.15(i), and Theorem 8.15(iii). This completes the proof in the case k > 2 or k = 1.

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87

Next suppose k = 2. By (9.46), E2 (Γ ) consists of the holomorphic elements of E2 (0, Γ ), and the nonholomorphic elements belong to N 12 . Therefore, including elements, we observe that the space spanned such nonholomorphic by E2 z, 0; Γ (N, N ), ψ 2 α is stable under Aut(C). For this, in addition to Theorem 8.15(i), we need Lemma 9.25 for f ∈ N 2 . The statement in the two cases of the elements of P are easy, and so we have only to check the case α ∈ Γ (1). Then expressing f in the form f = g + cE2 with g ∈ M 2 , c ∈ C, and the function E2 of (7.10), we easily obtain the desired result. Thus Γ E2 (0, Γ ) is stable under Aut(C), and its subset consisting of the holomorphic elements is also stable under Aut(C) as expected. Finally suppose k = 3/2. We invoke the result of Pei in [P82, 84], in which a subset F of E3/2 with the following properties is given: (i) F consists of Qab -rational elements, and is stable under Gal(Qab /Q); (ii) E3/2 is spanned by the elements of the form f 3/2 α with f ∈ F and α ∈ SL2 (Q). Therefore our argument in the case k > 2 is applicable and we obtain the desired result. This completes the proof.

CHAPTER IV

THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN FORMS OF INTEGRAL AND HALF-INTEGRAL WEIGHT 10. Theta series of indeﬁnite quadratic forms In this section we will associate a certain theta function with an indeﬁnite quadratic form, and prove its automorphy properties. In later sections we will employ the function in various ways. We consider the set Sn (A) deﬁned by (0.2) with A = Z, Q, or R, and put S[x] = t xSx and S(x, y) = t xSy for x, y ∈ Cn and S ∈ Sn (R). We begin with some easy facts. Lemma 10.1. For two elements S and P of Sn (R)∩GLn (R) the following three conditions are mutually equivalent: (i) P > 0 and P S −1 P = S. (ii) There exists an element A of GLn (R) such that P = t AA and S = t AIp,q A with nonnegative integers p and q such that p + q = n, where Ip,q = diag[1p , −1q ]. (We of course ignore 1p or 1q if p or q is 0.) (iii) There exists a direct sum decomposition Rn = W ⊕ W such that S[x] ≥ 0 and P x = Sx for x ∈ W, S[y] ≤ 0 and P y = −Sy for y ∈ W , and S(x, y) = 0 for x ∈ W and y ∈ W . Proof. Given P and S as in (i), take B ∈ GLn(R) so that P = t BB, and put T = t B −1 SB −1 . Then t T = T and T −1 = BS −1 · t B = BP −1 SP −1 · t B = t −1 B SB −1 = T, and so the eigenvalues of T are ±1. Therefore we can ﬁnd an element C of GLn (R) such that t CC = 1n and C −1 T C = Ip,q with some p and q as in (ii). Putting A = t CB, we obtain (ii). Next, given (p, q) and A as in (ii), let X resp. Y denote the subspace of Rn consisting of the elements of Rn whose last q resp. ﬁrst p coordinates are 0. Let W = A−1 X and W = A−1 Y. Then we obtain (iii). Finally suppose W and W are taken as in (iii); then we can ﬁnd an element U of GLn (R) such that U X = W and U Y = W . We see that t U SU = diag[G, −H] with 0 < G ∈ Sp (R) and 0 < H ∈ Sq (R). Then t U P U = diag[G, H], and so P > 0 and t U P S −1 P U = t U P U (t U SU )−1 · t U P U = diag[G, −H] = t U SU. Thus we obtain (i) and our proof is complete. 10.2. For S ∈ Sn (R) ∩ GLn (R) we put

G. Shimura, Modular Forms: Basics and Beyond, Springer Monographs in Mathematics, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-2125-2_4, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

89

90

(10.1) (10.2)

IV. THE CORRRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

O(S) = α ∈ GLn (R) t αSα = S , P(S) = P ∈ Sn (R) P > 0, P S −1 P = S .

Then we can show that P(S) is a symmetric space that is O(S) modulo a compact subgroup as follows. First take A ∈ GLn (R) and nonnegative integers p and q so that S = t AIp,q A and put P0 = t AA. By Lemma 10.1, P0 ∈ P(S). (Thus P(S) = ∅.) Put K = O(S)∩O(P0 ). Since O(P0 ) is compact, K is a compact subgroup of O(S). In view of Lemma 10.1, it is an easy exercise to show that α → t αP0 α for α ∈ O(S) gives a bijection of K\O(S) onto P(S). (We do not need this fact in our later treatment, however.) 10.3. We ﬁx two elements S and P of Sn (R)∩GLn (R) such that P ∈ P(S). For z = x + iy ∈ H and γ ∈ SL2 (R) we put (10.3) (10.4)

R(z) = xS + iyP,

a γ 1n bγ S σγ = . cγ S −1 dγ 1n

Then clearly R(z) ∈ Hn and

−1 1n 0 a γ 1n b γ 1 n 1n 0 (10.5) σγ = . 0 S cγ 1n dγ 1n 0 S Therefore we easily see that σγ ∈ Sp(n, R) and the map γ → σγ is a homomorphism of SL2 (R) into Sp(n, R). Moreover we have (10.6) (10.7) (10.8)

R(z) − R(z) = 2iyP, σγ R(z) = R γ(z) , q j σγ , R(z) = jγ (z)p jγ (z) ,

where p and q are determined by S as in Lemma 10.1(ii). Formula (10.6) is obvious. To prove the last two formulas, take A as in Lemma 10.1(ii) and put Z z 1q ]. Then we easily see that R(z) = t AZA, and so for p , −¯

= diag[z1 a b γ= we have c d

t t t R(z) a1n bS AZA a · AZA +b · t AIp,q A AXA σγ = = = 1n cS −1 d1n 1n cA−1 Ip,q ZA + d1n A−1 Y A with X = diag[(az + b)1p , −(a¯ z + b)1q ] and Y = diag[(cz + d)1p , (c¯ z + d)1q ], and so

t R(z) A · diag[γ(z)1p − γ(z)1q ]A σγ = A−1 Y A 1n 1n

R γ(z) = A−1 · diag[jγ (z)1p , jγ (z)1q ]A. 1n Recalling formula (1.6), we obtain (10.7) and also (10.9) μ σγ , R(z) = A−1 · diag[jγ (z)1p , jγ (z)1q ]A.

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91

Taking the determinant, we obtain (10.8). 10.4. We now assume that S ∈ Sn (Q). Then the map γ → σγ sends SL2 (Q) into Sp(n, Q). We then consider the function ϕ(u, Z; λ) of (4.48a) with u ∈ Cn , Z ∈ Hn , and λ ∈ L (Qn ). Put (10.10) f(u, z; λ) = ϕ u, R(z); λ . Here z ∈ H. More explicitly λ(ξ)e 2−1R(z)[ξ] + t ξu . (10.11) f(u, z; λ) = e (4iyP )−1 [u] ξ∈Qn

Put (10.12)

MS = γ ∈ SL2 (Q) σγ ∈ Pn Γnθ

with Pn of Lemma 2.2(iii) and Γnθ of (4.6). Then P1 MS = MS . Take positive integers r and s so that rS ≺ 2Z and sS −1 ≺ 2Z. Then σγ ∈ Γnθ if γ ∈ Γ (r, s); see (8.11) for the notation. Also σι = diag[S, S −1 ]ιn ∈ Pn Γnθ . Thus (10.12a)

Γ (r, s) ⊂ MS

and

σι ∈ MS .

If γ ∈ MS and σ = σγ , then from (10.7) and (4.49a) we obtain (10.13) f t Mγ−1 u, γ(z); λ = hσ R(z) f(u, z; λσ ), where Mγ = μ σγ , R(z) . Also, from (10.8) and (4.49b) we see that z + d)q/2 with κγ ∈ T. (10.14) hσ R(z) = κγ (cz + d)p/2 (c¯ 10.5. Let S, P, and R(z) be as in §10.3 with S ∈ Sn (Q). Put V = Rn , VC = Cn , and (10.15) VC+ = x ∈ VC P x = Sx , VC− = x ∈ VC P x = −Sx . We consider a C-valued polynomial function χ on V given by (t ρSξ)ρ (t τ Sξ)mτ (ξ ∈ V ). (10.16) χ(ξ) = ρ∈{ρ}

τ ∈{τ }

Here {ρ} resp. {τ } is a ﬁnite subset of VC+ resp. VC− ; 0 ≤ ρ ∈ Z, 0 ≤ mτ ∈ Z. We assume: S(ρ, ρ ) = 0 if ρ, ρ ∈ {ρ} and ρ = ρ ; S(τ, τ ) = 0 if τ, τ ∈ {τ } and τ = τ ; S[ρ] = 0 if ρ > 1; S[τ ] = 0 if mτ > 1. We then put (10.17) f (z, λ) = f (z; λ, χ) = λ(ξ)χ(ξ)e 2−1 R(z)[ξ] , ξ∈V

where z ∈ H and λ ∈ L (Qn ). We call f (z, λ) a theta series associated with S. Take A as in Lemma 10.1(ii). Then we easily see that (10.18) Ax = Ip,q Ax if x ∈ VC+ and Ay = −Ip,q Ay if y ∈ VC− ; (10.19)

the last q resp. ﬁrst p coordinates of Ax are 0 if x ∈ VC+ resp. x ∈ VC− .

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IV. THE CORRRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

We deﬁne a factor of automorphy Jαp,q (z) as follows: jα (z)(p−q)/2 |jα (z)|q if n ∈ 2Z, (10.20) Jαp,q (z) = p−q q if n∈ / 2Z, hα (z) |jα (z)| / 2Z; hα is deﬁned in where α ∈ SL2 (Q) if n ∈ 2Z and α ∈ P1 Γ θ if n ∈ Theorem 4.12. Notice that p − q − n ∈ 2Z. In the following theorem S and χ are ﬁxed. Theorem 10.6. Let γ ∈ SL2 (Q) if n ∈ 2Z and γ ∈ P1 Γ θ if n ∈ / 2Z. Then for λ ∈ L (Qn ) we can deﬁne an element λγ of L (Qn ) such that m (10.21) f γ(z), λ = jγ (z) jγ (z) Jγp,q (z)f (z, λγ ), where = ρ∈{ρ} ρ and m = τ ∈{τ } mτ . Moreover, λγ is independent of χ γ and γ ∈ SL2 (Q) λ = λ contains a congruence subgroup of SL2 (Q). Proof. From (10.14) we see that hσ R(z) is Jγp,q (z) times an element of T. Therefore we can reformulate (10.13) in the form (10.22) f t Mγ−1 u, γ(z); λ = Jγp,q (z)f(u, z; λγ ) with a well-deﬁned λγ ∈ L (Qn ) for γ ∈ MS ∩ P Γ θ . Suppose n ∈ 2Z; p,q then Jβγ (z) = Jβp,q (γz)Jγp,q (z) for every β, γ ∈ SL2 (Q). By Lemma 2.2(iv), SL2 (Q) is generated by P and ι. Since (10.22) is valid for γ ∈ P and γ = ι, we can deﬁne λγ by (10.22) for every γ ∈ SL2 (Q) when n ∈ 2Z. Next suppose n∈ / 2Z. Then a similar reasoning establishes (10.22) for every γ ∈ SL2 (Q) q/2

if we replace Jγp,q and λγ by J = jγ (z)p/2 jγ (z) and some element λ ∈ n L (Q ). Here λ depends on the choice of J . Therefore, if we take J = Jγp,q (z) as deﬁned by (10.20), then (10.22) is valid for γ ∈ P Γ θ with a well-deﬁned λγ when n ∈ / 2Z. Thus (10.22) can be extended to γ ∈ SL2 (Q) or γ ∈ P Γ θ ; we call this extended formula (10.22). We will derive (10.21) by applying some diﬀerential operators to (10.22) and putting u = 0. We ﬁrst treat the case with χ(ξ) = (t ρSξ) (t τ Sξ)m , and will add a comment in a more general case at Put the end of the proof. n Dx = i=1 (Sx)i ∂/∂ui for x ∈ VC and g(u) = e (4iyP )−1 [u] + t ξu . Then (10.23)

(Dρ Dτm g)(0) = (2πi)+m χ(ξ).

To prove this we ﬁrst observe that Dx B[u] = 2B(Sx, u) for every B ∈ Sn (R). Then (Dx g)(u) = 2πi S(ξ, x) + (2iyP )−1 (Sx, u) g(u), 2 (Dx2 g)(u) = (2πi)2 S(ξ, x) + (2iyP )−1 (Sx, u) g(u) + 2πi(2iyP )−1 [Sx]g(u).

10. THETA SERIES OF INDEFINITE QUADRATIC FORMS

93

Now P −1 [Sx] = t xP x = ±t xSx for x ∈ VC± . Therefore, by our assumption S[τ ] = 0 if mτ > 1, we obtain (Dτm g)(0) = (2πi)m S(τ, ξ)m for 0 ≤ m ∈ Z. Also, Dρ Dτ g involves P −1 (Sτ, Sρ), which equals t τ P ρ = t τ Sρ = 0. Thus we obtain (10.23), and consequently termwise diﬀerentiation of (10.11) gives (10.24) (Dρ Dτm ) f(u, z; λ) u=0 = (2πi)+m f (z, λ). On the other hand,

(Dρ Dτm ) f(t Mγ−1 u, γz; λ)

(10.25)

= jγ (z)− jγ (z)

−m

(Dρ Dτm f)(t Mγ−1 u, γz; λ).

Indeed, in view of (10.9) and (10.19) we have t

Mγ−1 Sρ = t A · diag[jγ (z)1p , jγ (z)1q ]−1 · t A−1 Sρ = t A · diag[jγ (z)1p , jγ (z)1q ]−1 Ip,q Aρ = jγ (z)−1 Sρ, −1

and similarly t Mγ−1 Sτ = jγ (z) Sτ, and so (10.25) holds. Therefore, applying Dρ Dτm to (10.22) and putting u = 0, we obtain −m

(2πi)+m jγ (z)− jγ (z)

f (γz, λ) = (2πi)+m Jγp,q (z)f (z, λγ ),

which can be written in the form (10.21). When χ is deﬁned in the most general form, we apply ρ Dρρ τ Dτmτ to (10.22). In view of our assumption that t ρSρ = t τ Sτ = 0, we obtain (10.21) in the general case. Clearly λγ is independent of χ. The last assertion will be proven in §10.10. Lemma 10.7. Let the symbols be as in §10.5 and Theorem 10.6. Then f (z, λ) is slowly increasing or rapidly decreasing at every cusp, locally uniformly in the parameters ρ and τ of (10.16), according as = m = 0 or + m > 0. Proof. Let α ∈ SL2 (Q) and κ = + m + (p + q)/2. Then by (10.21), |Im(αz)κ/2 f (αz, λ)| = |Im(z)κ/2 f (z, λα )|, and so our task is to make an estimate of |f (z, μ)| for an arbitrary μ ∈ L (Qn ). Clearly it is suﬃcient to treat the case in which μ is the characteristic function of L = Zn . Let χ be a homogeneous polynomial function of ξ ∈ V of degree d. Then we can ﬁnd a positive constant C such that |χ(ξ)| ≤ CP [ξ]d/2 for −1 every ξ ∈ V. Since |e 2 R(z)[ξ] | = exp(−πyP [ξ]), we have −1 ≤C χ(ξ)e 2 R(z)[ξ] P [ξ]d/2 exp − πyP [ξ] . ξ∈L

ξ∈L

Suppose d = 0. Then we see that |f (z, μ)| ≤ C for y > 1/2 with a constant increasing at every cusp. Suppose C . Thus f (z, λ) is slowly d > 0. Since L is discrete in V and ξ ∈ V P [ξ] ≤ 1 is compact, ξ ∈ L P [ξ] ≤ 1 is a

94

IV. THE CORRRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

ﬁnite set, and so we can ﬁnd a positive constant M such that P [ξ] ≥ M for 0 = ξ ∈ L. Therefore if d > 0, we have P [ξ]d/2 exp −πyP [ξ]/2 ≤ C0 exp(−πM y/2) |f (z, μ)| ≤ C exp(−πM y/2) ξ∈L

if y > 1/2 with a positive constant C0 . This shows that f (z, λ) is rapidly decreasing at every cusp. Since we can take the same C when the parameters ρ and τ of (10.16) stay in compact sets, we obtain the desired local uniformity in ρ and τ.

a b ∈ Γ (2) deﬁne σγ by (10.4). Suppose Lemma 10.8. For γ = c d σγ ∈ Γnθ and 0 ≤ d − 1 ∈ 2Z; then

q (−1)p det(bcS) (z ∈ H). hγ (z)p hγ (z) (10.26) h σγ , R(z) = d If S ≺ Z in particular, (−1)p det(bcS) can be replaced by (−1)q det(S). Proof. Since bS ≺ Z, cS −1 ≺ Z, and ad1n−(bS)(cS −1 ) = 12n , we see that det(bS) is prime to d. By Theorem 4.7(1) we have h(σγ , Z) = κj(σγ , Z)1/2 with e bS[x]/(2d) , lim j(σγ , Z)1/2 > 0, κ = d−n/2 Z→0

x∈Zn /dZn

where Z is a variable on Hn . Since d is odd, putting x = 2y with y ∈ Zn /dZn , we obtain e 2bS[y]/d . κ = d−n/2 y∈Zn /dZn

By Lemma 2.3 there exist an element α of Mn (Z) and ri ∈ Z such that αbSα − diag[r1 , . . . , rn ] ≺ dZ and det(α) is a positive integer prime to d. Clearly we may assume that the diagonal elements of t αbSα are r1 , . . . , rn . Then d n κ = d−n/2 e(2ri y 2 /d). t

i=1 y=1

and det(α) det(bS) − r1 · · · rn ∈ dZ. By Theorem 2.6 we have

n

n 2ri det(2bS) 2c det(−bcS) κ= εd = εnd = ε−n . d d d d d i=1 Now μ σγ , R(z) is given by (10.9). Therefore, by (4.40) we obtain

q det(−bcS) hγ (z)p hγ (z) , h σγ , R(z) = ε2q d d which gives (10.26). If S ≺ Z, we can replace −bcS by S, since bc + 1 ∈ dZ. This completes the proof. 2

10. THETA SERIES OF INDEFINITE QUADRATIC FORMS

Theorem 10.9. Given 0 < S ∈ Sn (Z), put χ(ξ)e 2−1S[ξ]z (10.27) f (z) =

95

(z ∈ H)

ξ∈Zn

with χ as in (10.16) such that {τ } = ∅. Then f ∈ M k with k = +n/2, = a b ∈ Γ (1), bS ≺ 2Z, ρ∈{ρ} ρ , and f ∈ S k if > 0. Moreover, if γ = c d cS −1 ≺ 2Z, and d > 0, then

det(S) hγ (z)n jγ (z) f (z). (10.28) f (γz) = d Proof. Since bc ∈ 4Z, d is odd. Take S = P and τ = ∅ in Theorem 10.6; take also λ to be the characteristic function of Zn . Then our f (z) is f (z, λ), or rather, f (z) = f(0, z; λ) with f of (10.11). Therefore we have f(t Mγ−1 u, γz; λ) = h(σγ , zS)f(u, z; λ) for γ ∈ Γ θ . Now h(σγ , zS) is determined by Lemma 10.8. Then the application of Dρ produces jγ (z) as explained in the proof of Theorem 10.6, and so we obtain (10.28). Also, from (10.21) we see that f satisﬁes condition (3.4d). That f ∈ S k if > 0 can easily be seen. This proves our theorem. The fact that a theta series of type (10.27) belongs to M k was proved by Hecke and Schoeneberg when n is even. A general formula for both even and odd n was given in [S73a]. There is a paper cited in [S73a] that treated the case of odd n, but its proof is erroneous. 10.10. Let us now prove the last assertion Theorem 10.6. Take an

of a b ∈ Γ (r, s) with d > 0 integer m so that mS ≺ Z. Suppose γ = c d and positive even integers r and s such that rs ∈ mZ and σγ ∈ Γnθ . Put bc

= mt. Since mt + 1 = bc + 1p ∈n dZ, we have

(−1) t det(mS) (−1)q mn det(mS) (−1)p det(bcS) = = =1 d d d n p,q if d − 1 ∈ 4m det(mS)Z. By Lemma 10.8, we have h σγ , R(z) = Jγ (z) for such a γ, that is, for γ in a suﬃciently small congruence subgroup. Also, our γ depend on χ, that is, λγ is determined proof of (10.21) shows that λ does not p,q by (10.22). Since h σγ , R(z) = Jγ (z) for γ as above, comparing (10.22) with (10.13), we have λσ = λγ for σ = σγ , where λσ is determined by (4.49a). Therefore the last assertion of Theorem 10.6 follows from (4.49f). 10.11. If S of §10.3 has signature (m, 2) with 0 < m ∈ Z (that is, (p, q) above is (m, 2)), then the symmetric space associated with P(S) in the sense of §10.2 is a noncompact hermitian symmetric space, and so has a complex structure. Here, however, without proving this in a precise form, let us merely show that P(S) can be parametrized by some complex variables.

96

IV. THE CORRRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

For that purpose, we take, instead of S ∈ S(Rn ), a vector space V over R of dimension m + 2, and take also an R-bilinear symmetric form S : V × V → R that has signature (m, 2). We put VC = V ⊗R C and extend S to a C-valued C-bilinear form on VC × VC , using the same letter S. For v ∈ VC we can deﬁne its complex conjugate v¯ ∈ VC in an obvious way. We now put (10.29) Y(S) = v ∈ VC S[v] = 0, S(v, v¯) < 0 , where S[v] = S(v, v). Taking 1m,2 as S, we see that Y(S) = ∅. Given v ∈ v , W = Ru + Ru , and W = y ∈ Y(S), put u = v + v¯, u = iv − i¯ V S(y, W ) = 0 . Since S[u] < 0, S[u ] < 0, and S(u, u ) = 0, we see that dim(W ) = 2, V = W ⊕ W , S is negative deﬁnite on W, and S is positive deﬁnite on W . Let WC = W ⊗R C, Then WC = Cv +C¯ v. Deﬁne Pv : V ×V → R so that Pv = −S on W × W, Pv = S on W × W , and Pv (W, W ) = 0. Then Pv is positive deﬁnite, and we have WC = VC+ and WC = VC− in the sense of (10.15) with respect to (S, Pv ); also, we have (10.30)

Pv [ξ] − S[ξ] = −4S(v, v¯)−1 |S( ξ, v)|2 for every ξ ∈ V.

Indeed, given ξ ∈ V, we can ﬁnd c ∈ C and z ∈ W such that ξ = cv + c¯v¯ + z. cS(v, v¯), and Then S(ξ, v) = c¯S(v, v¯) and Pv [ξ] − S[ξ] = −2S[cv + c¯v¯] = −4c¯ so we obtain (10.30). By Lemma 10.1, the matrices representing S and Pv with respect to an R-basis of V are of the type described in (i) of that lemma. 11. Theta integrals 11.1. In the setting of §10.11 let us consider the special case m = 1 by taking (11.1) V = x ∈ M2 (R) tr(x) = 0 , S(x, y) = −2−1tr(xy) (x, y ∈ V ).

a b 2 Thus S[ξ] = −a − bc = det(ξ) for ξ = ∈ VC . We put c −a

∂p(w) 1 −2w w −w2 ¯ , q(w) = = (11.2a) p(w) = (w ∈ H ∪ H), 1 −w 0 −1 ∂w (11.2b) [ξ, w] = 2S ξ, p(w) (ξ ∈ V ). Then we have (11.3a) (11.3b) (11.3c)

[ξ, w] = cw2 − 2aw − b

if

γp(w)γ −1 = jγ (w)2 p(γw) [γ

−1

2

ξγ, w] = jγ (w) [ξ, γw]

ξ= if if

a c

b ∈ V, −a

γ ∈ SL2 (R), γ ∈ SL2 (R).

11. THETA INTEGRALS

97

Formula (11.3a) verify

is easy. As for the latter two formulas, we can easily 0 −1 w for γ ∈ that p(w) = [w 1]ι and γ −1 = ι−1 · t γι with ι = 1 0 1 SL2 (R). Therefore

w −1 t 2 γw γp(w)γ = γ [γw 1]ι, [w 1] · γι = jγ (w) 1 1 which The left-hand side of (11.3c) equals 2S γ −1 ξγ, p(w) = gives (11.3b). 2S ξ, γp(w)γ −1 = 2jγ (w)2 S ξ, p(γw) by (11.3b), and so we obtain (11.3c). Clearly p(w) ∈ VC and S p(w) = 0. Also, a direct calculation shows ¯ 2 = −2Im(w)2 < 0, (11.4) S p(w), p(w) = 2−1 (w − w) and so p(w) ∈ Y(S). 11.2. For v = p(w) deﬁne Pv as in §10.10 and put Rw (z) = xS + iyPv for z = x + iy ∈ H. Then for ξ ∈ VC we have (11.5) Rw (z)[ξ] = S[ξ]z + iy Pv [ξ] − S[ξ] = det(ξ)z + 2−1iy · Im(w)−2 |[ξ, w]|2 , because of (10.30), (11.2b), and (11.4). We have seen that VC− = WC = v. Cv + C¯ v in §10.11, and so Pv v = −Sv and Pv v¯ = −S¯ We now consider a function of the form (11.6) Θ(z, w; η) = Im(z)1/2 Im(w)−2m η(ξ)[ξ, w] ¯ m e 2−1 Rw (z)[ξ] . ξ∈V

Here 0 ≤ m ∈ Z, (z, w) ∈ H × H, and η ∈ L (V ). This is y 1/2 times a special case of (10.17). Indeed, we have S[p(w)] ¯ = 0 and [ξ, w] ¯ = 2S ξ, p(w) ¯ , and ¯ = −Sp(w) ¯ as noted above, and so Im(w)−2m [ξ, w] ¯ m is a special case Pv p(w) of χ(ξ) = (t τ Sξ)m of (10.16). Notice that p = 1 and q = 2 in the present case. We put (11.7)

k = m + 1/2,

jγk (z) = hγ (z)jγ (z)m

(γ ∈ Γ θ ).

This is consistent with (5.1b). Then from Theorem 10.6 we obtain (11.8)

Θ(γz, w; η) = jγk (z)Θ(z, w; η) for every γ ∈ Γ

with a suﬃciently small congruence subgroup Γ of Γ θ . (The factor y 1/2 in (11.6) eliminates |jγ |.) Also, from (11.3c) we easily obtain (11.9)

Θ(z, βw; η) = jβ (w)2m Θ(z, w; η β ) for every β ∈ GL+ 2 (Q),

where η β (ξ) = η(βξβ −1 ). In the rest of this section we assume m > 0.

98

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

Theorem 11.3. (i) Given f ∈ Mk (Γ ) with k = m + 1/2, 0 < m ∈ Z, and a congruence subgroup Γ for which (11.8) holds, put f (z)Θ(z, w; η)y k dz, Φ = Γ \H, (11.10) g(w) = Φ

where dz is as in (6.5). Then the integral is convergent and g belongs to M 2m . (ii) In the setting of (i) suppose that f is a cusp form. Then g is a cusp form at least in the following two cases: (a) m > 1; (b) m = 1 and f, θ∗ (z, μ) = 0 for every μ ∈ L (Q), where θ∗ is as in (4.51). We call the expression on the right-hand side of (11.10) a theta integral. The proof of (i) will be completed in §11.7 and (ii) will be proven in §12.7. 11.4. In this subsection we assume that every integral is convergent. The convergence will be proven in the next subsection. Now we need to compute ¯ [ξ, w] ¯ m−1 , where (∂/∂ w)Θ(z, ¯ w; η). We have (∂/∂ w)[ξ, ¯ w] ¯ m = 2mS ξ, q(w) q(w) = ∂p(w)/∂w, as we deﬁned in (11.2a). Writing simply p and q for p(w) and q(w), we obtain, from (11.5) and (10.30), (∂/∂ w)R ¯ w (z)[ξ] = iy(∂/∂ w)P ¯ v [ξ] = −4iy(∂/∂ w) ¯ S(p, p¯)−1 S(ξ, p)S(ξ, p¯) = 4iyS( ξ, p) S(p, p¯)−2 S(p, q¯)S(ξ, p¯) − S(p, p¯)−1 S(ξ, q¯) = iy · Im(w)−4 S(ξ, p)S(ξ, r) (11.11)

with

p, r = S(p, q¯)¯ p − S(p, p¯)¯ q = 2Im(w) q¯ − 2iIm(w)¯ 2

since S(p, q¯) = −2iIm(w). Notice that (11.12)

S(p, q) = S(p, r) = S(¯ p, r) = 0. −1 Thus, putting E = e 2 Rw (z)[ξ] for simplicity, we have (11.13) (∂/∂ w)Θ(z, ¯ w; η) = −miy 1/2Im(w)−2m−1 η(ξ)[ξ, w] ¯ mE + 2my 1/2 Im(w)−2m − (π/2)y

3/2

ξ∈V

η(ξ)[ξ, w] ¯ m−1 S(ξ, q¯)E

ξ∈V −2m−4

Im(w)

η(ξ)[ξ, w] ¯ m [ξ, w]S(ξ, r)E.

ξ∈V

We need an auxiliary series H deﬁned by (11.14)

H(z, w; η) = y 3/2 Im(w)−2m−2 · η(ξ)[ξ, w] ¯ m−1 S(ξ, r)e 2−1Rw (z)[ξ] , ξ∈V

and also the operator δk−2 = (k − 2)(2iy)−1 + ∂/∂z on H deﬁned in (6.13b). Writing simply H for H(z, w; η), we are going to prove

11. THETA INTEGRALS

(11.15)

99

¯ (∂/∂ w)Θ(z, ¯ w; η) = −2iδk−2 H.

Indeed, since Rw (z) = xS + iyPv , we have, by (10.30), (∂/∂ z¯)Rw (z)[ξ] = 2−1 (S − Pv )[ξ] ¯ = 2S(p, p¯)−1 |S(ξ, p)|2 = −4−1 Im(w)−2 [ξ, w][ξ, w], and so (11.16)

¯ = (2 − k)(2iy)−1 H + (∂/∂ z¯)H δk−2 H η(ξ)[ξ, w] ¯ m−1 S(ξ, r)E = (k − 2)(i/2)y 1/2 Im(w)−2m−2 + (3i/4)y

1/2

−2m−2

Im(w)

ξ∈V η(ξ)[ξ, w] ¯ m−1 S(ξ, r)E

ξ∈V

− (πi/4)y 3/2 Im(w)−2m−4

η(ξ)[ξ, w] ¯ m [ξ, w]S(ξ, r)E.

ξ∈V

The last line times −2i equals the last line of (11.13). Substituting (11.11) into r of the ﬁrst two terms of the right-hand side of (11.16) and multiplying by −2i, we obtain the ﬁrst two terms on the right-hand side of (11.13). This proves (11.15). Now g(w) is μ(Φ) times f¯, Θ(z, w; η), and so ∂g/∂ w ¯ is μ(Φ) times (11.17)

(∂/∂ w) ¯ f¯, Θ(z, w; η) = f¯, (∂/∂ w)Θ(z, ¯ w; η) ¯ δk−2 H ¯ = −2iδk−2 H, ¯ f = −2iH, ¯ εf = −2if,

by (6.16). This is 0, since f is holomorphic. Thus g(w) is holomorphic in w. By Lemma 10.7, Θ(z, w; η) is rapidly decreasing locally uniformly in w, and so the ﬁrst equality of (11.17) is justiﬁed. 11.5. Since m > 0, Θ(z, w; η) is rapidly decreasing at every cusp as a function in z by Lemma 10.7. Every element of M k is slowly increasing at every cusp, and so the integral of (11.10) is convergent. Similarly, H of p, r) = 0, and so (11.14) is a special case of (10.17), since r ∈ VC− and S(¯ by Lemma 10.7, H is rapidly decreasing at every cusp. Also, as can be seen ¯ are rapidly decreasing at every from (11.13) or (11.16), (∂/∂ w)Θ ¯ and δk−2 H cusp. Therefore all the inner products appearing in (11.17) are meaningful; also the last equality of (11.17) can be justiﬁed, since the conditions stated in Theorem 6.8 are satisﬁed. To study the nature of g beyond its holomorphy, we ﬁrst put g(w) = β g(w, η). From β g(w, (11.9) we obtain η)2m β = g(w, η ) for every β ∈ SL2 (Q). Put Δ = β ∈ SL2 (Q) η = η . Then Δ is a congruence subgroup and g2m δ = g for every δ ∈ Δ. Therefore, in view of Lemma 6.4, to show that g ∈ M 2m , it is suﬃcient to show that g is slowly increasing at every cusp. For that purpose, we take T and E as in (6.10a, b) As shown there, Γ \H is covered by ε∈E εT, and so the integral over Φ is majorized by ε∈E εT .

100

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

Thus, putting fε (z) = jε (z)−k f (εz), our question is reduced to the estimate of T fε (z)Θ(z, w; η)y k dz, or rather, to the problem of showing that h(w) = f (z)Θ(z, w; η)y k dz T

as a function of w satisﬁes (6.9a) (with 2m and h in place of k and f there) for every f ∈ M k . Fixing f, let α ∈ SL2 (Q). Then f (z)jα (w)−2m Θ(z, αw; η)y k dz Im(αw)m h(αw) = Im(w)m T m f (z)Θ(z, w; η α )y k dz = Im(w) T

with η α as in (11.9). Our task is to make an estimate of Θ(z, w; ζ) for ζ ∈ L (V ), when Im(w) is suﬃciently large. It is suﬃcient to treat the case in which ζ is the characteristic function of a lattice L in V. Then Θ is invariant under w → w + 2p with a positive number p. Thus our estimate will be made under the condition (11.18)

|Re(w)| ≤ p

and

Im(w) > q

with a positive constant q. Changing the notation, write Pw for Pv of (11.5).

a b For ξ = ∈ V put ξ = (a2 + b2 + c2 )1/2 . In §11.7 we will prove c −a (11.19) (11.20)

Pw [ξ] ≥ 8−1 Im(w)−2 ξ2 under (11.18), [ξ, w]2 ≤ A · Im(w)4 ξ2 under (11.18),

with a constant A depending only on p and a suﬃciently large q. We need two more easy facts. The ﬁrst one is: (11.21) For 0 ≤ m ∈ Z there is a constant Bm depending only on m such m −tN that ∞ ≤ Bm t−m−1 for 0 < t ≤ 1. N =1 N e ∞ Indeed, N =1 N m xN = xFm (x)(1 − x)−m−1 with a polynomial Fm of degree Max{m − 1, 0}. This can be obtained by applying x · d/dx successively to ∞ x/(1 − x) = N =1 xN . Putting x = e−t and observing that t/2 ≤ 1 − e−t for 0 < t ≤ 1, we obtain the desired inequality. Next, for L = Zn and 0 < N ∈ Z we have (11.22) # ξ ∈ L Max1≤ν≤n |ξν | = N ≤ Cn N n−1 with a constant Cn depending only on n. The proof is left to the reader, as it is completely elementary. 11.6. For ξ in the set of (11.22) we have N ≤ ξ2 ≤ nN 2 , and so for 0 < m ∈ Z and y > 1/2 we have

11. THETA INTEGRALS

(11.23)

101

ξm exp − ytξ2 ≤ exp(−yt/2) ξm exp − ytξ2 /2

ξ∈L

≤ Cn exp(−yt/2)

∞

ξ∈L

N n−1 (n1/2 N )m exp(−ytN/2)

N =1

= nm/2 Cn exp(−yt/2) ≤4

m+n m/2

n

∞

N m+n−1 exp(−tN/4)

N =1 Cn Bm+n−1 t−m−n

exp(−yt/2)

for 0 < t ≤ 4, by (11.21). We apply this to Θ(z, w; ζ) with characteristic the −1 function of L = V ∩ M2 (Z) as ζ. (Thus n = 3.) Since e 2 Rw (z)[ξ] = exp − πyPw [ξ] , we have, by (11.6), (11.19), and(11.20), Θ(z, w; ζ) ≤ y 1/2 Im(w)−2m [ξ, w]m exp − πyPw [ξ] ≤ Am/2 y 1/2

ξ∈L

ξm exp − (π/8)yIm(w)−2 ξ2 .

ξ∈L

Applying the estimate of (11.23) to this, we ﬁnd that, under (11.18), Θ(z, w; ζ) ≤ Dy 1/2 Im(w)2m+6 exp − (π/16)yIm(w)−2 with a constant D that depends only on m. (We take z in T, and so y > 1/2.) Now f (z) is bounded on T and k = m + 1/2, and so ∞ k m f (z)Θ(z, w; ζ)y dz ≤ E · Im(w)3m+6 e−ay y m−1 dy Im(w) T

−2

1/2 ∞ by 1/2

∞

with a = (π/8)Im(w) and a constant E. Replacing and noting 0 ∞ −ay m−1 −m that 0 e y dy = Γ (m)a , we see that f (z)Θ(z, w; ζ)y k dz ≤ F · Im(w)5m+6 Im(w)m T

with a constant F, which proves that g of (11.10) is slowly increasing at every cusp, and so g ∈ M 2m as stated in Theorem 11.3(i). 11.7. It remains to prove (11.19) and (11.20). By (11.5) we have 2 (11.24) Pw [ξ] = det(ξ) + 2−1 Im(w)−2 [ξ, w] . Put u = Re(w) and v = Im(w). Then a direct calculation shows that 2 (∗) [ξ, w] = c2 |w|4 + 4a2 |w|2 + b2 − 4acu|w|2 − 2bc(u2 − v 2 ) + 4abu, and so

2 2v 2 Pw [ξ] = [ξ, w] − 2(a2 + bc)v 2 = c2 |w|4 + 4a2 |w|2 + b2 − 2a2 v2 − 2bcu2 − 4acu|w|2 + 4abu.

102

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

We are assuming (11.18). Thus |u| ≤ p, and so −2bcu2 ≥ −2|2−1 b · 2p2 c| ≥ −(4−1 b2 + 4p4 c2 ). Similarly −4acu|w|2 ≥ −(a2 + 4p2 c2 )|w|2 and 4abu ≥ −(8p2 a2 + 2−1 b2 ). Therefore 2v 2 Pw [ξ] ≥ a2 (3|w|2 − 2v2 − 8p2 ) + 4−1 b2 + c2 |w|4 − 4p2 |w|2 − 4p4 . We easily see that the right-hand side is ≥ 4−1 (a2 + b2 + c2 ) for suﬃciently large v, which proves (11.19). As for (11.20), viewing [ξ, w] as the inner product of the vectors (c, a, b) and (w2 , −2w, −1), we ﬁnd that [ξ, w]2 ≤ ξ2 |w|4 + 4|w|2 + 1 , from which we obtain (11.20). This completes the proof of Theorem 11.3(i). 12. Main theorems on the correspondence 12.1. We need nonholomorphic modular forms involving the Hermite polynomial Hn (x) deﬁned by (12.1)

(0 ≤ n ∈ Z).

Hn (x) = (−1)n exp(x2 /2)(d/dx)n exp(−x2 /2)

This is a polynomial of degree n with coeﬃcients in Z. We easily obtain √ √ (12.1a) (− c)n Hn ( c x) = exp(cx2 /2)(d/dx)n exp(−cx2 /2) (c > 0). Here are some basic formulas on Hn , in which Hn (x) = (d/dx)Hn (x) : (12.2)

H0 (x) = 1,

H1 (x) = x,

(12.3)

Hn (−x) = (−1)n Hn (x),

(12.4)

Hn+1 (x) = xHn (x) − Hn (x),

(12.5)

Hn (x) = nHn−1 (x), n n k i Hk (y)Hn−k (x), (x + iy)n = k

(12.6)

k=0

∞

(12.7)

Hn ( 4πy a)e(ia2 y)y (s/2)−1 dy

0

n (s − ν) = 2−n/2 (2π)−s/2 a−s Γ (s − n)/2

(Re(s) > n, a > 0).

ν=1

The ﬁrst three are easy; (12.5) can be derived from (12.4) by induction on n. As

for (12.6), putting E = e−zz¯/2 , we have (x + iy)n E = (−2∂/∂ z¯)n E = n n (−i∂/∂y)k (−∂/∂x)n−k E, which gives the desired result. The case k=0 k n = 0 of (12.7) is ∞ e(ia2 y)y (s/2)−1 dy = Γ (s/2)(2π)−s/2 a−s (Re(s) > 0), 0

12. MAIN THEOREMS ON THE CORRESPONDENCE

103

which follows from (8.2). Applying dn /dan to this, we obtain, by (12.1a), ∞ Hn ( 4πy a)e(ia2 y)(4πy)n/2 y (s/2)−1 dy (−1)n 0

= (2π)−s/2 a−s−n Γ (s/2)

n

(1 − s − ν).

ν=1

Substituting s − n for s, we obtain (12.7). The nonholomorphic form we need is (12.8) θn (z, λ) = (4πy)−n/2 λ(ξ)Hn ( 4πy ξ)e(ξ 2 z/2), ξ∈Q

where z ∈ H, λ ∈ L (Q), and y = Im(z). Since Hn (x) is a polynomial in x of degree n, the sum is convergent. Clearly λ(ξ)e(ξ 2 z/2) = θ(0, z; λ), (12.9a) θ0 (z, λ) = ξ∈Q

(12.9b)

θ1 (z, λ) =

λ(ξ)ξe(ξ 2 z/2) = θ∗ (z, λ),

ξ∈Q

where θ(0, z; λ) is as in (4.48b) with n = 1 and θ ∗ as in (4.51), and so θn (z, λ) is holomorphic in z for n ≤ 1. From (4.50b) and (4.52) we obtain (12.9c)

θ0 (αz, λ) = hα (z)θ0 (z, λα ) for every α ∈ P Γ θ ,

(12.9d)

θ1 (αz, λ) = hα (z)jα (z)θ1 (z, λα ) for every α ∈ P Γ θ .

Consequently θ0 (z, λ) belongs to M 1/2 and θ1 (z, λ) to S 3/2 , as we already observed in §§5.1 and 5.8. Now we have: Lemma 12.2. Let the symbols hα (z) and λα be deﬁned as in Theorem 4.12 in the one-dimensional case. Then for every α ∈ P Γ θ we have (12.10) θn α(z), λ = hα (z)jα (z)n θn (z, λα ). Proof. We ﬁrst prove (12.10a)

(πi)−1 δk θn (z, λ) = θn+2 (z, λ),

k = n + 1/2,

where δk is the operator of (6.13b). To prove this, we put √ (12.11) Kn (z) = Kn (ξ, z) = (4πy)−n/2 Hn ( 4πy ξ)e(ξ 2 z/2), where ξ is ﬁxed. Then our task is to prove that (πi)−1 δk Kn (z) = Kn+2 (z),

(12.12)

which implies (12.10a). To make our formulas short, put Y = (πi)−1 (∂/∂z)Kn(z)

√ 4πy. Then

= Y −n e(ξ 2 z/2) nY −2 Hn (Y ξ) − ξY −1 Hn (Y ξ) + ξ 2 Hn (Y ξ) .

Since δk = k(2iy)−1 + ∂/∂z, we have

104

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

(πi)−1 δk Kn (z) = −2kY −2 Kn (z) + (πi)−1 (∂/∂z)Kn(z) = Y −n−2 e(ξ 2 z/2) − (n + 1)Hn (Y ξ) − ξY Hn (Y ξ) + ξ 2 Y 2 Hn (Y ξ) . By (12.4) we have Y ξHn+1 (Y ξ) = Y 2 ξ 2 Hn (Y ξ) − Y ξHn (Y ξ), and by (12.5), (Y ξ) = (n + 1)Hn (Y ξ). Therefore Hn+1 (Y ξ) (πi)−1 δk Kn (z) = Y −n−2 e(ξ 2 z/2) Y ξHn+1 (Y ξ) − Hn+1 = Y −n−2 e(ξ 2 z/2)Hn+2(Y ξ) by (12.4). This proves (12.12), and (12.10a) as well. Recall the operator δrm deﬁned by δrm = δr+2m−2 · · · δr+2 δr in (6.13d). Let n = 2m + ν and r = ν + 1/2 with ν = 0 or 1 and 0 < m ∈ Z. Then from (12.10a) we obtain (πi)−m δrm θν (z, λ) = θn (z, λ).

(12.12a)

Applying (πi)−m δrm to (12.9c, d) and employing (6.14c), we obtain (12.10). This completes the proof. 12.3. This subsection concerns a formula for the Fourier transform of Kn . We do not need this result in our later discussion, however. We have K0 (ξ, z) = e(ξ 2 z/2) and K1 (ξ, z) = ξe(ξ 2 z/2), and so from (12.12) we obtain, for 0 ≤ m ∈ Z and ν = 0 or 1, m m (12.13) K2m+ν (ξ, z) = (πi)−m δν+1/2 Kν (ξ, z) = (πi)−m δν+1/2 ξ ν e(ξ 2 z/2).

Now we have an integral formula (12.14) Kν (ξ, z)e(−ξη)dξ = (−iz)−1/2 z −ν Kν η, ι(z) (η ∈ R),

R 0 −1 where ι = . Indeed, if ν = 0, this is merely (4.30) with n = 1. 1 0 m Applying ∂/∂η to it, we obtain the case ν = 1. Then applying (πi)−m δν+1/2 to (12.14), from (12.13) and (6.14c) we obtain K2m+ν (ξ, z)e(−ξη)dξ = (−iz)−1/2 z −m−ν K2m+ν η, ι(z) (12.15) R

(ν = 0 or 1, 0 ≤ m ∈ Z, η ∈ R).

12.4. Fixing a positive integer N divisible by 4, we put, for simplicity, (12.16) ΓN0 = Γ (2, N/2) = γ ∈ Γ (1) bγ ∈ 2Z, cγ ∈ 2−1 N Z . In addition, we will be considering Γ0 (N/2). We also take a half-integral weight k and a character ψ of (Z/N Z)× (which may be imprimitive) such that (12.17)

k = m + 1/2

and

ψ(−1) = (−1)m ,

0 < m ∈ Z.

We then consider an element f of S k (2, N/2; ψ) (see §8.6), that is, an element f of S k such that (12.18)

f k γ = ψ(dγ )f

for every

γ ∈ ΓN0 .

12. MAIN THEOREMS ON THE CORRESPONDENCE

105

Next, we deﬁne η ∈ L (V ) with V of §11.1 by

a b (12.19) η = ω(a)ω(2c/N )η0 (b), c −a where ω is the characteristic function of Z and ⎧ −1 ⎪ ψ(t)e(−bt/2) ⎨N (12.19a) η0 (b) = t∈Z/N Z ⎪ ⎩0

if N b ∈ 2Z, otherwise,

with ψ(t) = 0 for t not prime to N. Since η0 (b) depends only on b (mod 2Z), we see that η ∈ L (V ). Moreover, a simple calculation shows that η(βαβ −1 ) = ψ(d2β )η(α) for every β ∈ Γ0 (N/2).

(12.20)

Let us simply write Θ(z, w) for Θ(z, w; η) of (11.6) with this η. Then from (12.20) and (11.9) we obtain (12.21)

Θ(z, βw)jβ (w)−2m = ψ(d2β )Θ(z, w) for every β ∈ Γ0 (N/2).

We have several aims: one is to prove Theorem 11.3(ii); the other is to make preparations for the proof of our main theorem, Theorem 12.8below. We thus take f as above and deﬁne g by (11.10) with Γ = γ ∈ ΓN0 aγ − 1 ∈ N Z . Then from Theorem 11.3(i) and (12.21) we see that g ∈ M 2m (N/2, ψ 2 ). Put c(ξ)e(ξw). (12.22) g(w) =

ξ∈Z

We ﬁrst note that g(ir) = ξ∈Z c(ξ)e−2πξr for 0 < r ∈ R. (We make these choices of f and Γ for some deﬁnite reason, but actually our calculation is valid for an arbitrary f ∈ S k and a suitable Γ, with some obvious modiﬁcations, about which we will be more explicit in our later discussion.) In view of (8.2) we have ∞ g(ir)rm+s−1 dr = (2π)−m−s Γ (s + m) c(ξ)ξ −s−m , (12.23) 0

0 m + 1, because of the estimate of c(ξ) given in Lemma 6.2(ii). Also, if c(0) = 0, the integral of (12.23) is divergent for large Re(s), since |g(ir)| > |c(0)|/2 for suﬃciently large r. In the following subsection we will show that the integral is indeed convergent for suﬃciently large Re(s), and so c(0) = 0 and (12.23) holds for Re(s) > m + 1.

a b 12.5. For ξ = ∈ V and w = ir we have, by (11.3a) and (11.5), c −a 2 [ξ, w] = −cr2 − 2air − b, [ξ, w] = 4a2 r2 + b2 + c2 r4 + 2bcr2 , Rw (z)[ξ] = (−a2 − bc)z + (iy/2)(4a2 + b2 r−2 + 2bc + c2 r2 )

106

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

= −a2 z¯ − bcx + (iy/2)(c2 r2 + b2 r−2 ), and so

√ y (m−1)/2 ( π r)m Θ(z, ir) = (−1)m

ω(a)η0 (b)ω(2c/N )

(a,b,c)∈Q3

· (πy)m/2 (cr+br−1 +2ai)m e (a2 /2)z +(bc/2)x+(iy/4)(c2r2 +b2 r−2 ) . By (12.6) we have (πy)m/2 (cr + br−1 + 2ai)m m

m m−n √ = Hn πy(cr + br−1 ) Hm−n 4πy · a . i n n=0

Therefore, putting (12.24)

An (z, r) =

η0 (b)ω(2c/N )Hn

√ πy(cr + br−1 )

(b,c)∈Q2

· e (bc/2)x + (iy/4)(c2 r2 + b2 r−2 ) , H 4πy · a e(a2 z/2), τ (z) = y −/2

(12.25)

a∈Z

we obtain

√ y (m−1)/2 ( π r)m Θ(z, ir) m

m m−n (m−n)/2 m i y τm−n (z)An (z, r). = (−1) n

(12.26)

n=0

Notice that τ (z) is (4π)/2 times θ (z, ω) of (12.8), and it is identically equal to 0 if is odd, because of (12.3). We now need a formula i−n 21/2 π −n/2 (y/r2 )(n+1)/2 An (z, r) ¯ = ψ(d)(c¯ z + d)n e (ir2 /(4y))|cz + d|2 ,

(12.27)

(c,d)∈T

where T = (c, d) ∈ 2−1 N Z × Z dZ + N Z = Z . To prove this, we ﬁrst note exp − πp(u + q)2 e(−uv)du = p−1/2 e(qv) exp(−πv2 /p) (12.28) R

for 0 < p ∈ R, q ∈ R, and v ∈ R. This follows easily from (4.28). Given z = x + iy ∈ H, 0 < t ∈ R, and c ∈ R, take p = t2 /y and q = cx in (12.28) and multiply the result by exp(−πyc2 t2 ). Then we obtain (12.29) exp − πt2 |cz + u|2 /y e(−uv)du R √ = ( y/t)e cxv + (iy/2)(c2 t2 + v 2 t−2 ) . This is the special case n = 0 of √ exp(−πt2 y −1|cz + u|2 )(c¯ z + u)n e(−uv)du (12.30) ( 2π i)n R

12. MAIN THEOREMS ON THE CORRESPONDENCE

107

√ √ = ( y/t)n+1 Hn 2πy(ct + vt−1 ) e cxv + (iy/2)(c2 t2 + v 2 t−2 ) (0 ≤ n ∈ Z, z = x + iy ∈ H, c ∈ R, v ∈ R, 0 < t ∈ R). The case n > 0 of (12.30) can be proved by induction on n, by applying 2πic¯ z − ∂/∂v to (12.29) and employing (12.4). Before proceeding further, we consider a variation of the Poisson summation formula: ˆ ¯ η0 (b)h(b/2) ψ(d)h(d) = (12.31) d∈Z

b∈(2/N )Z

ˆ for a function h on R. Indeed, if f (x) = h(N x), then fˆ(x) = N −1 h(x/N ). By (4.27) with n = 1 and y/N in place of r we have m∈Z h(N m + y) = −1 −1 ˆ ˆ y + m) = m∈Z f (N n∈Z e(ny/N )f (n) = N n∈Z e(ny/N )h(n/N ). ¯ Multiply this by ψ(y), take the sum over 1 ≤ y ≤ N, and replace n by N b/2; then we obtain (12.31). n ˆ is given by (12.30) Now put h(u) = (c¯ z + u e (ir2 /4y)|cz + u|2 . Then h 2 2 with r /2 in place of t , and (12.31) combined with summation over c ∈ 2−1 N Z gives the desired (12.27). 12.6. Let Cn (z, r) denote the function of (12.27). Combining (11.10) with (12.26), we obtain m

m (12.32) g(ir) = im 2−1/2 π (n−m)/2 n n=0 · f (z)τm−n (z)Cn (z, r)rn−m+1 y k−n dz. Φ

Employing the right-hand side of (12.27), we have ∞ Cn (z, r)rs+n dr (12.33) 0 ∞ ψ(d)(cz + d)n exp − (πr2 /2y)|cz + d|2 rs+n dr. = 0

(c,d)∈T s+n

−1

(r2 )(s+n−1)/2 d(r2 ), the last sum equals 2−1 (2y/π)(s+n+1)/2 Γ (s + n + 1)/2 ψ(d)(cz + d)n |cz + d|−s−n−1

Since r

dr = 2

(c,d)∈T

=2

−1

(2/π)

(s+n+1)/2

N/2 Γ (s + n + 1)/2 E−n z, (s + n + 1)/2; ψ

with E of (8.15). (The deﬁnition of T shows that d is always nonzero. Our calculation becomes invalid if m = 0 and the term with c = d = 0 appears.) We observe that the integral of (12.33) is absolutely convergent for suﬃciently large Re(s) for every n. Indeed, we have ∞ Cn (z, r)rn+σ dr ≤ 2−1 (2/π)(σ+n+1)/2 y n/2 0 N/2 · Γ (σ + n + 1)/2 E0 z, (σ + 1)/2; ψ0

108

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

for suﬃciently large σ ∈ R, where ψ0 is the trivial character modulo N. Thus from (12.32) and (12.33) we obtain, at least formally, ∞ m

m m−1+s m g(ir)r dr = i 2(s+n)/2−1 π −(s+m+1)/2 (12.34) n 0 n=0 N/2 · Γ (s + n + 1)/2 f (z)τm−n (z)E−n z, (s + n + 1)/2; ψ y k−n dz. Φ

By (8.18) the last integral over Φ can be written ¯ (12.35) 2LN (s + 1, ψ) f (z)τm−n (z)E−n z, (s + n + 1)/2; Γ, ψ y k−n dz. Φ

By (12.12a) we have τ = (4π)/2 θ and θ = (πi)−t δrt θν , where = 2t+ν, r = ν + 1/2, ν = 0 or 1, and so θ is slowly increasing at every cusp by Lemma 6.10. By Theorem 8.12(ii) the same is true with E−n z, s; N, ψ for every s where the function is ﬁnite. Since f is a cusp form, the integral over Φ in (12.34) is convergent for every such s. We can say the same for the integral of (12.35) at least for suﬃciently large Re(s). Replacing every factor of the ∞ integrand by its absolute value, we ﬁnd that 0 |g(ir)|rσ+m−1 dr is convergent for suﬃciently large σ, and so we can justify our formal calculation, and at the same time we have proved that c(0) = 0. But this does not necessarily mean that g is a cusp form. 12.7. Let us now prove Theorem 11.3(ii). By (11.9), for α ∈ SL2 (Q) we have f (z)Θ(z, w; ηα )dz. (g2m α)(w) = Φ

We see that η α is a ﬁnite C-linear combination of functions of the form

a b η = ω1 (a)ω2 (b)ω3 (c) c −a with ωi ∈ L (Q). We now repeat the calculation of §12.5 with this η in place of η of (12.19) and an arbitrary f ∈ S k (Γ ). Then (12.26) is true with An for which η0 (b)ω(2c/N ) is replaced by ω2 (b)ω3 (c), and with τ replaced by θ (z, ω1 ). To carry out the calculation, we ﬁrst have to modify (12.31) as follows. Put ω (b) = ω2 (2b) and take positive rational numbers K and M so that ω is essentially a function on M Z/KZ. If f (x) = h(x/K), then ˆ fˆ(x) = K h(Kx), and so, by (4.27a), ˆ h(Kn + Kr) = fˆ(n + r) = K e(−mr)f (m) = e(−mr)h(m/K). n∈Z

n∈Z

m∈Z

%

m∈Z

We can ﬁnd a ﬁnite subset R of Q such that M Z = r∈R (KZ + Kr). Then ˆ ˆ ω2 (2b)h(b) = ω (Kn+Kr)h(Kn+Kr) b∈Q

r∈R n∈Z

12. MAIN THEOREMS ON THE CORRESPONDENCE

=

ω (Kr)

r∈R

109

ˆh(Kn+Kr).

n∈Z

Therefore, ˆ = ω2 (2b)h(b) ζ(m)h(m/K) with ζ(m) = K −1 ω (Kr)e(−mr). b∈Q

m∈Z

r∈R

Employing this instead of (12.31) we obtain the modiﬁcation of (12.27) whose right-hand side is ξ(c, d)(c¯ z + d)n e (ir2 /(4y))|cz + d|2 (c,d)∈Q2

with some ξ ∈ L (Q2 ). We eventually ﬁnd that m f (z)τj,m−n (z)Cj,n (z, r)rn−m+1 y k−n dz, (g2m α)(ir) = j∈J n=0

Φ

where J is a ﬁnite set of indices, τj, (z) = θ (z, λj, ) with λj, ∈ L (Q), and ξj,n (c, d)(c¯ z + d)n e (ir2 /y)|cz + d|2 Cj,n (z, r) = (c,d)∈Q2 ∞

with ξj,n ∈ L (Q ). If n > 0, we see that 0 Cj,n (z, r)rs+n dr is convergent for suﬃciently large Re(s), but if n = 0, we have to be careful, since Cj,0 (z, r) has the constant term ξj,0 (0, 0). Thus put B= ξj,0 (0, 0) f (z)τj,m (z)y k dz. 2

j∈J

Φ

Then our previous argument shows that ∞ (g2m α)(ir) − Br1−m rσ dr 0

is convergent for suﬃciently large σ. If m > 1, this implies that g2m α has zero constant term. If m = 1 and f, θ ∗ (z, η) = 0 for every η ∈ L (Q), then B = 0, since τj,1 is θ1 (z, ω1 ) with ω1 ∈ L (Q) and θ∗ = θ1 . Therefore we see again that g2m α has zero constant term. This proves Theorem 11.3(ii). We now state the ﬁrst main theorem on the correspondence S k → M 2m . ∞ Theorem 12.8. Let f (z) = ξ=1 λ(ξ)e(ξz/2) ∈ S k (2, N/2; ψ) with k = m + 1/2, 0 < m ∈ Z, 0 < N ∈ 4Z and a character ψ modulo N such that ψ(−1) = (−1)m . Given a square-free positive integer t, deﬁne a character χt modulo tN by

t (n ∈ Z). χt (n) = ψ(n) n Then the following assertions hold: ∞ 2 (i) There exists an element gt (w) = n=0 ct (n)e(nw) of M 2m (N, ψ ) such that ct (0) = 0 and ∞ ∞ ct (n)n−s = LN (s − m + 1, χt ) λ(tξ 2 )ξ −s . (12.36) n=1

ξ=1

110

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

(ii) The function gt can be obtained as a theta integral (11.10) with a suitable η ∈ L (V ) and f (tz) in place of f there. (iii) The function gt is a cusp form if m > 1 or if m = 1 and f, θ1 (z, μ) = 0 for every μ ∈ L (Q), where θ1 is as in (12.9b). Proof. We return to §12.6 with f as in our theorem. We took a suﬃciently small congruence subgroup Γ of ΓN0 and put Φ = Γ \H. We can replace Γ by a larger subgroup of ΓN0 provided the integral of (12.35) is meaningful, though the value of the integral is multiplied by an element of Q× that depends on the choice of the group. As for τ , we have θ = (πi)−t δrt θν as above, and so τ (γz) = hγ (z)jγ (z) τ (z) for every γ ∈ Γ (2, 2) by (4.20) and (4.47). Therefore, in view of (8.16a) we can take Γ = ΓN0 = Γ (2, N/2). We now calculate the integral over Φ of (12.35) with this Γ. We put f (z) = ∞ ξ=1 λ(ξ)e(ξz/2) and = m − n. Since τ is given by (12.25), we have f (z)τ (z) =

∞

λ(ξ)eπi(ξ−a

2

)x −π(ξ+a2 )y −/2

e

y

H

4πy · a ,

ξ=1 a∈Z

and so

2

f (z)τ (z)dx = 4 0

∞

2

λ(a2 )e−2πa y y −/2 H

4πy · a .

a=1

Let q = m − 1 + (s − n)/2. Then, employing (12.7) we obtain, for = m − n, ∞ 2 ∞ ∞ 2 (∗) f (z)τ (z)dx y q dy = 4λ(a2 ) e−2πa y y −/2 H 4πy · a y q dy 0

0

a=1

= 22−/2 (2π)−(s+m)/2

0

∞ (s + m − ν)Γ (s + n)/2 λ(a2 )a−s−m .

ν=1

a=1

Let Ξ = x + iy ∈ H 0 ≤ x < 2 . Then Ξ gives (P ∩ ΓN0 )\H, and as observed % in §9.3, γ∈R γΦ represents Ξ, where R = (P ∩ ΓN0 )\ΓN0 . Now (f τ¯ y q+2 ) ◦ γ = ψ(dγ )jγn |jγ |−s−n−1 f τ¯ y q+2 for every γ ∈ Γ, and so ∞ 2 q f τ dx y dy = f τ y q+2 dz = (f τ¯ y q+2 ) ◦ γ dz 0

0

Ξ

f τ¯ y q+2

=

Φ

γ∈R

Φ

ψ(dγ )jγn |jγ |−s−n−1 dz

γ∈R

f (z)τ (z)E−n (z, (s + n + 1)/2; Γ, ψ)y k−n dz,

= Φ

which is the integral of (12.35). If we replace ψ(dγ )jγn |jγ |−s−n−1 by its abso lute value, then E−n is replaced by E0 z, (σ +1)/2; Γ ) with σ = Re(s), which is ﬁnite and slowly increasing at every cusp for suﬃciently large σ. Since f is

12. MAIN THEOREMS ON THE CORRESPONDENCE

111

a cusp form, our calculation is justiﬁed for suﬃciently large Re(s). Combining this result with (12.23) and (12.34), we ﬁnd that ∞ c(ξ)ξ −s−m (2π)−m−s Γ (s + m)

= im

m

n=0

m n

ξ=1

2(s+n)/2−1 π −(s+m+1)/2 Γ (s + n + 1)/2 ∞ 2

· 2LN (s + 1, ψ) 0

f τ m−n dx y q dy,

0

where q = m − 1 + (s − n)/2. Notice that for = m − n we have (s + m − ν) = 21−s−n π 1/2 Γ (s + m). Γ (s + n)/2 Γ (s + n + 1)/2

Also,

m

m n=0

n ∞

ν=1 m

= 2 . Thus, employing (∗), we ﬁnally obtain

c(ξ)ξ −s−m = 2m+3 im LN (s + 1, ψ)

∞

λ(a2 )a−s−m ,

a=1

ξ=1 −s−m

since (2π) Γ (s + m) appearing on both sides can be cancelled. Thus i−m 2−m−3 g gives g1 of our theorem, proving the case t = 1. ∞ To prove the case with t > 1, we put ft (z) = f (tz) = ξ=1 μ(ξ)e(ξz/2). By Lemma 8.17(i), ft ∈ S k (2, tN/2, χt ) with χt as above. Applying our result in the case t = 1 to ft , we ﬁnd an element h(w) = ∞ n=1 C(n)e(nw) ∈ M 2m (2tN, ψ 2 ) such that ∞ ∞ ∞ C(n)n−s = χt (a)am−1−s μ(ξ 2 )ξ −s . (∗∗) n=1

n=1

ξ=1

∞ Since ft (z) = ξ=1 λ(ξ)e(tξz/2), we see that μ(ξ 2 ) = 0 only if t|ξ, in which ∞ ∞ case μ(ξ 2 ) = λ(tη 2 ) with η = ξ/t. Thus ξ=1 μ(ξ 2 )ξ −s = t−s η=1 λ(tη2 )η −s , and so from (∗∗) we see that C(n) = 0 only if t|n. Put gt (w) = h(w/t), ∞ Then gt (w) = n=1 ct (n)e(nw) with ct (n) = C(tn), and by Lemma 8.17(i), gt ∈ M 2m (t, 2N ; ψ2 ). Also, we have (12.36). It remains to prove that 2 gt ∈ M 2m (1, 2N ; ψ ). By Lemma 8.18, Γ0 (2N ) is generated by Γ (t, 2N ) 1 1 and , Since gt (w + 1) = gt (w), we obtain the desired fact. This 0 1 proves (i) and (ii), and (iii) as well, by virtue of Theorem 11.3(ii). The above theorem excludes the case k = 1/2. We can actually determine M 1/2 completely as follows. Theorem 12.9. The space M 1/2 is spanned by the series θ0 (az, λ) with 0 < a ∈ Q and λ ∈ L (Q), where θ0 is as in (12.9a), that is,

112

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

θ0 (az, λ) =

λ(ξ)e(aξ 2 z/2).

ξ∈Q

After some preliminary observations in §12.10 and two lemmas, the proof will be completed in §12.13. 12.10. Throughout this subsection we put k = 1/2. Thus m = 0. Deﬁne g by (11.10) with f ∈ S k (Γ ). By Lemma 10.7, Θ as a function of z is slowly increasing at every cusp, locally uniformly in w. Since f is a cusp form, (11.10) is convergent, and so g is meaningful. Besides, the estimate of Θ(z, w; ζ) in §11.6 is valid in the case m = 0, if we ignore the constant term, which is y1/2 . Therefore g is slowly increasing at every cusp. For α in V of (11.1), s ∈ C, and w ∈ H put (12.37)

κ[α, w, s] = Im(w)2s |[α, w]|−2s ,

where [α, w] is as in (11.3a). Let L0 be the operator of (6.13c) with k = 0. Then (12.38) L0 κ[α, w, s] = 2s(1 − 2s)κ[α, w, s] − 16s2 det(α)κ[α, w, s + 1]. To make our calculation easier, we note that κ[α, γw, s] = κ[γ −1 αγ, w, s] for every γ ∈ SL2 (R), which follows from (6.3) and (11.3c), and so L0 κ[γ −1 αγ, w, s] = (L0 κ)[α, γw, s] by (6.14d). Therefore it is suﬃcient to verify (12.38) when α = diag[−a, a], which can be done easily. Put f (z) = ξ∈Q λ(ξ)e(ξ/2) and deﬁne two inﬁnite series P and Q by η(α)λ − det(α) κ[α, w, s], (12.39a) P (w, s) = (12.39b)

Q(w, s) =

α∈V

η(α)λ − det(α) det(α)κ[α, w, s + 1],

α∈V

where w ∈ H, s ∈ C, and η ∈ L (Q). Since λ(0) = 0, the sums are over α such that det(α) < 0. These series are convergent for suﬃciently large Re(s), provided Im(w) > c with a constant c that depends on η. Indeed, by Lemma 6.2(iii), |λ − det(α) | = O(| det(α)|1/4 ), and so our task is to prove the convergence of (12.40) η(α)| det(α)|a |[α, w]|−2s α∈V, det(α) 0 with a lattice L in V. Thus we obtain the desired convergence. Consequently P and Q deﬁne holomorphic functions in s for Re(s) > b with some b ∈ R when Im(w) > c with a positive constant c. Lemma 12.11. The series P (w, s) and Q(w, s) can be continued as meromorphic functions in s to the whole s-plane with at most a simple pole at s = 1. The residues of P and Q at s = 1 are Ag(w) and (−A/8)g(w), respectively, where A is a nonzero constant and g is the function of (11.10) deﬁned with the present f, η, k = 1/2, and m = 0. Proof. We prove this lemma by ﬁnding integral expressions for these series. We take a suﬃciently large even positive integer N, and replace Γ by Γ (N ), or rather, put Γ = Γ (N ). We also put Γ∞ = Γ ∩ P, Ψ = Γ∞ \H, and Φ = Γ \H. Let Θ0 denote Θ(z, w; η) of (11.6) with m = 0. We have

λ(ξ)η(α)e 2−1 ξ + det(α) z + (iy/4)v −2|[α, w]|2 f (z)Θ0 (z) = y 1/2 ξ∈Q α∈V

in view of (11.5), where y = Im(z) and v = Im(w), and so N f (z)Θ0 (z)dx = N y 1/2 η(α)λ − det(α) e (iy/4)v −2 |[α, w]|2 . 0

α∈V

Since Ψ is represented by x + iy y > 0, 0 ≤ x < N , we have, using (8.2), ∞ N f Θ0 y s+1/2 dz = f Θ0 dx y s−3/2 dy Ψ 0 0 ∞ η(α)λ − det(α) exp − y(π/2)v −2 |[α, w]|2 y s−1 dy =N 0

α∈V

= N (2/π)s Γ (s)P (w, s) for Re(s) > b and Im(w) > c with some b and c. As observed in §9.13, Ψ % is represented by γ∈R γΦ with R = Γ∞ \Γ. By (11.8) we have (f Θ0 )◦ γ = |jγ (z)|f Θ0 , and so s+1/2 f Θ0 y dz = f Θ0 y s+1/2 ◦ γdz Ψ

γ∈R

=

f Θ0 Φ

Φ

|jγ (z)|−2s y s+1/2 dz =

f Θ0 E0 (z, s; Γ )y 1/2 dz, Φ

γ∈R

where E0 is the function of (9.12) with k = 0. Our calculation is justiﬁed for the same reason as in the proof of Theorem 12.8. Thus (12.41) N (2/π)s Γ (s)P (w, s) = f Θ0 E0 (z, s; Γ )y 1/2 dz. Φ

114

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

Now E0 (z, s; Γ ) can be continued to a meromorphic function on the whole s-plane in the sense of Theorem 9.9 with a simple pole at s = 1 with a positive number, say ρ, as the residue. Besides, Lemma 9.8 shows that if (s − s0 )b E0 is ﬁnite at s = s0 , then (s − s0 )b E0 is slowly increasing at every cusp locally uniformly in s. Since f is a cusp form, the last integral over Φ deﬁnes a meromorphic function in s on the whole C. In addition, it has at most a simple pole at s = 1 with residue ρ f (z)Θ0 (z, w; η)y 1/2 dz = ρg(w). Φ

Therefore from (12.41) we see that P (w, s) has at most a simple pole at s = 1 with residue (2N )−1 πρg(w). This proves our assertion on P with A = (2N )−1 πρ. Next, to deal with Q(w, s), we take (πi)−1 ∂f /∂z = ξλ(ξ)e(ξz/2) ξ∈Q

in place of f. By the same technique as before we easily ﬁnd that (∗) (πi)−1 (∂f /∂z)Θ0 y s+3/2 dz = −N (2/π)s+1 Γ (s + 1)Q(w, s). Ψ

We consider the operator δk of (6.13b) with k = 1/2. Then (πi)−1 ∂f /∂z = (πi)−1 δ1/2 f + (4πy)−1 f, and so the last integral over Ψ equals f Θ0 y s+1/2 dz. (∗∗) (πi)−1 (δ1/2 f )Θ0 y s+3/2 dz + (4π)−1 Ψ

Ψ

Since (Θ0 δ1/2 f )◦ γ = jγ2 |jγ |Θ0 δ1/2 f for every γ ∈ Γ, the previous technique used for P produces s+3/2 (δ1/2 f )Θ0 y dz = (δ1/2 f )Θ0 E−2 (z, s + 1; Γ )y 1/2 dz. Ψ

Φ

By Lemma 6.10, δ1/2 f is rapidly decreasing at every cusp. Thus, for the same reason as for P, we see that Q(w, s) can be continued to a meromorphic function on the whole s-plane. By Theorem 9.9, E−2 (z, s + 1; Γ ) is ﬁnite at s = 1. Therefore from (12.41), (∗), and (∗∗) we see that Q(w, s) has at most a simple pole at s = 1 with residue −(16N )−1πρg(w), and our proof of Lemma 12.9 is complete. Lemma 12.12. Deﬁne g by (11.10) with f ∈ S k , k = 1/2. Suppose that f, θ0 (z, λ) = 0 for every λ ∈ L (Q), where θ0 is as in (12.9a). Then g = 0. Proof. We have shown in §12.10 that g is slowly increasing at every cusp. Let the notation be as in §12.10 and Lemma 12.11. By (12.38) we have L0 P (w, s) = 2s(1 − 2s)P (w, s) − 16s2 Q(w, s). Taking the residues of P and Q at s = 1, from Lemma 12.9 we obtain AL0 g = −2Ag + (16A/8)g = 0, and so L0 g = 0. Thus g belongs to A0 (0), and has an expansion

12. MAIN THEOREMS ON THE CORRESPONDENCE

g(u + iv) = a + cv +

115

bh Wk (hv, 0)e(hu)

0=h∈rZ

with a, c, bh ∈ C; see (9.10) and (9.12a). By Lemma 9.2(ii) the last sum is O(e−Bv ) with B > 0 as v → ∞. Now our calculation of §12.7 is valid in the present case with m = 0 under our assumption that f, θ0 (z, λ) = 0. In ∞ particular, with m = n = 0 we see that 0 |g(ir)|rσ dr < ∞ for a suﬃciently large σ, which shows that a = c = 0. Since this is so for g ◦ α in place of g for every α ∈ SL2 (Q), we see that g is a cusp form. By Lemma 9.2(iv), S0 (0) = S 0 = {0}. Thus g = 0. 12.13. We now prove Theorem 12.9. In this proof we put k = 1/2. We know that θ0 (az, λ) belongs to M k . We have shown in (9.45a) that M k = S k ⊕ Ek , and also in (9.49) that Ek is spanned by some series of the type θ0 (az, λ). Therefore it is suﬃcient to show that every element f of S k orthogonal to all series of the type θ0 (az, λ) is 0. Take such an f. Then we can ﬁnd q ∈ Q, > 0, such that f (qz) belongs to S k (Γ ) with Γ = γ ∈ ΓN0 aγ − 1 ∈ N Z , where 0 < N ∈ 4Z and ΓN0 is as in (12.16). Put f0 (z) = f (qz). For each character χ of (Z/N Z)× such that 0 χ(−1) = 1 put fχ = k γ, where R = ΓN /{±1}Γ . Then γ∈R χ(aγ )f0 fχ ∈ S k (2, N/2; χ) and #{χ}f0 = χ∈{χ} fχ , where {χ} is the set of all such characters χ. Our aim is to show that fχ = 0 for every χ. For a square-free positive integer t put fχ,t (z)

= fχ (tz). By Lemma 8.17(i), t . Moreover, our assumption fχ,t ∈ S k (2, tN/2; ψt ) with ψt (a) = χ(a) a on f implies that fχ,t , θ0 (z, λ) = 0 for every λ ∈ L (Q). Therefore, by Lemma 12.12, the theta integral of fχ,t is 0. Our calculations in §§12.5 and 12.6 and the proof of Theorem 12.8 are valid in the present case with fχ,t in place of f, and so the vanishing of the theta integral of fχ,t means 2 −s = 0 if that (∗∗) in the proof of Theorem 12.8 is 0, and so ∞ ξ=1 μ(ξ )ξ ∞ fχ,t (z) = ξ=1 μ(ξ)e(ξz/2). The argument of the last part of the proof of ∞ ∞ Theorem 12.8 shows that ξ=1 λ(tξ 2 )ξ −s = 0 if fχ (z) = ξ=1 λ(ξ)e(ξz/2). Since this is so for every square-free positive integer t, we obtain fχ = 0 as expected. This completes the proof. 12.14. Theorem 12.8(i) was essentially given in [S73a, p. 458] in a somewhat diﬀerent form, and later in [S87] it was generalized to the case of forms with respect to congruence subgroups of SL2 (F ) with a totally real algebraic number ﬁeld F. The diﬀerence between Theorem 12.8(i) and the corresponding statement in [S73a] is caused by our choice of jαk in (5.1b) and of hγ in (4.40). Our choice is more natural than (hδ )2k employed in [S73a], where hδ is as in (5.6). Also, generalizations of Theorem 12.8(ii, iii) and Theorem 12.9 in the ∞ case of SL2 (F ) were given in [S87]. To show that gt(w) = m=1 ct (m)e(mw)

116

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

of Theorem 12.8(i) is a form of weight 2m, we employed in [S73a] the charac∞ terization of such a form by the functional equations of m=1 χ(t)ct (m)e(mw) for all Dirichlet characters χ. Such a characterization originated in Hecke [H36], and Weil, inspired by my idea on the modularity of Q-rational elliptic curves (as he implied in 1967 and 1986), proved the characterization of the forms of S ν Γ0 (N ) , 0 < ν ∈ Z. It is easy to extend it to the forms of S ν (N, ψ) with an arbitrary character ψ modulo N, and it was this characterization that I employed in [S73a]. The methods of [S87], which we followed in Sections 11 and 12, were completely diﬀerent. I calculate explicitly the theta integral (11.10), which I believe, gives a shorter proof and better results. In fact, similar integrals had been investigated by a few researchers, but their methods required that the weight be suﬃciently large. I found that this diﬃculty was avoidable by using the operators ε and δk−2 , and proving an equality of type (11.15). It seems that there is a conceptual explanation of such an equality. In any case, in the intervening years, no small number of authors published papers on the correspondence, as can be seen from the references of [S87]. However, their connection with our main theorems is not so clear-cut, and so we included in the references of the present book only those which may be called truly relevant. The reader who is interested in those works can check the papers listed at the end of [S87] and compare them with our theorems. I may be allowed to say that not every paper there is reliable, and some have serious gaps. The main theorem of [S73a] was formulated for eigenfunctions of Hecke operators of half-integral weight, but we stated Theorem 12.8 without such operators. We will discuss them in the next section. We note that a few examples of the correspondence f → g and also examples of the dimensions 0 of S k (ΓN ) and S 2m Γ0 (N/2) are given in [S73a, Section 4]. 13. Hecke operators 13.1. We ﬁrst introduce the notion of Hecke algebra in an abstract setting. We say that two subgroups D and D of a group are commensurable if D∩D is of ﬁnite index in D and in D . We now ﬁx a multiplicative group G and a subgroup D of G , and assume that αDα−1 is commensurable with D for every α ∈ G . It is an easy exercise to show that #(DαD/D) = [D : D ∩ αDα−1 ] and #(D\DαD) = [D : D ∩ α−1 Dα] for every α ∈ G . Also we have (13.0) If #(DαD/D) = #(D\DαD), then there exists a set {ζi }i∈I such that % % DαD = i∈I Dζi = i∈I ζi D. % % Indeed, let DαD = i∈I Dξi = i∈I ηi D. Since ξi ∈ Dηi D, we have ξi = δi ηi εi with δi , εi ∈ D. Then we obtain the desired result with ζi = δi−1 ξi .

13. HECKE OPERATORS

117

Let R denote the vector space over Q consisting of all formal ﬁnite sums cα DαD with cα ∈ Q and α ∈ G . We introduce a law of multiplication R × R → R which makes R an associative algebra as follows. Given u = Dα0 D and v = Dβ0 D with α0 , β0 ∈ G , take coset decompositions % % (13.1) u = Dα0 D = α∈A Dα, v = Dβ0 D = β∈B Dβ. We have Dα0 Dβ0 D = β∈B Dα0 Dβ = α∈A, β∈B Dαβ, so that % (13.1a) Dα0 Dβ0 D = ξ∈X DξD

with a ﬁnite set X. We then deﬁne the product u · v to be the element of R given by (13.2) u·v = μ(u · v, w)w, w

where the sum is extended over all the diﬀerent w = DξD ⊂ Dα0 Dβ0 D, and (13.2a) μ(u · v, w) = # (α, β) ∈ A × B Dαβ = Dξ . To make this deﬁnition meaningful, we have to show that the right-hand side is independent of the choice of A, B and ξ. Once this is done, we extend the map (u, v) → u · v to a Q-bilinear map of R × R into R. Though this was done in [S71], we present here a simpler proof. Thus our task is to show that the above law is well-deﬁned and associative. For this purpose, we ﬁrst consider the vector space M over Q consisting of all formal ﬁnite sums γ cγ Dγ with cγ ∈ Q and γ ∈ G . Let u = Dα0 D = % % α∈A Dα. Clearly Dα0 Dγ = α∈A Dαγ and this set depends only on u and Dγ. Therefore, if we let u act on M by the rule u· cγ Dγ = cγ Dαγ, γ

γ

α∈A

then this is well deﬁned independently of the choice of A and γ. We can also let G act on M on the right by putting

cγ Dγ ξ = cγ Dγξ (ξ ∈ G ). γ γ We can view R as a subspace of M by identifying Dα0 D with α∈A Dα. Then it is easy to see that R as a subspace of M consists of the elements x ∈ M such that xδ = x for every δ ∈ D. We now restrict the map R × M → M to R × R. Since (u · x)δ = u · (xδ), we see that u · x ∈ R if x ∈ R. Thus we obtain a Q-bilinear map R × R → R. From our deﬁnition we see that if u, v, A, B are as in (13.1), then Dαβ. (13.3) u·v = α∈A β∈B

The right-hand side, being an element of R, can be written ξ∈X mξ DξD with 0 ≤ mξ ∈ Z and X of (13.1a). Then clearly mξ = μ(u · v, w) for w = DξD. Thus (13.3) coincides with (13.2), and so (13.2) is well deﬁned.

118

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

Now, for x = Dγ we have Dβγ = Dαβγ = mξ DξDγ = (u · v) · x. u · (v · x) = u · α∈A β∈B

β∈B

ξ∈X

By linearity we obtain u · (v · y) = (u · v) · y for every y ∈ R, which proves the associativity of the algebra R. Taking α0 or β0 to be 1, we see that D = D1D is the identity element of R. We denote R by R(D, G ) and call it the Hecke algebra of (D, G ). We deﬁne a Q-linear map deg : R(D, G ) → Q by

(13.4) deg cα DαD = cα #(D\DαD). α

α

Let A be a subset of G containing D which is closed under multiplication. Then we easily see that the Q-linear span of DαD for all α ∈ A is a subalgebra of R(D, G ). We denote this subalgebra by R(D, A ) and call it the Hecke algebra of (D, A ). As shown in [S71, Propositions 3.3 and 3.8], we have (13.4a)

deg(xy) = deg(x) deg(y)

for every x, y ∈ R(D, G ),

(13.4b) If G has an anti-automorphism α → α∗ such that D ∗ = D and (DαD)∗ = DαD for every α ∈ A, then R(D, A ) is commutative. 13.2. The symbol R Γ, GL+ 2 (Q) is meaningful for every congruence subgroup Γ of Γ (1). We now take Γ of a special type and replace GL+ 2 (Q) by a smaller set as follows: Γ = γ ∈ Γ (1) aγ ∈ h, bγ ∈ tZ, cγ ∈ N Z . Here 0 < t ∈ Z, 0 < N ∈ Z, t|N, and h is a subgroup of (Z/tN Z)× ; we use the same letter h for the inverse image of h under the natural map Z → Z/tN Z. (In fact, we are interested only in the two special cases h = {1} and h = (Z/tN Z)× .) We then consider R(Γ, Ξ) with Ξ = α ∈ M2 (Z) det(α) > 0, aα ∈ h, bα ∈ tZ, cα ∈ N Z . For 0 < n ∈ Z we denote by T (n) the sum of all diﬀerent Γ αΓ with α ∈ Ξ such that det(α) = n. Also, for two positive integers a and d such that a|d and (a, N ) = 1 we denote by T (a, d) the element Γ ξΓ of R(Γ, Ξ) with ξ ∈ Ξ ∩ Γ (1)diag[a, d]Γ (1). Such a ξ exists and Γ ξΓ is uniquely determined independently of the choice of ξ; see [S71, Proposition 3.32]. Lemma 13.3. (i) The algebra R(Γ, Ξ) is a polynomial ring over Q of the elements of the following two types: (1) T (p) for all prime factors p of N ; (2) T (1, p) and T (p, p) for all prime numbers p not dividing N.

13. HECKE OPERATORS

119

(ii) Every Γ ξΓ with ξ ∈ Ξ can be expressed as a product T (m)T (a, d) with m|N ∞ , a|d, d prime to N. (iii) T (m)T (n) = T (mn) if m|N ∞ and n|N ∞ . (iv) T (m) = T ()T (m) if is prime to m. (v) R(Γ, Ξ) is generated over Q by the T (n) for all positive integers n. This is [S71, Theorem 3.34]. Here we write m|N ∞ when the prime factors of m divide N. In fact, these are formulated only when h is a subgroup of (Z/N Z)× , but all the statements are valid for Γ and Ξ given as above, as can be seen by verifying various statements of [S71], Proposition 3.32, in particular, for such Γ and Ξ, which, if tedious, is straightforward. For this, see the errata of the paperback edition of [S71] in 1994. We note that (13.5) If m|N ∞ , then T (m) = Γ σΓ with σ = diag[1, m]. This can be obtained by taking Γ σΓ as Γ ξΓ of (ii). We also note a basic formula (13.6a) T (m)T (n) = d · T (d, d)T (mn/d2 ), d

where d runs over all positive divisors of (m, n) prime to N. We also have an equality of formal Dirichlet series with coeﬃcients in R(Γ, Ξ) : ∞ (Γ αΓ ) det(α)−s = T (n)n−s (13.6b) α∈Γ \Ξ/Γ

=

1 − T (p)p

−s −1

p|N

n=1

1 − T (p)p−s + T (p, p)p1−2s

−1

.

pN

These are [S71, (3.3.6), (3.3.8)]. 13.4. We now ﬁx a half-integral weight k > 0 and consider R(Δ, Gk ) with the group Gk and its congruence subgroup Δ in the sense of §9.5. For γ ∈ Γ θ we deﬁne an element (γ) of Gk by (γ) = (γ, jγk ). Then is an injective homomorphism of Γ θ into Gk . We also ﬁx a congruence subgroup Γ of Γ (2) and put Δ = (Γ ). Taking a positive integer e, we consider ΔξΔ with ξ = (α, ek ), α = diag[e−1 , e], 0 < e ∈ Q. We have then (13.7)

(δ)ξ = ξ(γ)

if

δ = αγα−1 with γ ∈ α−1 Γ α ∩ Γ.

Indeed, from (4.40) we see that hδ (αz) = hγ (z), and so jδk (αz) = jγk (z), and we can easily verify (13.7). Lemma 13.5. (i) With Γ, Δ, ξ, and α as above, for {ξν } ⊂ ΔξΔ we % % have ΔξΔ = ν Δξν if and only if Γ αΓ = ν Γ pr(ξν ), and consequently #(Δ\ΔξΔ) = #(Γ \Γ αΓ ).

120

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

(ii) Let η = (β, f k ) with β = diag[f −1 , f ], 0 < f ∈ Q. Suppose Γ αΓ · Γ βΓ = Γ αβΓ. Then ΔξΔ · ΔηΔ = ΔξηΔ. Proof. We can take ξν = ξδν with δν = (γν ) with γν ∈ Γ. Suppose % ΔξΔ = ν Δξν . Then Γ αΓ = ν Γ pr(ξν ). Suppose Γ αγ1 = Γ αγ2 . Then γ2 γ1−1 ∈ α−1 Γ α ∩ Γ, and so (αγ2 γ1−1 α−1 )ξ = ξ(γ2 γ1−1 ) by (13.7). Therefore ξ2 ξ1−1 = ξδ2 δ1−1 ξ −1 = (αγ2 γ1−1 α−1 ) ∈ (Γ ) = Δ, and so Δξ2 = Δξ1 . % This shows that Γ αΓ = ν Γ pr(ξν ) and #(Δ\ΔξΔ) = #(Γ \Γ ξΓ ). Con% versely, suppose Γ αΓ = ν Γ αγν . Since Γ αγν = pr(Δξν ), we have Δξν = Δξμ if Γ αγν = Γ αγμ . Also, since #(Δ\ΔξΔ) = #(Γ \Γ ξΓ ), we obtain % % ΔξΔ = ν Δξν . This proves (i). To prove (ii), put Γ αΓ = i∈I Γ αi , Γ βΓ = % % % Γ βj , and Γ αβΓ = h∈H Γ εh . By (i) we have ΔξΔ = i∈I Δξi , ΔηΔ = %j∈J % j∈J Δηj , and ΔξηΔ = h∈H Δζh with ξi , ηj , and ζh such that pr(ξi ) = αi , pr(ηj ) = βj , and pr(ζh ) = εh . If Γ αΓ · Γ βΓ = Γ αβΓ, then there is only one (i, j) such that Γ αi βj = Γ αβ, and so there is only one (i, j) such that Δξi ηj = Δξη. Thus ΔξΔ · ΔηΔ = ΔξηΔ. This proves (ii). Lemma 13.6. The symbols Γ and Δ being as in §13.4, let ξm = (αm , mk ) with αm = diag[m−1 , m], 0 < m ∈ Z, and Tm = Δξm Δ. Then Tm Tn = Tmn if either m|N ∞ or m is prime to n. Proof. Put α = mαm and β = nαn . Our task is to show that Γ αΓ · Γ βΓ = Γ αβΓ in R Γ, GL+ 2 (Q) . Indeed, if that were so, then Γ αm Γ · Γ αn Γ = Γ αmn Γ, which combined with Lemma 13.5(ii) proves that Tm Tn = Tmn . Now Γ αΓ, Γ βΓ, and Γ αβΓ are terms of T (m2 ), T (n2 ), and T (m2 n2 ). Let ε ∈ Γ αΓ, δ ∈ Γ βΓ, and εδ ∈ Γ (1)diag[a, d]Γ (1) with positive integers a and d such that a|d. Suppose m is prime to n; take a prime factor p of a. If p|m, then β ∈ SL2 (Zp ), and so α ≺ pZ, a contradiction. Thus p m, and similarly p n. Therefore, a = 1, and consequently εδ ∈ Γ αβΓ, that is, Γ αΓ βΓ ⊂ Γ αβΓ. Therefore, Γ αΓ · Γ βΓ = cΓ αβΓ with 0 < c ∈ Z. Since T (m2 )T (n2 ) = T (m2 n2 ) by Lemma 13.3(iv), we see that c = 1, and so Γ αΓ · Γ βΓ = Γ αβΓ. Next suppose m|N ∞ ; then Γ αΓ = T (m2 ) by (13.5). From (13.5) and Lemma 13.3(ii) we see that Γ βΓ = Γ σΓ · Γ τ Γ, Γ σΓ = T (2 ), |N ∞ , τ = diag[a, d], a|d with d prime to N. Since β = diag[1, n2 ], we see that a = 1, and so τ = diag[1, h2 ] with h such that n = h. Taking Γ αβΓ in place of Γ βΓ, we have similarly by Lemma 13.3(ii) Γ αβΓ = T (m2 2 )Γ τ Γ. By Lemma 13.3(iii), T (m2 2 ) = T (m2 )T (2 ), and so Γ αβΓ = Γ αΓ · Γ βΓ. This completes the proof. 13.7. So far we have used the symbol f k ξ for ξ ∈ SL2 (R) or ξ ∈ Gk . + When k ∈ Z, we extend this to ξ ∈ GL+ 2 (R). Namely, for ξ ∈ GL2 (R) and a function f on H we put

13. HECKE OPERATORS

121

f k ξ = f k det(ξ)−1/2 ξ .

(13.8a)

This is consistent with what we deﬁned in [S71, §2.1]. Then (6.12) is valid for α ∈ GL+ 2 (Q). Let us now discuss the action of a Hecke algebra on modular forms of integral or half-integral weight. We ﬁrst note (13.8b) #(Γ \Γ αΓ ) = #(Γ αΓ/Γ ) for every congruence subgroup Γ and α ∈ GL+ 2 (Q). Indeed, we have Γ ∩ {±1} = Γ ∩ αΓ α−1 ∩ {±1} and μ(Γ \H)[Γ : Γ ∩ αΓ α−1 ] = μ (Γ ∩ αΓ α−1 )\H , which equals μ (α−1 Γ α ∩ Γ )\H , since the measure on H is invariant under the action of α−1 . Thus [Γ : Γ ∩ αΓ α−1 ] = [Γ : Γ ∩ α−1 Γ α], which gives (13.8b). Let us ﬁrst consider the case k ∈ Z. Let Γ be a congruence subgroup % of Γ (1) and let α ∈ GL+ We take a decomposition Γ αΓ = ν Γ αν . 2 (Q). Then we put f |[Γ αΓ ]k = ν f k αν for f ∈ M k (Γ ). We easily see that f |[Γ αΓ ]k ∈ M k (Γ ). We call [Γ αΓ ]k a Hecke operator. We have, for f ∈ M k (Γ ) and g ∈ S k (Γ ), f |[Γ αΓ ]k , g = f, g|[Γ α−1Γ ]k . % % Indeed, by (13.8b) and (13.0), we can put Γ αΓ = i∈I Γ αi = i∈I αi Γ with % some αi . Then Γ α−1 Γ = i∈I Γ α−1 i , and so by (6.12), −1 f k αi , g = f, gk α−1 Γ ]k , f |[Γ αΓ ]k , g = i = f, g|[Γ α (13.9)

i∈I

i∈I

which proves (13.9). There is a traditional deﬁnition of Hecke operators acting on M k (N, ψ). × To bespeciﬁc, take ) and t = 1 and h = (Z/N Z) in §13.2.Then Γ = Γ0 (N % Ξ = α ∈ M2 (Z) det(α) > 0, (aα , N ) = 1, cα ∈ N Z . Let Γ αΓ = ν Γ αν with α ∈ Ξ and det(α) = q. Then for f ∈ M k (N, ψ) we put ψ a(αν ) f k αν , f |[Γ αΓ ]k,ψ = q k/2−1 ν

and denote by T (n)k,ψ resp. T (a, d)k,ψ the sum of [Γ αΓ ]k,ψ for all Γ αΓ involved in T (n) resp. T (a, d). We have (13.9a) ψ det(α) f [Γ αΓ ]k,ψ , g = f, g|[Γ αΓ ]k,ψ if det(α) is prime to N and f, g ∈ S k (N, ψ), and consequently, r[Γ αΓ ]k,ψ with any r such that r¯2 = ψ det(α) is a self-adjoint operator. ι To prove ι this,

denote by ξ → ξ the main involution of M2 (Q), that is, a b d −b = . Then f k ξ −1 = f k ξ ι , since ξ −1 = det(ξ)−1 ξ ι . Now c d −c a

122

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

let α ∈ Ξ and det(α) = q with q prime to N. As shown above, we can put % % Γ αΓ = ν Γ αν = ν αν Γ with suitable αν . Clearly Γ ι = Γ and αι ∈ Ξ. Besides, Γ αΓ = Γ αι Γ, since Γ αΓ = Ξ ∩ Γ (1)αΓ (1), which follows from [S71, Proposition 3.32(i)]. (Γ, Ξ here correspond to Γ , Δ there.) Thus Γ αΓ = % Γ αι Γ = ν Γ αιν . Also, for ξ ∈ Ξ with det(ξ) = q we have a(ξ)d(ξ)−q ∈ N Z. Therefore $ $ # # ψ(q) f |[Γ αΓ ]k,ψ , g = q k/2−1 ν ψ a(αν ) f k αν , ψ(q)g # $ # $ ι k/2−1 ι ¯ = q k/2−1 f, f, ν ψ a(αν ) ψ(q)gk αν = q ν ψ d(αν ) gk αν # $ = f, g|[Γ αΓ ]k,ψ , since d(αν ) = a(αιν ). This proves (13.9a). If α = q12 with q prime to N, then T (q, q) = Γ αΓ, and so we have T (q, q)k, ψ = ψ(q)q k−2 if q is prime to N. Let 0 = f (z) = ∞ n=0 a(n)e(nz) ∈ M k (N, ψ). Suppose f |T (p)k, ψ = cp f with cp ∈ C for every prime number p; then f |T (n)k, ψ = cn f with cn ∈ C for every n ∈ Z, > 0, and ∞ ∞ (13.9c) a(n)n−s = a(1) cn n−s

(13.9b)

n=1

n=1

= a(1)

−1 1 − cp p−s + ψ(p)pk−1−2s ; p

see [S71, Theorem 3.43]. We call such an f a Hecke eigenform, and say that f is normalized if a(1) = 1, so that a(n) = cn . Somewhat more generally, we have f |T (p)k, ψ = cp f for every p r with a positive integer r if and only if the following equality holds: −1 a(n)n−s = a(1) . (13.9d) 1 − cp p−s + ψ(p)pk−1−2s (n,r)=1

pr

Taking f = g in (13.9a), we obtain (13.10) If 0 = f ∈ S k (N, ψ), f |T (n)k, ψ = cn f, and n is prime to N, then ψ(n)¯ cn = cn . 13.8. Next suppose k ∈ / Z. We put Δ = (Γ ) with a congruence subgroup % Γ of Γ (2). Let ΔξΔ = ν Δξν with ξ ∈ Gk . Given f ∈ M k (Δ), we put (13.11) f |[ΔξΔ]k = f k ξν , ν

where (f k ξ)(z) = q(z)−1 f (αz) if ξ = (α, q); see (9.19). We easily see that f |[ΔξΔ]k ∈ M k (Δ). Extending this Q-linearly to R(Δ, Gk ), we can let R(Δ, Gk ) act on M k (Δ). Clearly f |[ΔξΔ]k ∈ S k (Δ) if f ∈ S k (Δ). Let us now consider the case ξ = (α, ek ) with α = diag[e−1 , e], 0 < e ∈ Q. Then

13. HECKE OPERATORS

123

(13.12a)

#(Δ\ΔξΔ) = #(ΔξΔ/Δ),

(13.12b)

f |[ΔξΔ]k , g = f, g|[Δξ −1 Δ]k .

Indeed, #(Δ\ΔξΔ) = #(Γ \Γ αΓ ) by Lemma 13.5. Similarly, #(ΔξΔ/Δ) = #(Δ\Δξ −1 Δ) = #(Γ \Γ α−1 Γ ) = #(Γ αΓ/Γ ), and so we obtain (13.12a) from (13.8b). Therefore we can prove (13.12b) in the same manner as for (13.9). We now consider M k (2, N/2; ψ) of (8.11b) and (7.6) with a character ψ modulo N, and deﬁne an operator Tψ on that space as follows. Let Δ = (Γ ) m% with Γ = Γ (2, N/2) and let Δξm Δ = ν Δην with ξm as in Lemma 13.6, that is, ξm = (αm , mk ) with αm = diag[m−1 , m]. We see that if β ∈ Γ ·diag[1, n]Γ with n ∈ Z, then aβ is prime to N. Therefore the a-entry of m · pr(ην ) is prime to N. Thus for f ∈ M k (2, N/2; ψ) we put k−2 (13.13) f |Tψ ψ(aν )f k ην , m = m ν

where aν is the a-entry of m · pr(ην ). We can easily verify that f |Tψ m is well deﬁned and belongs to M k (2, N/2; ψ). Hereafter we make the convention that any product of numbers or symbols involving a factor ψ(x) with x|N ∞ means 0. Theorem 13.9. Let f (z) = ∞ m=0 λ(m)e(mz/2) ∈ M k (2, N/2; ψ) and ∞ let (f |Tψ )(z) = b(n)e(nz/2) with a prime number p. Then for 0 ≤ n ∈ p n=0 Z we have

n k−3/2 p (13.13a) b(n) = λ(p2 n) + ψ(p) λ(n) + ψ(p2 )p2k−2 λ(n/p2 ), p where we understand that λ(n/p2 ) = 0 if p2 n. Proof. We have ξp = (αp , pk ) with αp = diag[p−1 , p], and so Γ αΓ = T (1, p2 ) with α = pαp = diag[1, p2 ].

% 1 2ν , Suppose p|N ; then deg T (p2 ) = p2 and Γ αΓ = ν Γ βν with βν = 0 p2 0 ≤ ν < p2 ; see [S71, Proposition 3.33]; notice that t in that proposition is % p−1 2p−1ν 2. Thus Γ αp Γ = ν Γ γν with γν = . We have γν = αp εν 0 p

1 2ν with εν = . Let ην = (γν , pk ). Then (εν ) = (εν , 1) and ην = 0 1 % (αp , pk )(εν , 1) ∈ Δξp Δ. By Lemma 13.5, Δξp Δ = ν Δην . Thus −2 f (z + 2ν)/p2 f |Tψ p (z) = p

=p

−2

ν ∞ m=0

2

λ(m)e(mz/2p )

2 p −1

ν=0

e(mν/p2 ) =

∞

λ(p2 n)e(nz/2).

n=0

This gives the desired formula for b(n) when p|N. Next suppose p N. Then deg T (1, p2 ) = p2 + p, and Γ \Γ αp Γ can be given by the following elements:

124

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

βν =

γh =

δ=

1 2ν (0 ≤ ν < p2 ), 0 1 −1 0 p 2h 2h/p 1 0 p = 0 p −sN/2 q 1 psN/2 1 2 −1 2 p 0 −2t p 0 p d 2t = . p−1 N/2 d 0 p −N/2 1

p−1 0 1 0 p 0

0 p

(0 < h < p),

Here for each h we take integers s and q so that shN + qp = 1, noting that hN is prime to p. As for δ, we take d and t so that p2 d + tN = 1. To avoid ambiguity, we can choose positive q and d. Deﬁne elements βν∗ , γh∗ , and δ ∗ of Gk by

∗ k ∗ −1 −h , δ ∗ = (δ, p−k ). (13.14) βν = (βν , p ), γh = γh , εp p Then these belong to Δξ p Δ. This is clear for βν∗ . To treat γh∗ , put σ =

1 0 p 2h and τ = . Then (σ) = (σ, jσk ) and (τ ) = psN/2 1 −sN/2 q

−sN with the branch of jτ (z)k such that limz→0 jτk (z) > τ, jτ (z)k ε−1 q q

−sN −sN 0, by (4.40), (4.41a), and (5.1b). Since 4|N, we have = = q p

−h −h and εq = εp , and so (σ)ξp (τ ) = γh , ε−1 . As for δ, we note p p p

N that εd = 1 and = 1, and we obtain δ ∗ = (δ, p−k ) ∈ Δξp Δ in a similar d way. By Lemma 13.5, Δ\Δξp Δ can be given by the elements of (13.14). Thus p2 −1 ψ −2 f (z + 2ν)/p2 f |Tp = p ν=0

p−1

+ εp pk−2 ψ(p)

h=1

=p

−2

∞

p2 −1 2

λ(m)e(mz/2p )

m=0

+ εp p

k−2

2

−h f (z + 2h/p) + ψ(p2 )p2k−2 f (p2 z) p

+ ψ(p )p

e(mν/p2 )

ν=0

ψ(p) 2k−2

∞ m=0 ∞

p−1

λ(m)e(mz/2)

h=1 2

−h e(mh/p) p

λ(m)e(mp z/2).

−m times the Gauss sum of (2.4b), The last sum on the next to last line is p and so

∞ ∞ m 2 k−3/2 e(mz/2) = λ(np )e(nz/2) + p ψ(p) λ(m) f |Tψ p p n=0 m=0 m=0

13. HECKE OPERATORS

+ ψ(p2 )p2k−2

∞

125

λ(m)e(mp2 z/2).

m=0

Therefore we obtain the formula for b(n) as stated in our theorem. Theorem 13.10. (i) Let f be a form as in Theorem 13.9, t a positive t integer, and p a prime number. Put μ = k − 1/2 and χt (a) = ψ(a) for a ψ 2 a prime to N. Suppose that f |Tp = ωp f with ωp ∈ C and that p|N or p t. Then ∞ (13.15) λ(tn2 )n−s =

n=1

−1 λ(tn2 )n−s · 1 − χt (p)pμ−1−s 1 − ωp p−s + ψ(p)2 p2μ−1−2s .

pn

(ii) Suppose further that t has no nontrivial square factor prime to rN with a ﬁxed positive integer r and that f |Tψ p = ωp f with ωp ∈ C for every prime number p r. Then Lr (s − μ + 1, χt ) λ(tn2 )n−s 0 0, we obtain ωp XHn (X) = Hn (X) − λ(tn2 ) + χt (p)pμ−1 λ(tn2 )X + ψ(p)2 p2k−2 X 2 Hn (X), and so we have, for p n, Hn (X) 1 − ωp X + ψ(p)2 p2k−2 X 2 = λ(tn2 ) 1 − χt (p)pμ−1 X . ∞ Since n=1 λ(tn2 )n−s = pn Hn (p−s )n−s , we obtain (i). Then (ii) follows immediately from (i). Theorem 13.11. Let f (z) = ∞ m=1 λ(m)e(mz/2) ∈ S k (2, N/2; ψ) and let μ = k − 1/2. Suppose that f |Tψ p = ωp f with ωp ∈ C for every prime number p r with a ﬁxed positive integer r. Then there is an element g(z) = ∞ 2 n=1 c(n)e(nz) ∈ M 2μ (N, ψ ) that is an eigenform of T (p)μ,ψ 2 for every prime number p, such that c(p) = ωp for every p r, where T (p)μ,ψ2 is the Hecke operator deﬁned on M 2μ (N, ψ 2 ). Moreover we have

126

(13.16)

IV. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MODULAR FORMS

Lr (s − μ + 1, χt )

λ(tn2 )n−s

0 κ; then A is holomorphic at s = σ, and for real s > σ we have log A(s) ≥ 0, and so A(s) ≥ 1. Thus A(σ) ≥ 1, which means that log A is holomorphic at s = σ, but that contradicts the well-known fact that a Dirichlet series with nonnegative coeﬃcients is not holomorphic at the real point on the line of convergence. Therefore, σ ≤ κ. This implies that A(s) = exp log A(s) = 0 for Re(s) > κ, and so DK (s; f, g) = 0 for Re(s) > κ.

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139

Suppose DK (κ + it; f, g) = 0 with t ∈ R; then DK (κ − it; fρ , gρ ) = 0. Since any pole of DK (s; ∗, ∗) is at most simple, we see that A is holomorphic at s = κ. In view of (16.5), this means that A is holomorphic at every real point, in particular at s = σ. We can now repeat the above argument. To be explicit, for real s > σ we have log A(s) ≥ 0, and so A(s) ≥ 1. Thus A(σ) ≥ 1, which means that log A is holomorphic at s = σ, and we obtain a contradiction. Thus DK (s; f, g) = 0 for Re(s) = κ. This completes the proof. Theorem 16.4. Suppose 2 ≤ k ∈ Z; let ξ ∈ Ξk and let K be a ﬁnite extension of F (ξ, ψ) that is totally real or a CM-ﬁeld (cf. §15.5 and Lemma 15.6). Also let f, h, and p be K-rational elements of S(ξ) ∩ S k (N, ψ). Then σ (16.6) f, h/p, p = f σ , hσ /pσ , pσ for every σ ∈ Aut(C) provided p = 0. The equality holds even for an arbitrary f ∈ S(ξ) ∩ S k (N, ψ) if we replace f σ on the right-hand side by f ρσρ . Proof. By Theorem 14.4 there exist a multiple M of N and a normalized ∞ Hecke eigenform g(z) = n=1 c(n)e(nz) ∈ S k (N, ψ) such that for every 2 p M we have ξp = |c(p)| − pk−1 − pk−2 and f |Rp = ξp f for every f ∈ S k (N, ψ) ∩ S(ξ). Take μ = 0 or 1 so that μ − k ∈ 2Z. By Lemma 2.14 there exists a character ζ such that ζ(−1) = 1, ζ 2 is nontrivial, and the conductor of ζ is prime to M. Let ϕ0 be the primitive character associated with ζ/ψ, r the conductor of ϕ0 , and ϕ the (possibly imprimitive) character modulo M r associated with ϕ0 . Then ϕ(−1) = (−1)μ . We ﬁx the symbols N, ψ, ξ, g, M, and ζ. Then ϕ and r are determined. We now take a positive integer t satisfying the following condition: (16.7) t has no nontrivial square factor prime to rM. Put then θt (z) = 2−1 n∈Z ϕ(n)nμ e(tn2 z/2). By Lemmas 5.5 8.17, θt ∈

and t . Given 0 = M (2, 2tr2 M 2 ; ϕt ), where = μ + 1/2 and ϕt (n) = ϕ(n) n ∞ f (z) = n=1 λ(n)e(nz) ∈ S k (N, ψ) ∩ S(ξ), put f0 (z) = f (z/2). Then f0 ∈ S k (2, N ; ψ) and ∞ ϕ(m)λ(tm2 )m−s . D 2−1 (s − k − 1/2); f0 , θt ) = (t/2)(−s−μ)/2 m=1

By Lemma 14.6 with rM as r there, we obtain ∞ (16.7a) L(s − k + 1, ψϕ) ϕ(m)λ(tm2 )m−s m=1 −1 = λ(t)D(s − k; g, gϕ ) , 1 + (ψϕ)(p)pk−1−s ∞

p|t

where gϕ (z) = n=1 ϕ(n)c(n)e(nz). By Lemma 7.13, gϕ ∈ S k (r2 M 2 , ψϕ2 ). Using the symbol DK of Lemma 16.3, we have, with K = M,

140

V. THE ARITHMETICITY OF CRITICAL VALUES

DM (s; g, gϕ ) = L(2s + 2 − 2k, ψ 2 ϕ2 )D(s − k; g, gϕ ), which is nonzero for Re(s) ≥ k. We evaluate our functions at s = k. Our choice of ϕ shows that ψ 2 ϕ2 is nontrivial, and so L(1, ψϕ) = 0 and L(2, ψ 2 ϕ2 ) = 0. Thus by Lemma 16.3, D(0; g, gϕ ) = 0, and we can conclude that D(−1/4; f0 , θt ) is λ(t) times a nonzero number, whose explicit form is −1 . (t/2)−(k+μ)/2 DM (k; g, gϕ )L(1, ψϕ)−1 L(2, ψ 2 ϕ2 )−1 1 + (ψϕ)(p)p−1 p|t

We now evaluate (8.27) at s = −1/4 with (f0 , θt ) in place of (f, g) there. Putting κ = (k + μ)/2, N0 = 2tr2 M 2 , and ω = ψϕt , we obtain N0 (4π)−κ Γ (κ)D(−1/4; f0 , θt ) = μ(Φ)θtρ E, f0 , where E(z) = Ek− z, (μ − k)/2 + 1; Γ, ω ¯ with Γ = Γ (N0 , N0 ). Put p = (k − μ)/2 − 1. Then 0 ≤ p ∈ Z and E(z) = E3/2+2p (−p; Γ, ω ¯ ). By (8.20) we have p E3/2 (0; Γ, ω ¯ ), (−4π)−p ε(0)E(z) = D3/2 (16.8)

p−1 ¯ 2 is nontrivial, E3/2 (0; Γ, ω ¯ ) ∈ M 3/2 (Qab ) where ε(0) = a=0 (3/2+a). Since ω −p by Theorem 8.15(iii), and so π E(z) ∈ N k− (Qab ) by Lemma 7.8(i). Put q(z) = π −p θtρ (2z)E(2z). Then q ∈ N k (Qab ), and θtρ E, f0 = 2k π p q, f by N,ξ (q), f . We have shown that θtρ E, f0 (6.12a). By Lemma 16.2, q, f = rk,ψ N,ξ (q), f . is λ(t) times a nonzero number, and so the same holds for rk,ψ Once N, ψ, ξ, M, g, ζ, ϕ, and t are ﬁxed, Γ does not depend on f. ThereN,ξ (q) is also independent of f. Emphasizing the dependence on t and fore rk,ψ N,ξ (q) = ht and λ(n) = λ(f, n). Then ht ∈ S k (Qab ) by (16.2d), and f, put rk,ψ

(16.9)

ht , f = λ(f, t)w(t, ψ, ϕ, g)

for every f ∈ S k (N, ψ) ∩ S(ξ) with a nonzero number w(t, ψ, ϕ, g) given by (16.9a) w(t, ψ, ϕ, g) =

2−k π −p μ(Φ)−1 N0 (4π)−κ Γ (κ)(t/2)−κ DM (k; g, gϕ ) . L(1, ψϕ)L(2, ψ 2 ϕ2 ) p|t 1 + (ψϕ)(p)p−1

This is independent of f. If f = 0, then λ(f, n) = 0 for some n. We can put n = tm2 with m prime to rM and an integer t satisfying (16.7). Then (16.7a) shows that λ(f, t) = 0. Thus for every nonvanishing f ∈ S k (N, ψ) ∩ S(ξ) we can ﬁnd t such that ht , f = 0, and so (16.10) The ht for all t satisfying (16.7) span S k (N, ψ) ∩ S(ξ). Now take another f ∈ S k (N, ψ) ∩ S(ξ) and another t satisfying (16.7). Then from (16.9) and (16.9a) we obtain (16.11)

ht , f λ(f , t ) w(t , ψ, ϕ, g) = · , ht , f λ(f, t) w(t, ψ, ϕ, g)

16. MAIN THEOREMS ON ARITHMETICITY

(16.11a)

141

−1 w(t , ψ, ϕ, g) p|t 1 + (ψϕ)(p)p κ . = (t /t) · −1 w(t, ψ, ϕ, g) p|t 1 + (ψϕ)(p)p

Let σ ∈ Aut(C). By Theorem 7.5(iia) and (15.4a) we have S k (N, ψ)σ = S k (N, ψ σ ) and S(ξ)σ = S(ξ σ ); also, λ(f, n)σ = λ(f σ , n). Taking ψ σ , ϕσ , and f σ in place of ψ, ϕ, and f, from (16.2d), Theorem 8.15(iii), and Lemma 7.8(i) we see that (ht )σ takes the place of ht for f σ . Thus (ht )σ , f σ = λ(f σ , t)w(t, ψ σ , ϕσ , g σ ). From (16.11a) we see that σ w(t , ψ, ϕ, g)/w(t, ψ, ϕ, g) = w(t , ψ σ , ϕσ , g σ )/w(t, ψ σ , ϕσ , g σ ). Therefore

σ ht , f /ht , f = (ht )σ , (f )σ /(ht )σ , f σ .

Since ht is Qab -rational, (ht )σρ = (ht )ρσ . Let j ∈ S k (N, ψ) ∩ S(ξ). By (16.10), we can ﬁnd a ﬁnite set T of elements satisfying (16.7) such that j = τ ∈T aτ hτ with aτ ∈ C. Then j, f = τ ∈T aρτ hτ , f , and σ σ (hτ )σ , (f )σ j ρσρ , (f )σ j, f ρσ hτ , f = aτ = aρσ = . τ ht , f ht , f (ht )σ , f σ (ht )σ , f σ τ ∈T

τ ∈T

In particular, for f = ht we have σ (∗) j, f /ht , ht = j ρσρ , (f )σ /(ht )σ , (ht )σ . Take j and f to be the same K-rational nonzero element p of S k (N, ψ) ∩ S(ξ) with K as in our theorem. Then pρσρ = pσ , and so σ p, p/ht , ht = pσ , pσ /(ht )σ , (ht )σ . Dividing (∗) by this, we obtain σ j, f /p, p = j ρσρ , (f )σ /pσ , pσ , which proves (16.6), since j ρσρ = j σ if j is K-rational. This completes the proof of Theorem 16.4. 16.5. Let 0 < k ∈ 2−1 Z and Γ = Γ (N, N ) with a positive integer N and let ψ be a character modulo N. We put then if k ∈ Z, L(2s + k, ψ)Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) (16.12) Ck (z, s; Γ, ψ) = 2 /Z L(4s + 2k − 1, ψ )Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) if k ∈ with Ek (· · · ) of (8.12); we assume N ∈ 2Z if k ∈ / Z. We are going to state some results about Ck (z, λ; Γ, ψ) for certain λ ∈ 2−1 Z belonging to the set Λk deﬁned by

142

V. THE ARITHMETICITY OF CRITICAL VALUES

(16.13a) (16.13b)

Λk = λ ∈ Z 1 − k ≤ λ ≤ 0 if k ∈ Z, Λk = λ ∈ Z 1 − k < 2λ ≤ 0 λ ∈ 2−1 Z λ − k ∈ Z, 1 − k ≤ λ < (1 − k)/2 if k ∈ / Z.

For λ ∈ Λk we put

(16.14)

Ck∗ (z, λ; Γ, ψ) = αk,ψ,λ Ck (z, λ; Γ, ψ) with ⎧ ⎪ if k ∈ Z, G(ψ)−1 ik π −k−λ ⎪ ⎨ 2 −1 −3λ−2[k] if k ∈ / Z and λ ∈ Z, αk,ψ,λ = G(ψ ) π ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ G(ψ)−1 21/2 i[k] π −k−λ if k ∈ / Z and λ ∈ / Z.

Theorem 16.6. Suppose that ψ2 is nontrivial if k ∈ / Z and k + 2λ = 3/2 or 1/2. Then for every λ ∈ Λk the function Ck∗ (z, λ; Γ, ψ) belongs to N k (Qab ) and Ck∗ (z, λ; Γ, ψ)σ = Ck∗ (z, λ; Γ, ψ σ ) for every σ ∈ Gal(Qab /Q). Proof. In this proof Γ is always the same; therefore, suppressing Γ, we write (z, s; ψ) for (z, s; Γ, ψ). Case I: k ∈ Z. Let λ ∈ Λk . First suppose −k/2 < λ ≤ 0; put p = −λ and κ = k − 2p. Then p ≥ 0 and κ > 0. By (8.20) we have L(κ, ψ)Dκp Eκ (z, 0; ψ) = (−4π)−p εκ (0)Ck (z, λ; ψ). Clearly εκ (0) ∈ Q× . Thus the desired result follows from Lemma 2.10, Theorem 8.15(i), and Lemma 7.8(i). Next suppose 1 − k ≤ λ ≤ −k/2. By (8.18), 2Ck (z, s; ψ) = EkN (z, s; ψ), and so the desired result for λ = 1 − k follows from Theorem 8.15(ii). If λ > 1 − k, put p = λ + k − 1 and κ = k − 2p. Then p > 0 and κ > 0. By (8.20) we have Dκp Cκ (z, 1 − κ; ψ) = (−4π)−p εκ (1 − κ)Ck (z, λ; ψ). and εκ (1 − κ) ∈ Q× , and so the desired result follows from the case λ = 1 − k and Lemma 7.8(i). Case II: k ∈ / Z. Suppose λ ∈ Z and 1 − k < 2λ ≤ 0; put p = −λ and κ = k − 2p. Then 0 ≤ p ∈ Z and 3/2 ≤ κ ∈ 2−1 Z. By (8.20) we have L(2[k] − 4p, ψ 2 )Dκp Eκ (z, 0; ψ) = (−4π)−p εκ (0)Ck (z, λ; ψ). We see that 0 < 2[k] − 4p ∈ 2Z and εκ (0) ∈ Q× . By our assumption, ψ 2 is nontrivial if κ = 3/2. Thus the desired result follows from Lemma 2.10, Theorem 8.15(iii), and Lemma 7.8(i). Next suppose λ − k ∈ Z and 1 − k ≤ λ < (1 − k)/2; put p = λ + k − 1 and κ = k − 2p. Then 0 ≤ p ∈ Z and 1 < κ ∈ 2−1Z. By (8.20) we have Dκp Ck (z, 1 − κ; ψ) = (−4π)−p εκ (1 − κ)Ck (z, λ; ψ).

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143

Therefore this case can be settled by the same argument as before in view of Theorem 8.15(iv). This completes the proof. Theorem 16.7. Let ξ ∈ Ξk with 0 < k ∈ Z as in §15.4. Given f ∈ S(ξ)∩S k (N, ψ) and g ∈ M (M, ϕ) with any positive weight < k, a divisor M of N ∞ , and a character ϕ modulo M, deﬁne DN (s; f, g) by (8.28). For κ ∈ 2−1 Z put λ = κ − 1 − (k − )/2. Assuming that λ ∈ Λk− with Λ of (16.13a, b), put A(κ; f, g) = βDN (κ; f, g) with β = π −k−λ Γ (λ + k − 1)¯ αk−,¯ω,λ , where ω = ψϕ and α∗∗∗ is as in (16.14). Let 0 = p ∈ S(ξ) ∩ S k (N, ψ) as in Theorem 16.4. Then σ A(κ; f, g)/p, p = A(κ; f σ , g ρσρ )/pσ , pσ for every σ ∈ Aut(C). Proof. From (8.27) we obtain N0 (4π)−μ Γ (μ)DN (κ; f, g) = μ(Φ)gρ C, f , where μ = λ+k−1, N0 is a positive multiple of N that divides M N, Φ = Γ \H, and C(z) = Ck− (z, λ; Γ, ω ¯ ) with Γ = Γ (N0 , N0 ). Since μ(Φ) ∈ πQ× by ∗ (6.6), putting C ∗ (z) = Ck− (z, λ; Γ, ω ¯ ), we have αk−,¯ω,λ DN (κ; f, g) = gρ C ∗ , f Rπ −μ−1 Γ (μ)¯ with a constant R ∈ Q× independent of f and g. Therefore, from (16.2c) N,ξ and β deﬁned as we see that βDN (κ; f, g) = r(gρ C ∗ ), f with r = rk−,ψ above. Thus we obtain the desired result from Theorem 16.4 and (16.2d). 16.8. Given the space S k (N, ψ) with k ∈ Z, let S k (N, ψ) denote its subspace spanned by the functions h(tz) with h ∈ S k (M, ψ) for all integers t and M such that tM divides N and the conductor of ψ divides M. Let S 0k (N, ψ) be the orthogonal complement of S k (N, ψ) in S k (N, ψ). We call a normalized Hecke eigenform f in S k (N, ψ) primitive if it belongs to S 0k (N, ψ), and call N the conductor of f. If f is primitive, then clearly f σ is primitive for every σ ∈ Aut(C). The basic facts on primitive forms (often called newforms) can be found in Atkin-Lehner [AL70] (for trivial ψ), Casselman [C73], and Miyake [Mi71]. Let g be a nonzero element of S k (N, ψ) such that g|T (p)k,ψ = cp g for almost all p. Then we can ﬁnd a primitive element f contained in S k (N, ψ) such that f |T (p)k,ψ = cp f for almost all p. We then say that f is associated to g. ∞ For an arbitrary f (z) = n=1 c(n)e(nz) ∈ S k Γ1 (N ) and a primitive character χ put ∞ χ(n)c(n)n−s , (16.15) D(s; f, χ) = n=1

144

V. THE ARITHMETICITY OF CRITICAL VALUES

(16.16) A(m; f, χ) = (πi)−m G(χ)−1 D(m; f, χ) (0 < m < k, m ∈ Z). ∞ Since n=1 χ(n)c(n)e(nz) ∈ S k , from Theorem 8.2 we see that D(s; f, χ) is an entire function, and so its value at any m ∈ Z is meaningful. Theorem 16.9. Given a primitive f ∈ S k (N, ψ) and a primitive character χ, denote by Kf (resp. Kχ ) the ﬁeld generated over Q by the Fourier coeﬃcients of f (resp. the values of χ). Then for every σ ∈ Aut(C) we can deﬁne two nonzero complex numbers u+ (f σ ) and u− (f σ ) with the following properties: (i) u± (f σ )ρ = ±u± (f σρ ), where ρ is the complex conjugation. (ii) A(m; f, χ) ∈ u± (f )Kf Kχ if χ(−1) = ±(−1)m for every m ∈ Z, 0 < m < k. σ (iii) A(m; f, χ)/u± (f ) = A(m; f σ , χσ )/u± (f σ ) for every σ ∈ Aut(C) if m ∈ Z, 0 < m < k, and χ(−1) = ±(−1)m . (iv) Put E(f ) = i1−k πG(ψ)f, f . Then E(f ) ∈ u+ (f )u− (f )Kf and σ E(f )/ u+ (f )u− (f ) = E(f σ )/ u+ (f σ )u− (f σ ) for every σ ∈ Aut(C). This was given in [S77] as an application of [S76]. In fact, the results of [S76] can be derived from Theorem 16.4 by taking f there to be any normalized Hecke eigenform and h to be an Eisenstein series, without assuming f to be primitive. If k = 2, the constants u± (f σ ) are periods of the diﬀerential form f σ dz on Γ1 (N )\H. For details, we refer the reader to [S77, Theorem 3]. Lemma 16.10. (i) Let f be a normalized Hecke eigenform in S k (N, ψ). Then D(s; f, χ) = 0 for Re(s) ≥ (k + 1)/2 for every character χ. (ii) Let f be a nonzero element of S 2 Γ1 (N ) and let 0 < M ∈ Z. Then there exists a primitive character ϕ, whose conductor is prime to M, such that D(1; f, ϕ) = 0 and ϕ(−1) has a given signature. Assertion (i) can be proved by the same technique as in the proof of Lemma 16.3. For details, we refer the reader to [S76, Proposition 2] and [S78, Proposition 4.16]. As for (ii), the proof is given in [S77, Theorem 2] when f is primitive. The condition that f is primitive is unnecessary, as explained in the last four lines of page 213 and the ﬁrst four lines of page 214 in [S77]. This type of nonvanishing for the zeta functions associated to the forms on GL2 (F ) with an arbitrary number ﬁeld F was given by Rohrlich in [Ro89]. 16.11. Let 0 = f ∈ S(ξ)∩S k (2, N/2; ψ) with half-integral k. We assume the following condition: (16.17) k ≥ 3/2 : if k = 3/2, then f, θ1 (z, μ) = 0 for every μ ∈ L (Q), where θ1 is as in (12.9b).

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145

Then by Theorems 12.8 and 13.11 there exists a Hecke eigenform g(z) = ∞ 2 n=1 c(n)e(nz) ∈ S 2k−1 (N, ψ ) such that (15.5) holds with ωp = ψ(p)ξp for almost all p, as already explained in §15.4. Choosing g suitably, we may assume that g is primitive. Clearly g is uniquely determined by f. Theorem 16.12. Let f be as above and g the primitive form in S 2k−1 determined by f as above. For q ∈ N k put (16.18)

I(q, f ) = 21/2 i[k]−1 πG(ψ)q, f .

Let u± (f ) be as in Theorem 16.9. then σ (16.18a) I(q, f )/u− (g) = I(q ρσρ , f σ )/u− (g σ ) for every σ ∈ Aut(C). Proof. Our argument is similar to the proof of Theorem 16.4. We take a multiple M of N such that f |Rp = ξp f for every f ∈ S(ξ) ∩ S k (2, N/2; ψ) and every p M. We also take a primitive character ϕ of conductor r and a positive integer t such that (16.19) ϕ(−1) = 1 and every prime factor of M divides r; (16.20) t has no nontrivial square factor prime to r. Such a ϕ of course exists. Put θt (z) = 2−1 n∈Z ϕ(n)e(tn2 z/2). By Lemmas 5.5 and 8.17 we see that θt ∈ M (2, 2tr2 ; ϕt ), where = 1/2 and ϕt (n) =

∞ t ϕ(n) . Let 0 = f (z) = n=1 λ(n)e(nz) ∈ S(ξ) ∩ S k (2, N/2; ψ). By n Theorem 13.11 we have ∞ (∗) L(s − [k] + 1, χt ϕ) ϕ(m)λ(tm2 )m−s = λ(t)D(s; g, ϕ), m=1

t . Also, we have where χt is deﬁned by χt (n) = ψ(n) n ∞ (∗∗) D 2−1 (s − [k] − 1); f, θt = (t/2)−s/2 ϕ(m)λ(tm2 )m−s . m=1

Combining (∗) with (∗∗), we obtain (#) λ(t)(t/2)−s/2 D(s; g, ϕ) = L s − [k] + 1, χt ϕ D 2−1 (s − [k] − 1); f, θt . The left-hand side of (∗∗) at s = 2k − 2 is D(s0 ; f, θt ) with s0 = [k]/2 − 1. We now evaluate (8.27) with θt as g there at s = s0 . Then N0 (4π)−κ Γ (κ)D(s0 ; f, θt ) = μ(Φ)θtρ E, f , where N0 = tr2 N, κ = k − 1, Φ = Γ \H, and E(z) = E[k] z, 0; Γ, ω ¯ with Γ = Γ (N0 , N0 ) and ω = ψϕt . We ﬁrst assume that k > 3/2; the case k = 3/2 will be treated later. Then 2k − 2 ≥ k, and so D(2k − 2, g, ϕ) = 0 by Lemma 16.10(i), which (16.21)

146

V. THE ARITHMETICITY OF CRITICAL VALUES

combined with (#) shows that D(s0 ; f, θt ) = 0 provided λ(t) = 0, since L s − [k] + 1, χt ϕ = 0 for s = 2k − 2. Now E ∈ N [k] (Qab ) by Theorem 8.15(i). We then proceed as in the proof of Theorem 16.4. To be explicit, N,ξ ρ N,ξ put ht = rk,ψ (θt E) with rk,ψ of Lemma 16.2 and λ(n) = λ(f, n). Then ht ∈ S k (Qab ) by (16.2d), and (16.22)

ht , f = λ(f, t)wt (ψ, ϕ, g)

for every f ∈ S k (2, N/2, ψ) ∩ S(ξ) with a nonzero number wt (ψ, ϕ, g) independent of f given by D(2k − 2; g, ϕ) , wt (ψ, ϕ, g) = R(2t)1/2 π −[k] · L([k], χt ϕ) where R is an element of Q× independent of f. If f = 0, then λ(f, n) = 0 for some n. We can put n = tm2 with m prime to r and an integer t satisfying (16.20). Then (∗) shows that λ(f, t) = 0. Thus for every nonvanishing f ∈ S k (2, N/2, ψ) ∩ S(ξ) we can ﬁnd t such that ht , f = 0, and so we obtain (16.23) The ht for all t satisfying (16.20) span S k (2, N/2, ψ) ∩ S(ξ). Let σ ∈ Aut(C); take f σ , g σ , and ϕσ in place of f, g, and ϕ, but with the same t. By Theorem 8.15(i), E σ takes the place of E, and by (16.2d), hσt takes the place of ht . Deﬁne PN (m, χ) by (2.19). Then L([k], χt ϕ) = G(χt ϕ)(πi)[k] Pr ([k], χt ϕ). Thus employing (16.16), we have G(ϕ)A(2k − 2; g, ϕ) . wt (ψ, ϕ, g) = R(2t)1/2 i[k]−1 π −1 · G(χt ϕ)Pr ([k], χt ϕ) By (2.4a) and Lemma 2.8 we have σ 1/2 t G(ψ)G(ϕ)/G(χt ϕ) = t1/2 G(ψ σ )G(ϕσ )/G(χσt ϕσ ). Put B(ψ) = 21/2 i[k]−1 πG(ψ). Since (−1)2k−2 = −1, from Theorem 16.9(ii) and Lemma 2.10 we obtain σ B(ψ)wt (ψ, ϕ, g)/u− (g) = B(ψ σ )wt (ψ σ , ϕσ , g σ )/u− (g σ ). Combining this with (16.22), we obtain σ B(ψ)ht , f /u− (g) = B(ψ σ )hσt , f σ /u− (g σ ).

Given h ∈ S(ξ) ∩ S k (2, N/2; ψ), we can put, by (16.23), h = t∈T at ht with a ﬁnite set T of elements t satisfying (16.20) and at ∈ C. Then h, f = ρ ρσρ σ σ , f σ = t∈T aρσ t ht , f . Therefore t∈T at ht , f and h σ B(ψ)h, f /u− (g) = B(ψσ )hρσρ , f σ /u− (g σ ).

This proves (16.18a) for h ∈ S(ξ) ∩ S k (2, N/2; ψ). Given an arbitrary q ∈ N,ξ N,ξ N k , we have q, f = h, f with h = rk,ψ (q), where rk,ψ is as in Lemma 16.2. In view of (16.2d) we obtain (16.18a).

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147

Next let us assume that k = 3/2. In this case 2k − 2 = 1 and D(1; g, ϕ) may be 0. If D(1; g, ϕ) = 0, then our argument in the case k > 3/2 can be repeated. Suppose D(1; g, ϕ) = 0 with ϕ satisfying (16.19). Put gϕ (z) = ∞ 2 2 2 n=1 ϕ(n)c(n)e(nz). Then, by Lemma 7.13, gϕ ∈ S k (r N, ψ ϕ ). By Lemma 16.10(ii) we can ﬁnd a character ϕ1 , whose conductor is prime to rM, such that D(1; gϕ , ϕ1 ) = 0 and ϕ1 (−1) = 1. Since D(1; gϕ , ϕ1 ) = D(1; g, ϕϕ1 ), taking ϕϕ1 in place of ϕ, we can employ our reasoning in the case k > 3/2 for k = 3/2. This completes the proof. Remark. Theorem 16.12 is essentially the same as [S81, Theorem 1]. However, the constant appearing in the deﬁnition of I(q, f ) in (16.18) is diﬀerent from that for the corresponding quantity in [S81]. The diﬀerence is caused by the diﬀerence of the deﬁnition of modular forms of half-integral weight, as explained in §5.2. There is another point that should be remembered: in the deﬁnition of D(s; f, g) in (8.23) the exponent is −s − (k + )/2 instead of the simpler −s chosen in [S81]. Theorem 16.13. Let k and be half-integral weights such that k > and k ≥ 5/2; let f ∈ S(ξ) ∩ S k (2, N/2; ψ) with ξ ∈ Ξk and h ∈ M (2, N/2; ϕ). Given an integer m such that m − k + ∈ 2Z and −k − ≤ m ≤ k − − 2 put B(m; f, h) = 21/2 i[]−1 G(ϕ)−1 π −m−[k]−1 DN (m/2; f, h). Let g be the primitive element of S 2k−1 (N, ψ 2 ) determined by f as in §16.11, and u− (g) the constant deﬁned in Theorem 16.9. Then σ B(m; f, h)/u− (g) = B(m; f σ , hσ )/u− (g σ ) for every σ ∈ Aut(C). Proof. Let λ = 1 + (m − k + )/2 and κ = (m + k + )/2. From (8.27) we obtain N (4π)−κ Γ (κ)DN (m/2; f, h) = μ(Φ)hρ C, f , ¯ ) with ω = ψϕ. Put β = N (4π)−κ Γ (κ)μ(Φ)−1 α ¯ where C(z) = Ck− (z, λ; Γ, ω with α = αk−,¯ω,λ given by (16.14). We see that λ ∈ Z and 1−k = ≤ λ ≤ 0, and so λ belongs to the set Λk− of (16.13a), and Theorem 16.6 is applica∗ ble. We have βDN (m/2; f, h) = hρ C ∗ , f with C ∗ (z) = Ck− (z, λ; Γ, ω ¯ ). −1

Since κ + k ∈ Z, we have Γ (κ) ∈ π 1/2 Q× . Also, G(¯ ω ) = ω(−1)G(ω)−1 . With I(q, f ) as in (16.18) we have γDN (m/2; f, h) = I(hρ C ∗ , f ) with γ = 21/2 i[k]−1 πG(ψ)β. Calculating γ explicitly and then applying Lemma 2.8 to G(ψ)G(ϕ)/G(ψϕ), we obtain the desired formula from Theorem 16.12. 16.14. We add here two remarks. 1. In addition to Theorems 16.7 and 16.13 there is one more case of the values of DN (s; f, h), that is, the case with f of half-integral weight k and h

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of integral weight ≤ k. In this case we can state the results similar to Theorem 16.13 and prove them in the same manner as an application of Theorems 16.6 and 16.12. We leave the details to the reader, as no new ideas are required. Indeed, they were given in [S81, Theorem 3], though the reader is warned of the diﬀerence in formulation noted in the remark before Theorem 16.13. In addition to this, we can also investigate D(m; f, χ) for D of (8.30). This is essentially a special case of Theorem 16.7 with a certain theta function in place of g, but there are some exceptional cases which require some nontrivial calculation. We refer the reader to [S91, pp. 604–605] and the paper of J. Sturm cited there. 2. Let K be an imaginary quadratic ﬁeld. Given λ ∈ L (K) and 0 < κ ∈ Z, put ¯ λ(ξ)ξ κ e(ξ ξz) (z ∈ H). f (z) = ξ∈K

Then we can show that f ∈ S κ+1 . In this case we can connect < f, f > and the special values D(m, f, χ) with h(τ ) with τ ∈ K ∩ H and h ∈ M ν (Qab ) for a suitable ν. For this we refer the reader to [S76, §5] and [S07, §13]. 17. Hilbert modular forms 17.1. The theory of modular forms can be developed with respect to congruence subgroups of SL2 (F ) with any totally real algebraic number ﬁeld F of ﬁnite degree. Such forms are traditionally called Hilbert modular forms. Practically all the results we presented in this book for modular forms on H, including those of half-integral weight, can be extended to the case of Hilbert modular forms. Let us now brieﬂy explain the basics of this topic, emphasizing its diﬀerence from the case over Q. With a ﬁxed F, we denote by g the maximal order of F and d the diﬀerent of F relative to Q. We denote by a the set of all archimedean primes of F. For each v ∈ a we denote by Fv the v-completion of F which is naturally identiﬁed with R. We put Fa = v∈a Fv . Similarly we put SL2 (F )a = v∈a SL2 (Fv ), and we let SL2 (F )a act on Ha in an obvious fashion. For each element α ∈ SL2 (F ) we can assign an element of SL2 (F )a whose components are all equal to α, which acts on Ha . In this way we can let SL2 (F ) act on Ha . For every integral ideal n in F we put (17.1) Γ (n) = α ∈ SL2 (g) α − 1 ≺ n . By a congruence subgroup of SL2 (F ) we mean a subgroup of SL2 (F ) that has Γ (n) as a subgroup of ﬁnite index for some n. To deﬁne modular forms, we need the notion of a weight. By an integral weight we mean an element of Za , and by a half-integral weight we mean an element (kv )v∈a

17. HILBERT MODULAR FORMS

149

of Qa such that kv − 1/2 ∈ Z for every v ∈ a. Thus, if [F : Q] = 3 for example, (−7/2, 1/2, 9/2) is a half-integral weight, but (3, 7/2, 4) is not. For . a half-integral k we put [k] = (kv − 1/2)v∈a For c = (cv )v∈a ∈ Ca we put ea (c) = e v∈a cv ) and also 2 (17.2) θ(z) = ea (a z/2) (z ∈ Ha ), a∈g

(17.3)

Γ0 = γ ∈ SL2 (F ) aγ ∈ g, bγ ∈ 2d−1 , cγ ∈ 2d, dγ ∈ g .

Then for every γ ∈ Γ0 there exists a function hγ (z) on Ha such that (17.4a) (17.4b)

θ(γz) = hγ (z)θ(z), hγ (z)4 = j(γv , zv )2 , v∈a

where j(β, w) = cβ w + dβ for β ∈ SL2 (R) and w ∈ H; see [S85a]. Then we k a deﬁne a factor of automorphy γ (z) for a weight k, γ ∈ Γ0 , and z ∈ H by ⎧ j ⎪ j(γv , zv )kv if k ∈ Za , ⎨ k v∈a (17.5) jγ (z) = ⎪ ⎩ h (z)j [k] (z) if k ∈ / Za . γ γ Given a congruence subgroup Γ of SL2 (F ) contained in Γ0 and a weight k, we denote by M k (Γ ) the set of all holomorphic functions f on Ha such that f (γz) = jγk (z)f (z) for every γ ∈ Γ, and we call such an f a Hilbert modular form of weight k with respect to Γ. Here we assume that F = Q. In fact, if F = Q, then we can show that every such f has an expansion (17.6) f (z) = c(ξ)e(ξz) ξ∈a

with a fractional ideal a in F and c(ξ) ∈ C such that c(ξ) = 0 if ξv < 0 for some v ∈ a. In other words, we need condition (3.4d) only when F = Q. Basically we can extend all deﬁnitions and results in the case F = Q to the case F = Q. The generalization of D(s, f ) of (8.3) is c(ξ) ξv−s−kv /2 , (17.7) [g× : t]−1 ξ∈F × /t

v∈a

where t is a subgroup of g× of ﬁnite index that makes the last sum meaningful; the existence of such a t can be shown. We encounter some phenomena which do not exist in the case F = Q. For example, given σ ∈ Aut(C), we can deﬁne a function f σ on Ha by (17.8) f σ (z) = c(ξ)σ e(ξz). ξ∈a

This is indeed a Hilbert modular form, but its weight is a transform of k by σ in a natural way, and so it is not necessarily k. Without going further, we merely mention some references. In the paper [Kl28] Kloostermann gave some basic results on Hilbert modular forms of

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weight k in the case where the kv for all v ∈ a are equal, and treated holomorphic Eisenstein series. The case of more general integral weights was discussed in [S78], which includes the generalization of Theorem 16.9. This was originally published in the Duke Mathematical Journal, but the typesetter and copyeditor made an incredible number of mistakes. Though corrections were later published in the same journal, I advise the reader to read the revised version included in my Collected Papers, vol. III. The factor of automorphy hγ as in (17.4a, b) was established in [S85a], and Eisenstein series were discussed in [S85a] and [S85b]. The generalizations of Theorems 11.3 and 12.8 were given in [S87]. The contents of §§14, 15, and 16 of the present book can be viewed as special cases of [S91] which discusses the same problems in the Hilbert modular case.

APPENDIX

A1. Proof of various facts A1.1. Equality (3.7a) can be proved as follows. Since f (x + iy) is a C ∞ function of x invariant under x → x + m for every m ∈ M, it has a Fourier expansion (A1.1) f (x + iy) = ch (y)e tr(hx) h∈L

with C ∞ functions ch of y, by virtue of a general principle on the Fourier expansion of a function with C ∞ parameters; also termwise partial diﬀerentiation of (A1.1) can be justiﬁed. For the proof of these facts the reader is referred to any textbook on Fourier analysis in Rn ; they are also proved in [S07, Theorem A2.2]. Put bh (y) = ch (y)e − i · tr(hy) . Then f (z) = ¯μν = h∈L bh (y)e tr(hz) . Take the variable zμν = xμν +iyμν and apply ∂/∂ z 2−1 (∂/∂xμν + i∂/∂yμν ) to the last equality. Then 0= (i/2)(∂bh /∂yμν )e tr(hz) , h∈L

and so ∂bh /∂yμν = 0 for every (μ, ν), which means that bh is a constant. Thus we obtain (3.7a). A1.2. We 3.3. First we observe that f (x + iy) = next prove Lemma h∈L c(h)e i · tr(hy) e tr(hx) , and so f (x + iy)e − tr(hx) dx, (A1.2) e i · tr(hy) c(h) = A

Sa /M −1 −1 where Sa = Sn (R) and A = vol(S a /M ) . Taking y = (2π) 1n in (A1.2), we obtain |c(h)| ≤ B exp tr(h) with a constant B independent of h. Now from (3.6b) we obtain c(h) = c(t aha) for every a ∈ U, and so (∗) |c(h)| ≤ B exp tr(t aha) for every a ∈ U.

Now suppose n > 1; let h be an element of L that is not nonnegative. Our task is to show that c(h) = 0. We can ﬁnd x = (xi )ni=1 ∈ Qn such that t xhx < 0. Replacing x by x + u with a “small” vector u, we may assume

G. Shimura, Modular Forms: Basics and Beyond, Springer Monographs in Mathematics, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-2125-2, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

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that x1 x2 = 0. Multiplying x by a positive integer, we may also assume that x ∈ Zn . Let y = [−x2 x1 0 · · · 0] and b = xy; here y is a row vector and so b ∈ Znn . Then b2 = 0 since yx = 0, and (∗∗)

tr(t bhb) = tr(t y · t xhxy) = y · t y · t xhx = (x21 + x22 ) · t xhx < 0.

Put a = (1 + b)m with 0 < m ∈ Z. Since (1 + b)(1 − b) = 1, we have 1 + b ∈ GLn (Z), and so a ∈ U if m ∈ N Z with a suitably large integer N. For such an m we have tr(t aha) = tr t (1 + mb)h(1 + mb) = p + mq + m2 r with p, q, r ∈ R, which are independent of m; in particular, r = tr(t bhb) < 0, as shown in (∗∗). Now by (∗) we have |c(h)| ≤ B exp(p + mq + m2 r) for 0 < m ∈ N Z. Making m large, we ﬁnd that c(h) = 0 as expected. Lemma A1.3. (i) Γ (1) is generated by the elements of the forms of (4.31), and consequently Γ (1) is generated by ι and P ∩ Γ (1). (ii) Let Γ = γ ∈ Γ (1) bγ ≡ cγ ≡ 0 (mod 2Znn ) . Then Γ is generated by the elements of the forms

a 0 1 b 1 0 (A1.3) , , , b ≡ c ≡ 0 (mod 2Znn ). 0 d 0 1 c 1 (iii) Let Γ ∗ be the subgroup of Γ (1) generated by the elements of the forms

a 0 0 −1 1 b (A1.4) , , , b ≡ 0 (mod 2Znn ). 0 d 1 0 0 1 Then Γ ⊂ Γ ∗ . Proof. We ﬁrst prove (ii). For x ∈ Zn , let [x] denote the greatest common n j divisor of its components. We put [0] = 0. Also, for

a ∈Zn let a denote its a b ∈ Γ . Our idea is to jth column and aji its (i, j)-entry. Now let γ = c d reduce [a1 ] and [c1 ] by multiplying by elements of the forms listed in (A1.3). Clearly [c1 ] is even, and so [a1] is odd, since γ ∈ SL

2n (Z). First suppose u 0 a b a b [a1 ] < [c1 ]. Considering instead of with a suitable 0 v c d c d u = t v −1 ∈ GLn (Z), we may assume that a11 > 0, a12 = · · · = a1n = 0. Then a11 is odd and < [c1 ]. For each k we can ﬁnd an integer s1k such that 1 1 1 1 1 |c

k + 2ska 1 | ≤ a1. Take

any s ∈ Sn (Z) whose (1, k)-entry is such sk , and put 1 0 a b a b = . Then we ﬁnd [p1 ] ≤ [a1 ], and so [p1 ] < [a1 ], 2s 1 c d p q 1 since [p1 ] is even. Next assume that 0 < [c1 ] < [a ]. Then, ﬁrst considering vc 1 2s with a suitable v ∈ GLn (Z), and then γ with a suitable s, we can 0 1 1 1 reduce this to the case [a ] < [c ]. Repeating these procedures, we obtain an

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153

a b , with c1 = 0. Then [a1 ] = 1. For the c d same reason as above, we may assume that a11 = 1, a12 = · · · = a1n = 0. Since t ad − t cb = 1, we see that d11 = 1. Then left multiplication by diag[u, v] with a suitable v ∈ GLn (Z) produces d1 = t ( 1 0 · · · 0) without changing 1 2s a1 and c1 . Furthermore, left multiplication by with a suitable s 0 1 produces b1 = 0. We obtain in this way an element of the form ⎤ ⎡ 1 r 0 s ⎢0 a 0 b ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 0 t 1 u 0 c 0 d with a , b , c , d of size n − 1. From the relations t bd = t db and t ac = t ca we obtain s = t = 0, and from t da − t bc = 1 we obtain r = u = 0. Thus our matrix in question is of the form ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0 0 ⎢0 a 0 b ⎥ (A1.5) ⎦ ⎣ 0 0 1 0 0 c 0 d

a b with ∈ Sp(n − 1, Z), b ≡ c ≡ 0 (mod 2Zn−1 n−1 ). The proof of (ii) is c d

a b is of a type belonging therefore completed by induction on n, since if c d to (A1.3), then so is the matrix of (A1.5). To prove (i) and (iii), we note

0 −1 1 −1 1 0 1 −1 (A1.6) = , 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 −1

0 −1 1 b 0 −1 1 0 = (A1.7) . 1 0 0 1 1 0 −b 1 In view of (A1.7) we obtain (iii) immediately from (ii). As for (i) we employ the same type of argument as in the proof of (ii). Since we have ι in (4.31), we can use it in addition to the matrices of (A1.3) without congruence conditions, again in view of (A1.7). Now left multiplication by ι changes (a, c) into (−c, a). We ﬁrst assume that 0 < [a1 ] ≤ [c1 ] and repeat the above argument with the following modiﬁcation: take s1k ∈ Z so that 0 ≤ c1k + s1k a11 < a11 , and use s instead of 2s. Then we can reduce the problem to the case [c1 ] ≤ [a1 ], a b and further to the case c1 = 0, and eventually to (A1.5). If = ιn−1 , c d then (A1.5) does not belong to the three types of (4.31), but applying (A1.6) to ιn−1 and employing (A1.7), we can justify our induction. element, written again as γ =

A1.4. As noted in §4.5, formulas (4.12) and (4.13) are equivalent to (4.17) and (4.18). Therefore our result of §4.9 shows that (4.15) holds for γ of

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(4.31). Thus, by Lemma A1.3(i) we have (A1.8) ϕ t μγ (z)−1 u, γz; r, s) = ζ · jγ (z)1/2 ϕ(u, z; r , s ) for every γ ∈ Γ (1) with some r , s , and ζ ∈ T, since it is easy to see that (A1.8) is “associative” with respect to successive applications of elements of Γ (1). Thus our task is to determine r and s . For this purpose we ﬁrst note that if w ∈ Hn , f (u) = ϕ(u, w; r, s), and = wp + q with p , q ∈ Zn , then (A1.9) f (u+) = f (u)e 2−1 · t p q − t sp + t rq + t (w−w)−1 (u+2−1) . This follows from (4.4). Observe that r and s are determined modulo Zn by this formula. For γ ∈ Γ (1), z ∈ Hn , and m = zp + q with p, q ∈ Zn put = t μγ (z)−1 m, w = γ(z), and g(u) = f t μγ (z)−1 u = ϕ t μγ (z)−1 u, w; r, s .

t a b d −t b If γ = , then γ −1 = by (1.2b), μγ (z)−1 = μ(γ −1 , w) by c d −t c t a (1.14), and z = t z = t (−t cw + t a)−1 · t (t dw − t b), and so (A1.9a)

= t (−t cw + t a)(zp + q) = t (t dw − t b)p + t (−t cw + t a)q.

Thus = wp + q with p = dp − cq and q = aq − bp. From (4.11) we obtain (w − w) ¯ −1 = μγ (z)(z − z¯)−1 · t μγ (z), and so from (A1.9) we obtain g(u + m) = g(u)e(X) with ¯ − z¯)−1 (u + 2−1 m). X = 2−1 · t p q − t sp + t rq + t m(z Since t da − t bc = 1 and t pσp − t {σ}p ∈ 2Z for every p ∈ Zn and σ ∈ Sn (Z), a straightforward calculation shows that 2−1 · t p q − t sp + t rq ≡ 2−1 · t pq − t s1 p + t r1 q (mod Z)

1 {t ac} r r1 t + with . = γ s s1 2 {t bd} Thus (A1.10)

¯ − z¯)−1 (u+2−1 m) . g(u+m) = g(u)e 2−1 · t pq− ts1 p+ tr1 q+ t m(z

If r and s are as in (A1.8), then they are determined modulo Zn by formula (A1.9) with f replaced by g, which is formula (A1.10). Therefore r ≡ r1 and s ≡ s1 (mod Zn ). This combined with (4.5) proves (i) of Theorem 4.4. Next assume that both {t ac} and {t bd} belong to 2Zn . Then we can put (A1.11) ϕ t μγ (z)−1 u, γz; 0, 0 = λγ jγ (z)1/2 ϕ(u, z; 0, 0) with a constant λγ ∈ T. For k = zr + s with r, s ∈ Rn , from (4.3) we obtain θ(u + k, z; 0, 0) = e − 2−1 · t rzr − t r(u + s) θ(u, z; r, s), which combined with (4.2) shows that

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155

¯ − z¯)−1 (u + k/2) ϕ(u + k, z; 0, 0) = e(2−1 Y )ϕ(u, z; r, s) e − t k(z ¯ − z¯)−1 (u + k/2) + t (u + k)(z − z¯)−1 (u + k) with Y = −2 · t k(z − t rzr − 2 · t r(u + s) − t u(z − z¯)−1 u. We can easily verify that Y = −t rs, and so we obtain (A1.12) ϕ(u, z; r, s) = e 2−1 A(u, z; r, s) ϕ(u + k, z; 0, 0) with

A(u, z; r, s) = t rs − t (¯ z r+s)(z −z)−1 (2u+zr+s).

Put w = γ(z), v = μγ (z)−1 u, and k = μγ (z)−1 k. Taking k = zr + s in place of m = zp + q in (A1.9a), we ﬁnd that k = wr + s with r = dr − cs and s = as − br. Therefore, combining (A1.11) and (A1.12), we obtain ϕ γ(u, z); r , s = e 2−1 A(γ(u, z); r , s ) ϕ(v + k , w; 0, 0) = e 2−1 A(γ(u, z); r , s ) λγ jγ (z)1/2 ϕ(u + k, z; 0, 0) = e 2−1 B λγ jγ (z)1/2 ϕ(u, z; r, s) with

B = A(γ(u, z); r , s ) − A(u, z; r, s).

¯ − z¯)−1 (2u + k) + t k¯ (w − w) We have B = t r s − t rs − t k(z ¯ −1 (2v + k ). Using r again (4.11), we see that the last two terms cancel each other. Since = s

t −1 r γ , exchanging (r, s) for (r , s ) and writing hγ (z) for λγ jγ (z)1/2 , we s obtain (ii) of Theorem 4.4, or rather (4.18). Finally, to prove (iii) of Theorem 4.4, we observe that λ4γ = 1 for the ﬁrst two types of elements of (A1.3). As for the third type, making substitutions z → z − 2c and z → −z −1 in (4.34a), we ﬁnd that θ z(2cz + 1)−1) = ± det(2cz + 1)1/2 θ(z) if c ∈ Sn (Z) with θ of (4.19). Thus λγ = ±1 for the third type. (Theorem 4.7(2), which will be proven in §A1.6, gives a stronger result.) The proof of Theorem 4.4 is now complete. A1.5. Let us now prove (1) of Theorem 4.7. To simplify the notation, suppress the subscript γ, and put L = Zn , A = L/t dL, B = L/dL, and s[x] = t xsx for s ∈ Qnn and x ∈ Qn . Since c · t d = d · t c, we see that c · t dL ⊂ dL. Therefore x → cx sends A into B. Since γ ∈ SL2n (Z), we have cL + dL = L, and so the map is surjective. Comparing the orders of the groups, we ﬁnd that the map gives an isomorphism of A onto B. If y = cx, we have, by (1.2a), bd−1 [y] = t cbd−1 c[x] = (t ad − 1)d−1 c[x] = t ac[x] − d−1 c[x] ≡ −d−1 c[x] (mod 2),

156

APPENDIX

since the diagonal elements of t ac are even. This shows that the two sums of (4.25) are the same. From (4.22a) we see that hαγ = hγ for α = diag[a, d] ∈ Γ (1) and every γ ∈ Γ θ . Therefore, to prove (2) and the ﬁrst equality of (1), we may assume that det(d) > 0. Under this assumption, put w = t d−1 z(cz + d)−1 and p = bd−1 . Then, by (1.2a), (γz − p)(cz + d) = az + b − bd−1 (cz + d) = az − b · t c · t d−1 z = (a · t d − b · t c) · t d−1 z = t d−1 z, and so γ(z) = w + p. With θ of (4.19) we thus have (A1.13) hγ (z)θ(z) = θ(γz) = θ(w + p) = e (1/2)(w + p)[x] . x∈L

Putting x = v + dg with v ∈ B and g ∈ L, we ﬁnd e (p/2)[v + dg] + (w/2)[v + dg] (A1.14) θ(w + p) = v

g

= e (p/2)[v] θ 0, z(cz + d)−1 d; d−1 v, 0), v

since p[v + dg] ≡ p[v] (mod 2). Now (4.34) shows that det(−iz)1/2 θ(0, z; r, s) = e(t rs)θ(0, −z −1 ; −s, r). Put z = iτ 1n with 0 < τ ∈ R and observe that lim τ n/2 θ(0, iτ 1n ; r, s) = e(t rs)δ(s),

τ →0

where δ(s) = 1 or 0 according as s ∈ L or s ∈ / L. Taking the limit of τ n/2 times (A1.13) combined with (A1.14) as τ tends to 0, we obtain (4.25). A1.6. To prove (2) of Theorem 4.7, given γ ∈ Γ θ , assume that det(d) − 1 ∈ 2Z. In view of (4.21) and (4.22a), replacing γ by γ · diag[e, e] with e = diag[−1, 1n−1 ] if necessary, we may assume that det(d) > 0. Put f = det(d), g = f d−1 , and s = −f d−1c. Then g ≺ Z, s ∈ Sn (Z), f is odd, −f s = gd · t c · t g, and {d · t c} ∈ 2Zn by (4.6), and so by (4.7) the diagonal elements of s are even. Denote by λ the ﬁrst sum of (4.25) and put σ = hγ (z)2 /jγ (z). Then σ = λ2 / det(d). Now λ= e s[x]/(2f ) = [t dL : f L]−1 e s[x]/(2f ) . x∈A

x∈L/f L

By Lemma 2.3 we can ﬁnd u ∈ such that det(u) is a positive integer prime to f and t usu − diag[r1 , . . . , rn ] ≺ f Z with ri ∈ Z. We can take ri to be the (i, i)-entry of t usu. Then ri ∈ 2Z by (4.7), and Znn

λ = f 1−n

f n e rν x2 /(2f ) . ν=1 x=1

A2. WHITTAKER FUNCTIONS

157

Put rν /f = 2bν /aν with relatively prime integers aν and bν ; take aν > 0. Then

f aν bν e rν x2 /(2f ) = (f /aν ) e x2 bν /aν = f ε(aν )aν−1/2 a ν x=1 x=1 by Theorem 2.6, where ε(a) is εa of (0.6). Thus we obtain n

bν ε(aν )aν−1/2 . λ=f a ν ν=1 Since cL + dL = L, we have sL + f L = gL. For a prime number p put Lp = Znp . Then gLp = Lp if p f. If p|f, then t uLp = uLp = Lp , and hence t ugLp = t usuLp + f Lp . From this we easily see that the elementary divisors of g are { (f, rν ) }nν=1 . Since aν = |f /(f, rν )| and d = f g −1 , we thus know that the aν are exactly the elementary divisors of d and n

bν ε(aν ), λ = det(d)1/2 aν ν=1

−1 2 , which proves (2) of Theorem 4.7. so that σ = λ / det(d) = det(d) A2. Whittaker functions A2.1. We need some Whittaker (or conﬂuent hypergeometric) functions: ∞

(A2.1)

τ (y; α, β) =

e−yt (1 + t)α−1 tβ−1 dt,

0

(A2.2)

V (y; α, β) = e−y/2 Γ (β)−1 y β τ (y; α, β).

Here 0 < y ∈ R and (α, β) ∈ C2 . The integral of (A2.1) is convergent for Re(β) > 0, and so deﬁnes a holomorphic function of (α, β) under that condition; also it can be shown that V (y; α, β) can be continued to a holomorphic function of (α, β) on the whole C2 . We have also (A2.3) τ (y; α, β)/Γ (β) β=0 = 1. For these and the following two lemmas, the reader is referred to [S07, Section A3]. Lemma A2.2. (i) For every compact subset K of C2 there exist two positive constants A and B depending only on K such that |ey/2 V (y; α, β)| ≤ A 1 + y −B if (α, β) ∈ K. (ii) V (y; 1 − β, 1 − α) = V (y; α, β). Lemma A2.3. If Re(α + β) > 1 and z = x + iy ∈ H, then (z + m)−α (z + m)−β = iβ−α (2π)α+β e(nx + i|n|y)gn (y; α, β), m∈Z

n∈Z

158

APPENDIX

where gn is given by (A2.4)

⎧ ⎪ nα+β−1 τ (4πny; α, β) ⎪ ⎨ Γ (α)Γ (β)gn (y; α, β) = |n|α+β−1 τ (4π|n|y; β, α) ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ Γ (α + β − 1)(4πy)1−α−β

if n > 0, if n < 0, if n = 0.

Here, for v ∈ C× and α ∈ C we deﬁne v α by v α = exp(α log(v)),

−π < Im[log(v)] ≤ π.

Then v α+β = v α v β , v mα = (v α )m for m ∈ Z, and (uv)α = uα v α provided arg(u), arg(v), and arg(u) + arg(v) are all contained in the interval (−π, π] for suitable choices of arg(u) and arg(v). From Lemma A2.2(ii) we obtain (A2.5)

τ (y; 1 − β, 1 − α)/Γ (1 − α) = y α+β−1 τ (y; α, β)/Γ (β).

This combined with (A2.3) gives τ (y; 1, β)/Γ (β) = y −β .

(A2.6)

Lemma A2.4. (i) Given (α, β) ∈ C2 and A ∈ R× , put σ = α − β and λ = β(1 − α). Deﬁne a function fA (y) for 0 < y ∈ R by V (2Ay; α, β) if A > 0, (A2.7) fA (y) = −σ |2Ay| V (|2A|y; β, α) if A < 0. Then fA satisﬁes the diﬀerential equation (A2.8)

y 2 f (y) + σyf (y) + (λ + Aσy − A2 y 2 )f (y) = 0.

Moreover, if f is a solution of (A2.8) and f (y) = O(y B ) with B ∈ R as y → ∞, then f is a constant multiple of fA . (ii) With the same notation as in (i), deﬁne a function ϕA on H by (A2.9)

ϕA (x + iy; σ, λ) = eiAx fA (y).

Let ε and δσ be as in (6.13a, b). Then λ(4Ai)−1 ϕA (z; σ − 2, λ + 2 − σ) (A2.10) εϕA (z; σ, λ) = (4Ai)−1 ϕA (z; σ − 2, λ + 2 − σ) iAϕA (z; σ + 2, λ + σ) (A2.11) δσ ϕA (z; σ, λ) = (λ + σ)iAϕA (z; σ + 2, λ + σ)

if A > 0, if A < 0, if A > 0, if A < 0.

Proof. Since (1 + t)α = (1 + t)α−1 + (1 + t)α−1 t, from (A2.1) we obtain (∗1)

τ (y; α + 1, β) = τ (y; α, β) + τ (y; α, β + 1).

Also, we easily see that (∗2)

(∂/∂y)τ (y; α, β) = −τ (y; α, β + 1),

A2. WHITTAKER FUNCTIONS

159

(∂/∂y)2 τ (y; α, β) = τ (y; α, β + 2). ∞ Since 0 (∂/∂t) e−yt (1 + t)α tβ dt = 0 for Re(β) > 0, we have

(∗3)

βτ (y; α + 1, β) = yτ (y; α + 1, β + 1) − ατ (y; α, β + 1)

(∗4)

for such β, and even for any β by meromorphic continuation. Now we have y(∂/∂y)2 τ (y; α, β) = yτ (y; α, β + 2) by (∗3) = yτ (y; α + 1, β + 1) − yτ (y; α, β + 1) by (∗1) = βτ (y; α + 1, β) + (α − y)τ (y; α, β + 1) by (∗4) = βτ (y; α, β) + (β + α − y)τ (y; α, β + 1) by (∗1). Thus we obtain y(∂/∂y)2 + (α + β − y)∂/∂y − β τ (y; α, β) = 0. From this we easily see that fA is a solution of (A2.8). Let f be a solution of (A2.8) such that f (y) = O(y B ) as y → ∞. Putting f = df /dy, we have (y σ f ) = y σ (f + σy −1 f ) = y σ (A2 − Aσy −1 − λy −2 )f = O(y C ) with C ∈ R as y → ∞. It follows that y σ f , as well as f , is O(y D ) with D ∈ R. Put h = fA f − fA f. Then h = fA f − fA f = −σy −1 h, and so h = ay −σ with a constant a. From Lemma A2.2(i) and (∗2) we see that both fA and fA are O(e−|A|y/2 ) as y → ∞. Therefore we have a = 0, which means that f /fA is a constant. This completes the proof of (i). Formulas (A2.10) and (A2.11) can be veriﬁed by employing (∗1), (∗2), and (∗4). Lemma A2.5. For every compact subset K of C2 we have lim ey/2 V (y; α, β) = 1

y→∞

uniformly for (α, β) ∈ K. Proof. From (∗4) we obtain V (y, α + 1, β) = V (y, α + 1, β + 1) − αy −1 V (y, α, β + 1). Since this is consistent with the desired formula, it is suﬃcient to prove it for α in a compact subset K1 of C and β in a compact subset K2 of β ∈ C Re(β) > 0 . If Re(β) > 0, we have ∞ e−x (1 + y −1x)α−1 xβ−1 dx, ey/2 V (y; α, β) = Γ (β)−1 and so ey/2 V (y; α, β) − 1 = Γ (β)−1

0 ∞

e−x (1 + y −1 x)α−1 − 1 xβ−1 dx.

0

We can ﬁnd two positive numbers A and B such that

160

APPENDIX

(1 + y −1 x)α−1 + 1 ≤ AxB for x ≥ 1, y ≥ 1, and α ∈ K1 . Indeed, take m > 1 so that Re(α) < m for every α ∈ K1 . Then for x ≥ 1, y ≥ 1, and α ∈ K1 we have |(1 + y −1 x)α−1 | ≤ (2x)m . Now, given ε > 0, we can ﬁnd C ≥ 1 such that ∞ e−x |xB+β−1 |dx ≤ ε for β ∈ K2 . A|Γ (β)−1 | C

For every η > 0, we can ﬁnd (a small) h > 0 such that |tα−1 − 1| < η for α ∈ K1 and |t − 1| ≤ h. Take η = ε/M with M = Maxβ∈K2 Γ Re(β) /Γ (β), and let D = C/h. Then we can ﬁnd D ≥ 1 such that (1 + y −1 x)α−1 − 1 ≤ ε/M for x ≤ C, y ≥ D, and α ∈ K1 . Then, for y ≥ D, α ∈ K1 , and β ∈ K2 we have ∞ β−1 −x −1 α−1 Γ (β)−1 e −1 x dx (1 + y x) 0 C ∞ −x β−1 −x B+β−1 −1 −1 −1 e x dx + A Γ (β) e |x |dx ≤ 2ε. ≤ εM Γ (β) 0 C This proves our lemma. A3. Eisenstein series of half-integral weight A3.0. In this section we denote by μ the Moebius function. This is deﬁned for m ∈ Z, > 0, and μ(m) = 0 if and only if m is square-free, in which case μ(m) = (−1)r , where r is the number of prime factors of m; in particular, μ(1) = 1. We have 1 if m = 1, μ(d) = (A3.0a) 0 if m > 1, d|m

∞

(A3.0b)

n=1

μ(n)θ(n)n−s =

1 − θ(p)p−s p

for every C-valued multiplicative function θ deﬁned for 0 < m ∈ Z, where p runs over all prime numbers. Lemma A3.1. Let χ0 be a primitive character modulo r, and χ a character modulo rs with 0 < s ∈ Z such that χ(n) = χ0 (n) for n prime to s. Then for any integer q we have rs χ(n)e(nq/rs) = G(χ0 ) cμ(s/c)χ0 (s/c)χ ¯0 (q/c), n=1

0 0. By

cN d 2cN (4.40), jγk (z)−1 = (cN z + d)−k εd , and so by Lemma 8.7 and (8.12a) d we have ∞ 2cN (A3.1) Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ) = y s εd (cN z + d)−k |cN z + d|−2s . ψ(d) d c∈Z

d=1

Notice that the terms for even d are 0, which we keep in mind in our calculation. Fixing N and ψ, we put (A3.2) E (z, s) = (−iN z)−k Ek − (N z)−1 , s; Γ, ψ , since this is easier than the original Ek (z, s). From (A3.1) we easily obtain (A3.3)

E (z, s) = ik y s N −k−s E ∗ (z, s) with

∞ −2N b ∗ εd (dz + b)−k |dz + b|−2s . ψ(d) E (z, s) = d d=1 b∈Z

Putting b = dm + with m ∈ Z and 1 ≤ ≤ d, we obtain ∞ d

−k −2N −k−2s ∗ z + + m−2s . z + d + m E (z, s) = ψ(d)εd d d d d=1

=1

m∈Z

Applying Lemma A2.3 to the last sum with α = k + s and β = s, we ﬁnd that

162

APPENDIX

(A3.4)

E ∗ (z, s) = i−k (2π)2s+k

αn (s)e(nx + i|n|y)gn (y; k + s, s)

n∈Z

with αn (s) =

∞

d −2N εd d−k−2s ψ(d) e(n/d). d d d=1

=1

If n = 0, the last sum over is nonzero only if d = u2 with an odd u > 0, in which case εd = 1. Denoting Euler’s function by ϕ, we see that the last d sum =1 equals ϕ(u2 ) = u2 p|u (1 − p−1 ) = u2 v|u μ(v)v −1 by (A3.0b). Therefore, putting u = vw, we have ψ(v2 w2 )(vw)2−2k−4s μ(v)v −1 α0 (s) = v,w

=

ψ(w2 )w2−2k−4s

w

μ(v)ψ(v2 )v 1−2k−4s .

v

Thus in view of (A3.0b) we obtain (A3.5)

α0 (s) = LN (4s + 2k − 2, ψ 2 )/LN (4s + 2k − 1, ψ 2 ).

The formula for αn with n = 0 can be given as follows. Lemma A3.3. Let t be a positive or negative square-free integer. Put κ = 2k and λ = 1/2 − k, and deﬁne primitive characters ω1 and ω2 by

2tN ψ(a) for (a, tN ) = 1, ω1 (a) = a ω2 (a) = ψ(a)2

for (a, N ) = 1.

Then, for n = tm2 with 0 < m ∈ Z, we have LN (4s − 2λ, ω2 )αn (s) = LN (2s − λ, ω1 )βn (s) with βn (s) = μ(a)ω1 (a)ω2 (b)aλ−2s b2−κ−4s , where the last sum is extended over all ordered pairs of positive integers a, b prime to N such that ab divides m. Proof. Let r and u be odd positive integers. Assuming r to be square ru2

m e(mn/ru2 ). By Lemma A3.1 and (2.4a) we have free, put Gn,r,u = 2 ru m=1

2

u /c n/c cμ(u2 /c) Gn,r,u = εr r1/2 . r r 2 0 1, we have, by (8.10a),

|R(1 − s, χ)| ¯ = |R(s, χ)| ≤ (r/π)(σ+ν)/2 Γ (σ + ν)/2 ζ(σ).

Therefore it is suﬃcient to prove the desired estimate for −1 < σ < 2. For this we use (8.10d) (with χ in place of ψ), which can be written R(s, χ) = P (s, χ) + W (χ)P (1 − s, χ), ¯ ∞ g(y, χ)y (ν+s−2)/2 dy, P (s, χ) = 1 ∞ where g(y, χ) = n=1 χ(n)nν exp(−πn2 y/r). Observe that

164

APPENDIX

|g(y, χ)| ≤

∞

ne−πny/r = e−πy/r (1 − e−πy/r )−2 .

n=1

Substituting tr/π for y, we obtain P (s, χ) ≤ (r/π)(σ+ν)/2

∞

e−t (1 − e−t )−2 t(σ+ν−2)/2 dt.

π/r

To prove our estimate, we ﬁrst assume r > π. Decompose the last integral into two parts over the intervals (1, ∞) and (π/r, 1). The ﬁrst part is a continuous function in σ independent of r and χ. As for the second part, we have e−t (1 − e−t )−2 ≤ At−2 for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 with a constant A. Thus 1 1 −t −t −2 (σ+ν−2)/2 e (1 − e ) t dt ≤ A t(σ+ν)/2−3 dt ≤ B + Cr2−(σ+ν)/2 π/r

π/r

if −1 ≤ σ ≤ 2, with constants B and C independent of r and χ. Therefore |P (s, χ)| ≤ Dr2 for −1 ≤ σ ≤ 2 with a constant D independent of r and χ. Next, if r < π, then the estimate of the integral over (0, ∞) gives the desired result. Once P (s, χ) is majorized, then replacing (s, χ) by (1 − s, χ), we obtain the estimate of P (1 − s, χ). Adding these, we can complete the proof. Theorem A3.5. Let κ = 2k and λ = 1/2 − k. For z ∈ H and s ∈ C put (κ ≤ 1), Γ (s)Γ s + (1 − λ − λ0 )/2 F (z, s) = LN (4s−2λ, ω2 )E (z, s)· Γ (s + k)Γ s + (λ0 − λ)/2 (κ ≥ −1), where λ0 = 0 or 1 according as λ is even or odd. Then (2s − λ − 1)F (z, s) can be continued as a holomorphic function to the whole s-plane. Moreover, for any compact subset K of C there exist two positive constants u and v depending on K such that (2s − λ − 1)F (z, s) ≤ u(y v + y −v ) (A3.6) (y = Im(z)) for every s ∈ K and every z ∈ H. The factor 2s − λ − 1 is unnecessary either if (|κ| + 1)/2 is even or ψ 2 is nontrivial. Remark. If κ = ±1, the two expressions for the product of two gamma factors are identical. Proof. We ﬁrst consider the case κ ≥ 1. By (A2.4), (A3.3), (A3.4), (A3.5), and Lemma A3.3, we have (A3.7) (2π)−k−2s N k+s y −s F (z, s) = e(nx + |n|iy)|n|2s+k−1 An (y, s), n∈Z

where we understand that |0|

2s+k−1

(A3.7a)

= 1, and

An (y, s) = LN (2s − λ, ω1 )βn (s)Γ s + (λ0 − λ)/2 τ 4πny; s + k, s (n > 0), −1 · Γ (s) · τ 4π|n|y; s, s + k (n < 0),

A3. EISENSTEIN SERIES OF HALF-INTEGRAL WEIGHT

(A3.7b)

165

A0 (y, s) = LN (4s + κ − 2, ω2 )Γ s + (λ0 − λ)/2 · Γ (s)−1 Γ (2s + k − 1)(4πy)1−k−2s .

Clearly, An (y, s) for every n ∈ Z is meromorphic on the whole s-plane. Now we have c Γ s + (λ0 − λ)/2 (s + a − 1), (∗) = Γ (s) a=1 where c = (λ0 − λ)/2. We have also Γ (2s + k − 1)LN (4s + κ − 2, ω2 )

1 − ω2 (p)p2−κ−4s .

= Γ (2s + k − 1)L(4s + κ − 2, ω2 )

p|N

Therefore the only possible pole of A0 (y, s) may occur at s = λ/2 + 1/4 or (λ + 1)/2 when ω2 is trivial. The pole at s = λ/2 + 1/4 is cancelled by 1 − 22−κ−4s ; the pole at s = (λ + 1)/2 is cancelled by the factor s + c − 1 if λ is odd, and by the factor 2s − λ − 1 if λ is even. Thus (2s − λ − 1)A0 (y, s) is entire, and by Lemma A3.4, is bounded by g(y h + y −h ) with constants g and h depending only on K. The factor 2s − λ − 1 is unnecessary if λ is odd or ω2 is nontrivial. If λ is even and ω2 is trivial, then the residue of A0 (y, s) at s = (λ + 1)/2 is an element of y −1/2 Q× . To study An (y, s) for n = 0, ﬁrst note that βn (s) is entire, and |βn (s)| ≤ γ|n||δ|Re(s)+ε with constants γ, δ, ε independent of n. Let n = tm2 as in Lemma A3.3, and let ω1 (−1) = (−1)η with η = 0 or 1. Since ψ(−1) = (−1)[k] = (−1)λ , we see that λ − η is even if and only if n > 0. Suppose n > 0. Then η = λ0 and (∗+) An (y, s) = Γ s + (η − λ)/2 βn (s)L(2s − λ, ω1 ) [1 − ω1 (p)pλ−2s ] p|N

· Γ (s)−1 τ (4πny; s + k, s). By Lemma A2.2(i), the last product Γ (s)−1 τ (4πny; s + k, s), when s ∈ K, is bounded by C(4πny)−Re(s) Max 1, (4πny)B , where B and C are constants that depend on K but not on n. The ﬁrst line of factors of (∗+) is an entire function of s, except when ω1 is trivial and s = λ/2 or s = (λ+1)/2. (This can happen only if λ is even.) But either pole is cancelled by the factor 1−2λ−2s or 2s−λ−1. Therefore (2s−λ−1)An (y, s) is entire, and by Lemma A3.4, |(2s − λ − 1)An (y, s)| ≤ unv (y w + y −w ) for s ∈ K with constants u, v, w depending only on K. Next suppose n < 0. Then λ − η is odd, and so λ0 + η = 1. Thus 1 − ω1 (p)pλ−2s (∗−) An (y, s) = βn (s)Γ s + (η − λ)/2 L(2s − λ, ω1 ) p|N

· Γ (s + k)−1 τ (4π|n|y; s, s + k)

166

APPENDIX

Γ (s + k)Γ s + (λ0 − λ)/2) · . Γ s + (η − λ)/2 Γ (s) Notice that 0 ≤ k − (η − λ)/2 = (λ0 − λ)/2 ∈ Z. Therefore, by the same reasoning as in the case n > 0, we see that (2s − λ − 1)An (y, s) is entire. Actually the factor 2s−λ−1 is unnecessary. Indeed, the pole at s = (λ+1)/2 may occur only if ω1 istrivial, in which case λ is odd, and so 0 < λ0 −λ ∈ 2Z and Γ s + (λ0 − λ)/2 /Γ (s) = 0 at s = (λ + 1)/2. Thus An (y, s) is entire for n < 0 and (2s − λ − 1)An (y, s) ≤ u |n|v (y w + y −w ) for s ∈ K with constants u , v , w depending only on K. Taking the inﬁnite sum of (A3.7), we obtain the desired result for k > 0. The case k < 0 can be treated in a similar fashion. However, our real aim is to prove Theorem 8.14, which is our task in the next subsection. A3.6. Put k = −k and λ = 1/2 − k ; let λ0 be 0 or 1 according as λ is even or odd. Assuming that k > 0, denote by Fk∗ the function F ∗ deﬁned with k and χ0 ψ¯ in place of k and ψ, where χ0 is the primitive character modulo 4. Then we can easily verify that λ = 1 − λ, λ0 = 1 − λ0 , and from (8.13a) we obtain (A3.8)

Fk∗ (z, s) = y k F ∗ (z, s¯ − k).

This reduces the proof of Theorem 8.14 to the case k > 0. Thus we assume k > 0 in this subsection. Let

the symbols be as in that theorem. Given α ∈ 0 −1 SL2 (Q), put γ = α. From (A3.2) we see that jα (z)−k Ek (αz, s) = N 0 ik jγ (z)−k E (γz, s) with a suitable branch of jγ−k , and so (A3.9)

jα (z)−k F ∗ (αz, s) = ik (2s − λ − 1)jγ (z)−k F (γz, s).

Therefore the ﬁrst part of Theorem 8.14 concerning analytic continuation of F ∗ follows immediately from Theorem A3.5. Thus the remaining point is the estimate of |jα (z)−k F ∗ (αz, s)|. If cγ = 0, the desired fact follows from −1 (A3.6). Suppose cγ = 0. Then Im(γz) = y|cγ z + dγ |−2 ≤ c−2 , and so if y γ y is suﬃciently large, then Im(γz) < 1 and (A3.6) shows that (2s − λ − 1)jγ (z)−k F (γz, s) ≤ 2uy −v |cγ z + dγ |2v+k for s ∈ K. This proves that F ∗ (z, s) is slowly increasing at every cusp locally uniformly in s. It remains to prove that F ∗ (z, s) is nonvanishing at s = (λ + 1)/2 if (|κ| + 1)/2 is odd and ψ 2 is trivial. In view of (A3.8) we may assume that k > 0. Then λ is even. As noted in the proof of Theorem A3.5, A0 (y, s) has nonzero residue at s = (λ + 1)/2, which gives the desired result. This completes the proof of Theorem 8.14.

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167

A3.7. Let us now prove the last part of Theorem 8.10(ii), which states that F (z, s) is slowly increasing at every cusp, locally uniformly in s. Our technique is similar to and simpler than that in the proof of Theorem A3.5. We need to examine the Fourier expansion of jγ (z)−k F (γz, s) for every γ ∈ Γ (1). In view of (8.14a) we have only to check the expansion for a ﬁxed (p, q). Suppose k > 0 for simplicity; then we use the result in [S07, p. 134]. As noted in lines 7 and 8 from the bottom of that page, the expressions there are meaningful for every s ∈ C, and so we have c(s)y s e (tx + i|t|y)/N Dt (y, s) (#) F (z, s) = a(s)y s + b(s)y 1−k−s + Γ (s) 0=t∈Z

for z = x + iy, and τ (4πty/N ; s + k, s) if t > 0, Dt (y, s) ≤ 2 n2σ+k−1 · τ (4π|t|y/N ; s, s + k) if t < 0 0 0. The case k ≤ 0 can be handled in a similar way. There is an alternative proof. Indeed, EN k (z, s − k; p, q), up to some easy ∞ factors, can be obtained as the integral 0 Ψ (z, t)ts−1 dt, where λ(m, n)(m¯ z + n)k exp − πt|mz + n|2 /y Ψ (z, t) = 0=(m,n)∈Z2

with λ ∈ L (Q ); see [S07, pp. 64–65], [S73a, pp. 462–463]. We can make an estimate of Ψ in an elementary way, and we eventually obtain the desired property of F (z, s). This was done in [S73a, pp. 463–464]. 2

A3.8. We will now prove (iii) and (iv) of Theorem 8.15 which concern the case 3/2 ≤ k ∈ / Z. We assume that k > 3/2 or ψ 2 is nontrivial. Then Ek (z, s) is ﬁnite at s = 0. (Indeed, the factor 2s − λ − 1 in Theorem 8.14 is necessary only if ψ 2 is trivial, and it is 0 at s = 0 only if k = 3/2.) By (A3.3), E (z, 0) = ik N −k E ∗ (z, 0), and E ∗ (z, 0) can be obtained from (A3.4). By (A2.3) and (A2.4) the nth term of E ∗ (z, 0) for n > 0 is (−2πi)k αn (0)nk−1 Γ (k)−1 e(nz), but it is 0 for n < 0, since τ (y; α, k) is ﬁnite. The term for n = 0 is also 0, since Γ (2s + k − 1)Γ (s + k)−1 Γ (s)−1 = 0 for s = 0. Thus E ∗ (z, 0) has ∞ a Fourier expansion of the form n=1 cn e(nz). Since it is slowly increasing

168

APPENDIX

at every cusp, it belongs to M k by Lemma 6.4(i). By (8.13), Ek (z, 0) ∈ ¯ To prove a more precise result as stated in Theorem 8.15(iii), M k (M, N ; ψ). put ∞ E (z, 0) = ik N −k E ∗ (z, 0) = An (ψ)e(nz) n=1

with An (ψ), which, by (A2.3), (A2.4), Lemma A3.3, and (A3.4) can be given as An (ψ) = (2π/N )k nk−1 Γ (k)−1 βn (0)LN ([k], ω1 )/LN (2[k], ω2 ). Employing the symbol PN (m, χ) = G(χ)−1 (πi)−m LN (m. χ) of (2.19), we can put G(ω1 )PN ([k], ω1 ) . An (ψ) = n−1 (2πn/N )k Γ (k)−1 βn (0)(πi)−[k] · G(ω2 )PN (2[k], ω2 )

2tN Since Γ (k) ∈ π 1/2 Q× , we see that π k−[k] Γ (k)−1 ∈ Q× . Let χt (a) = a with t as in Lemma A3.3. Take a square-free positive integer t0 such that 1/2 2tN/t0 is a square. (We are considering only positive n.) Then G(χt ) = t0 , k × and so (2n/N ) ∈ G(χt )Q . Thus PN ([k], ψχt ) i[k] An (ψ) = R0 βn (0)G(χt )G(ψχt ) · G(ψ 2 )PN (2[k], ψ 2 ) with a rational number R0 independent of ψ. Multiplying by G(ψ), we obtain G(χt )G(ψχt ) G(ψ)G(ψ) PN ([k], ψχt ) · · . i[k] G(ψ)An (ψ) = R0 βn (0) · G(ψ) G(ψ 2 ) PN (2[k], ψ 2 ) Take σ ∈ Gal(Qab /Q) and apply σ to each factor. By Lemmas 2.8 and 2.10 we ﬁnd the images of the last three factors; βn (0)σ can easily be found from Lemma A3.3. We eventually ﬁnd that σ [k] i G(ψ)An (ψ) = i[k] G(ψ σ )An (ψσ ). Thus writing E (ψ) for E (z, 0), we obtain σ [k] i G(ψ)E (ψ) = i[k] G(ψ σ )E (ψ σ ). Returning to Ek (z, 0; Γ, ψ), we see from (A3.2) that E (ψ) = f X with f (z) = Ek (z, 0; Γ, ψ) and the operator X deﬁned in Lemma 7.6(ii). Deﬁne a

[k] −1 character ϕ by ϕ(d) = , and take an integer s prime to M N so that d e(1/M N )σ = e(s/M N ). Then (i[k] )σ = ϕ(s)i[k] , and so by (2.17), E (ψ)σ = ¯ as noted above, Lemma 7.6(ii) ϕ(s)ψ(s)σ E (ψ σ ). Since f ∈ M k (M, N ; ψ) shows that ϕ(s)ψ(s)σ (f σ )X = (f X )σ = E (ψ)σ , and so (f σ )X = E (ψσ ), which means that f σ = Ek (z, 0; Γ, ψ σ ), that is, σ (A3.10) Ek (z, 0; Γ, ψ) = Ek (z, 0; Γ, ψ σ ). This completes the proof of Theorem 8.15(iii).

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A proof of (A3.10) was given in [St80]. However, the methods of the paper are very involved, and the exposition is sketchy with many undeﬁned symbols, and therefore it is almost impossible to follow. Here we have given a simpler proof with diﬀerent ideas. The proof of [St80] uses the results on E (z, s) in [S75], which we reproduced here as Lemma A3.3, (A3.7), and (A3.7a, b). What we need in addition is Lemma 7.6(ii) and our discussion on the behavior of An (ψ) under σ, whereas [St80] requires at least eight pages of calculations. For these reasons, we merely let the reader know the existence of the paper, with no further comments. A3.9. To prove (iv) of Theorem 8.15, put sk = 1 − k. By (A3.2) we can reduce the problem to F whose Fourier expansion is given by (A3.7). Let us ﬁrst show that An (y, sk ) = 0 if n < 0. Since sk = (λ + 1)/2, the ﬁrst line of (∗−) is ﬁnite at s = sk , and the same is true for the second line. As for the third line, since λ ≤ −1, we have 0 ≥ 1 + (λ − λ0 )/2 = sk + (η − λ)/2, and so Γ s + (η − λ)/2 has a pole at s = sk . This shows that An (y, sk ) = 0 for n < 0. As to An for n > 0, we note that by (A2.6) the factor τ (4πny; s + k, s)/Γ (s) at s = sk equals (4πny)k−1 . Returning to E (z, s), put D(z, s; ψ) = L(4s + 2k − 1, ψ 2 )E (z, s). Then from (A3.7) we see that 2−k N π −1 D(z, sk ; ψ) =

∞

Bn (ψ)e(nz),

n=0

where B0 (ψ) = L(1 − 2[k], ψ 2 ) and Bn (ψ) = L(1 − [k], ω1 )βn (sk ) if n > 0. Notice that ω1 (−1) = ψ(−1) = (−1)[k] . The function is nonzero, since B0 (ψ) = 0. From Lemma 2.10 and the formula for βn in Lemma A3.3 we see that Bn (ψ) ∈ Qab and Bn (ψ)σ = Bn (ψ σ ) for every n ≥ 0 and σ every σ ∈ Gal(Qab /Q). Thus 2k π −1 D(z, sk ; ψ) = 2k π −1 D(z, sk ; ψ σ ). Now let Ck∗ (Γ, ψ) be as in Theorem 8.5(iv) and let the symbol X be as in Lemma 7.6(ii). By (A3.2) we have E (z, s) = Ek (z, s; Γ, ψ)X , and so Ck∗ (Γ, ψ)X = 2k i[k] G(ψ)−1 π −1 D(z, sk ; ψ). Given σ ∈ Gal(Qab /Q), take an integer t prime to N so that e(1/N )σ = e(t/N ). Let a character χ be de[k]

−1 ¯ ψ(d). Then Lemma 7.6(ii) shows that (f σ )X = ﬁned by χ(d) = d X σ ) for f = Ck∗ (Γ, ψ), since ψ¯ here is ψ there. Observe that χ(t)σ (f σ χ(t)σ i[k] G(ψ)−1 = i[k] G(ψ σ )−1 by (2.17). Therefore X ∗ σ Ck (Γ, ψ)σ = χ(t)σ 2k i[k] G(ψ)−1 π −1 D(z, sk ; ψ) = 2k i[k] G(ψ σ )−1 π −1 D(z, sk ; ψ σ ) = Ck∗ (Γ, ψσ )X , and so Ck∗ (Γ, ψ)σ = Ck∗ (Γ, ψ σ ). This completes the proof of Theorem 8.15(iv).

170

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A3.10. Let us now prove Theorem 8.16(i). We assume that k = 1/2 and ψ 2 is trivial, andso λ = 0 and (λ + 1)/2 = 1/2. Since ψ(−1) = (−1)[k] , we have ψ(a) = aq with a square-free positive integer q. The question is the value of F ∗ (z, s) at s = 1/2, but we ﬁrst look at F of (A3.7). In the proof of Theorem A3.5 we have seen that An (y, s) with n < 0 is ﬁnite at s = (λ + 1)/2. Let R = p|N (1 − p−1 ). From (A3.7b) we see that A0 (y, s) has residue Ry −1/2 /8 at s = 1/2. As for An with n > 0, we need to investigate the residue of (∗+) at s = 1/2, which is nonzero if and only if ω1 is trivial, which is the case if and only if 2tN q is a square, that is, 2N q = tν 2 with an integer ν. Thus t is determined by N and ψ. For n = tm2 as in Lemma A3.3 put m0 = m/(m, N ). Then (ab)−1 = c−1 μ(a) = 1 βn (1/2) = ab|m0

c|m0

a|c

by (A3.0a). Thus the ﬁrst line of (A3.7a) has residue Rπ1/2 /2 at s = 1/2. The second line of (∗+) gives (4πny)−1/2 by (A2.6). Thus, by (A3.7) the residue of F (z, s) at s = 1/2 is e(tm2 z)Ry −1/2 /8 = (8N )−1/2 π 3/2 R e(tm2 z). (2π)3/2 N −1/2 y 1/2

m∈Z

2 m∈Z e(tm z) = 1 + 2

∞

m∈Z

2 m=1 e(tm z).) Now F ∗ (z, s) = (2s − 1)(−iN z)−1/2F − (N z)−1 , s . Put A = (8N )−1/2 π 3/2 R, v = 2t/N, and f (z) = A m∈Z e(vm2 z/2). Then the residue of F − (N z)−1 , s at s = 1/2 is f (−z −1), and so F ∗ (z, 1/2) = 2(−iN z)−1/2 f (−z −1). Using the notation of Lemma 7.11, we have f (z) = Aθv (z, λ), where λ is the characteristic function of Z, viewed as an element of L (Q). Therefore, by that lemma, F ∗ (z, 1/2) = π 3/2 θv (z, ν) with a Qab valued element ν of L (Q). This proves Theorem 8.16(i). If F ∗ is deﬁned without the factor LN (4s − 2λ, ψ 2 ), then the value belongs to π −1 M 1/2 (Qab ).

(Notice that

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INDEX automorphic eigenform, 66 character, 6 CM-ﬁeld, 135 commensurable, 116 conductor, 10 conﬂuent hypergeometric function, 157 congruence subgroup, 13 congruence subgroup (of Gk ), 72 constant term, 68 critical (eigenvalue), 68 cusp, 31 cusp-class, 74 cusp form, 29, 68 Dirichlet character, 6 Dirichlet L-function, 11 divisor, 41 eigenform, 66 eigenvalue, 66 Eisenstein series, 54, 55, 73 equivalent (systems of eigenvalues), 134 Fourier coeﬃcient, 14 Fourier expansion (of a modular form), 14 Fourier expansion (of an eigenform), 68 Fourier transform, 19 fractional divisor, 41 Gauss sum, 7, 8 half-integral weight, 24 Hecke algebra, 118 Hecke eigenform, 122 Hecke operator, 121 Hilbert modular forms, 147 imprimitive character, 10 inner product, 34 integral weight, 24

Jacobi’s theta function, 22 Laplace-Beltrami operator, 35 Maass form, 66 Moebius function, 160 modular form (of half-integral weight), 25 modular form (of integral weight), 13 nearly holomorphic modular form, 40 normalized (eigenform), 122 Poisson summation formula, 19 primitive character, 9 primitive cusp form, 143 primitive matrix, 5 primitive vector, 4 principal character, 7 Rankin’s transformation, 63 rapidly decreasing, 32 regular (cusp-class), 74 R-eigenvalues, 134 Riemann’s theta function, 15 Siegel upper half space, 1 slowly increasing, 32 symplectic group, 1 theta series (of an indeﬁnite quadratic form), 91 theta integral, 98 trivial character, 7 weight (of a modular form), 24 Whittaker function, 157 Z-lattice, x

175

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